Published on

In Technologically Make the Rice is known as Golden rice

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. <ul><li>Golden Rice </li></ul><ul><li>in Bio-Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Methode </li></ul><ul><li>Collected By, </li></ul><ul><li>P. Arunkumar M.Sc </li></ul><ul><li>Originally </li></ul>
  2. 2. WAEA Invited Paper Session Coordinating Science and Technology In the Agricultural Biotechnology Revolution Information Pathways in Biotechnological Innovation: The Research Demand for Intellectual Property Steven Buccola and Yin Xia Agricultural and Resource Economics Oregon State University Terri Lomax Program for the Analysis of Biotechnology Issues Oregon State University
  3. 3. Virus-resistant Papaya Papaya, a tropical fruit high in vitamins C & A, is an important food crop worldwide.and the 2nd largest export crop in Hawaii. A virus, papaya ringspot potyvirus (PRSV), was discovered in Hawaii in the 1940’s and had wiped out papaya production on Oahu by the 1950’s. The papaya industry moved to the Puna district on the Big Island of Hawaii. PRSV was discovered in Puna in 1992, by late 1994, PRSV had spread throughout Puna and many farmers were going out of business.
  4. 4. Virus-resistant Papaya Transgenic Non-transgenic In anticipation of a new virus outbreak, scientists at Cornell, began a project to develop transgenic virus-resistant papaya in 1986. Papaya transformation was greatly facilitated by the recent invention of the “gene gun” at Cornell. The coat protein of the virus was engineered into papaya to confer resistance, similar to a vaccine. Funding: USDA Transgenic Non-transgenic
  5. 5. Golden Rice <ul><li>Millions of people suffer from </li></ul><ul><li>vitamin A deficiency, which leads to </li></ul><ul><li>blindness and increased susceptibility </li></ul><ul><li>to diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the world’s population eat rice </li></ul><ul><li>as their staple food, but rice grains do </li></ul><ul><li>not contain vitamin A or its immediate </li></ul><ul><li>precursors. </li></ul><ul><li>UNICEF predicts that improved vitamin </li></ul><ul><li>A nutrition could prevent 1-2 million </li></ul><ul><li>deaths each year among children aged </li></ul><ul><li>1-4 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans can make vitamin A from </li></ul><ul><li>carotenoids, the yellow, orange, and </li></ul><ul><li>red pigments of plants. </li></ul>
  6. 6. (daffodil) Golden Rice Scientists from Swiss and German universities have engineered two genes from daffodil and one bacterial gene into rice to produce provitamin A. GGPP Phytoene Lycopene beta-Carotene = provitamin A Phytoene synthase ( psy ) Phytoene desaturase ( crtl ) Lycopene ß-cyclase ( lcy ) (daffodil) (bacteria) Provitamin A biosynthesis pathway Funding: Rockefeller Foundation, Swiss Federal Institute Of Technology, European Community Biotech Program
  7. 7. Plasmid vector Vector cut with Eco RI Donor DNA Donor DNA cut with Eco RI Donor DNA fragments Add DNA ligase Introduce into E. coli Tetracycline-resistant Bacterial colony from transformed cell Recombinant DNA Selectable antibiotic resistance marker Transformed cell Plasmids
  8. 8. The bacterium that causes crown gall disease in plants has a natural vector for transformation of desirable traits from one plant to another. Plant Gene Transfer via Agrobacterium There are Two Major Methods of Plant Gene Transfer T-DNA
  9. 9. Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid DNA Plasmid DNA is cut open with an enzyme. chromosomal DNA A specific gene is “ cut out” of the donor DNA using the same enzyme. New gene is inserted into the plasmid. Plasmid is transformed into Agrobacterium. When mixed with plant cells, Agrobacterium duplicates the plasmid. The new gene is transferred into the chromosomal DNA of the plant cell. When the plant cell divides, each daughter cell receives the new gene, giving the whole plant a new trait.
