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POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (POLYETHENOL) By Manjot, Dilpreet and Benjamin IUPAC name: poly(l-hydroxyethylene) (C 2 H 4 O) n
General information <ul><li>Polyethenol also known as Polyvinyl Alcohol is generally known as PVA. It is most commonly used in adhesive products and for making other polymers. </li></ul>Monomer Polymer Polyethenol Polymer O O O O O
Production <ul><li>Unlike many vinyl polymers, Polyvinyl Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>is not made via polymerization of the </li></ul><ul><li>corresponding monomer. </li></ul>Hydrolysis Methyl Alcohol + Vinyl Alcohol ---------------> Polyvinyl Alcohol
Bonding Within Material The relatively simple molecules of this material bond using covalent bonds and hydrogen interactions. The mixture of these two bonds in this material give it a relatively high melting point of 230 °C and also a relatively high boiling point as a lot of energy is required to overcome the large quantity of bonds within this material. - Intermolecular bond dissociation enthalpy: 2366kJ/mol - Hydrogen bond dissociation enthalpy: 23kJ/mol - -
Other Physical Data <ul><li>Relative Molecular Mass: 44g/mol </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Point: 79.44 °c </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Gravity: 1.19-1.31 </li></ul><ul><li>Density: 1.19-1.31 g/cm³ </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility: Soluble In Cold Water, Hot Water </li></ul><ul><li>The material is pretty inert. It is not harmful, does not react very much/easily and can be contained with ease. </li></ul>
Some Uses of PVA <ul><li>Polyvinyl alcohol has excellent film forming, emulsifying, and adhesive properties. </li></ul><ul><li>It is resistant to oil, grease and solvent. </li></ul><ul><li>PVA is fully degradable and is a quick dissolver </li></ul><ul><li>Used in water transfer printing process </li></ul><ul><li>Used in eye drops and hard contact lens solution as a lubricant </li></ul><ul><li>PVA fiber, as reinforcement in concrete </li></ul>
Explanations of Applications <ul><li>Polyvinyl alcohol is used in eye drops because, when eyes become dry due to a reduced production of mucin by the conjunctiva, it reduces the surface tension of the tears and also has similar properties to the mucin. </li></ul>
Explanations of Applications 2 <ul><li>It is also used a water soluble film, the degradation of PVOH is influenced by its crystalline structure and molecular weight. The Hydrogens present in the Polyvinyl alcohol have a delta plus charge meaning the delta minus charge on the oxygen atom in a molecule of water will attract the delta positive charge and will surround the hydrogen an cause the film to break down. </li></ul>
Explanations of Applications 3 <ul><li>Polyvinyl alcohol is also used in PET bottles as a carbon layer, because it helps the bottle when thrown away, to degrade which means less rubbish to deal with. </li></ul>
Explanations of Applications 4 <ul><li>When PVA is added to a Borax a bond between the oxygen of the borax and the hydrogen of the PVA forms (a hydrogen bond) this new formation links the two substances together, forming a slime. The slime is vicious because the hydrogen bonds let the molecules slide over each other but the covalent bonds within the molecules holds the solid together. </li></ul>