  10. 10. Plant Gene Transfer via biolistics (“gene gun”)
  11. 11. Biolistic bombardment (gene gun) Transformation of Agrobacterium Cloned Gene in Vector DNA Molecule Protoplast transformation followed by cell wall regeneration Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of plant cell Migration and integration of gene into nucleus Plant cells grown in tissue culture Regeneration of genetically modified plant from tissue culture
  12. 13. Golden Rice Gene Constructs Virus resistant Papaya Construct I-Sce I Kpn I I-Sce I LB Gt1p psy nos! 35 S p tp crtl nos! RB LB I-Sce I 35 S p Gt1p RB I-Sce I ˆSpe I 35S! aphIV 35S! Icy 35 S p nos! PRSV coat protein npt II GUS Selectable Markers
  13. 14. Biotechnology Research <ul><li>Principal elements of a bioengineering project: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism to be modified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributes to be altered in the organism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discoveries needed in a bioengineering project: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genes transmitting the intended attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoters and Terminators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein-targeting mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selectable markers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation and Regeneration methods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These discoveries are equivalent to fitting parts together into a sub-assembly, then fitting together </li></ul><ul><li>the sub-assemblies. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Walking Through a Laboratory Step <ul><li>The scientist must decide whether to design experiments </li></ul><ul><li>using publicly-held or privately-held (IP) methods and lab </li></ul><ul><li>products. We will call these methods or products </li></ul><ul><li>technologies . </li></ul><ul><li>Most privately-held technologies are like kits, fashioned </li></ul><ul><li>for particular settings and imperfectly used in others. </li></ul><ul><li>Some publicly-held technologies are also kits. Others </li></ul><ul><li>are invented by the scientist herself, to adapt to her </li></ul><ul><li>own project. </li></ul><ul><li>Rational technology choice requires the scientist to develop </li></ul><ul><li>an expectation of the number of laboratory trials that will be </li></ul><ul><li>needed until the assembly is complete. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><ul><ul><li>The expected number of laboratory trials depends on: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inherent difficulties of the organism to be modified ( Org ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inherent difficulties of the attributes to be altered ( Attr ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mean proximity of the available technologies to the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>project objectives ( Prox ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Definitions <ul><li>U, T : number of lab trials expected to be needed with publicly- </li></ul><ul><li>and privately-held technologies, respectively, until </li></ul><ul><li>success is achieved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: probability that the privately-held technology will be successful, () </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>: price of the t th privately-held technology (license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>negotiation plus royalty costs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expected IP price is then : </li></ul><ul><li>The Trial Expectation Functions are: </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Research Cost Function </li></ul><ul><li>Total research cost consists of </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>equipment and scientist time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>number and expected prices of licensed IP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex Ante Minimum Research Cost is </li></ul>
  18. 19. Ex Ante Cost in Input Space Shephard’s lemma gives the optimal demand for equipment and scientist time. Total ex ante cost thus can be written in terms of conventional factor demands and IP cost as :
  19. 20. <ul><li>Recovering the primal technology from the dual </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An iso-innovation line is constructed by recording, for each publicly or privately-held technology selected, the number of sub-technologies embedded in it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because these technology uses are cost-minimizing, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they are functions of relative prices, project difficulty, and technology proximity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The technology demand functions are </li></ul><ul><li>Public technology use U can be observed only by close inspection of laboratory processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Private technology use T is available from any “Freedom-to-Operate” study. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Private Technologies Used Public Technologies Used Iso-Innovation Line Technology Choice in Biotechnology Research
  21. 22. IP Success Rate in Current Project Effectiveness of Privately-Held Intellectual Property IP’s Proximity to Current Project High -Powered IP Path Low -Powered IP Path
  22. 23. Minor Crops Likely Have Flatter Iso-Innovation Lines Public Technologies Used Private Technologies Used Minor Crop Major Crop
  23. 24. <ul><li>Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Iso-innovation lines involving more difficult organisms or </li></ul><ul><li>attributes lie above those involving less difficult ones. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden Rice’s iso-innovation line lies above VR-Papaya’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iso-innovation lines are flatter if they involve organisms or </li></ul><ul><li>attributes more distant from current IP. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New patented innovations in the vicinity of a research project will steepen its iso-innovation line. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden Rice’s iso-innovation line is steeper than VR-Papaya’s. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Declining IP prices induce weaker substitution into privately- </li></ul><ul><li>held IP as a project moves closer to current private </li></ul><ul><li>technology. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP use in VR-Papaya would have responded less to IP market improvements than in Golden Rice. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The supply of IP technology is lower for minor crops and for those grown in poor countries. Thus, elasticity of demand for IP in minor and poor-nation crops will be greater than in major or developed-nation crops. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Declining IP prices encourage scientists to tackle more </li></ul><ul><li>difficult, higher-payoff projects. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Projects targeting food quality attributes far from the plant’s biosynthetic pathways, requiring the manipulation of groups of genes rather than a single gene. </li></ul></ul>Hypotheses, con’t.
  25. 26. <ul><li>Impacts of IP prices on IP use are greater for projects in the </li></ul><ul><li>private sector, since publicly employed scientists are </li></ul><ul><li>motivated only weakly by project cost. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP costs are relevant only if the public scientist plans to market his innovation. Most public scientists still prefer to publish than to market. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Acquiring intellectual property reduces the negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>portion of IP cost, shifting equilibrium toward the southeast </li></ul><ul><li>on the iso-innovation line. Privately-held technology use </li></ul><ul><li>rises at the expense of publicly-held technology. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the gene gun in VR-Papaya development. </li></ul></ul></ul>Hypotheses, con’t.
  26. 27. <ul><ul><li>Model Virtues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our model captures many of the features of biotechnology research: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Its building-block nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects are completed by way of an assembly process. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Its risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientists make decisions in the face of ex ante probabilities of trial success. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. The cumulation of its discoveries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As technology supply rises, its mean proximity to other projects rises also, reducing the cost of these other projects. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Model Virtues, con’t. <ul><li>4. Its susceptibility to quantum leaps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Success-rate functions shift upward (trial numbers U and T decline) when fundamental advances are discovered. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The dual character of its costs: laboratory and intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>property. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of bioscience’s cumulative structure, technologies more successful in a given project are not necessarily more expensive: quality and price are not necessarily related in the laboratory. </li></ul></ul>