Personas_practice and theory by Pruitt & Grudin


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Personas_practice and theory by Pruitt & Grudin

  1. 1. Personas: Practice and TheoryJohn Pruitt AbstractMicrosoft Corporation ì Personasî is an interaction design technique withOne Microsoft Way considerable potential for software productRedmond, WA 98052 USA development. In three years of use, our colleagues and+1 425 703 4938 we have extended Alan Cooperís technique to Personas a powerful complement to other usability methods. After describing and illustrating our approach,Jonathan Grudin we outline the psychological theory that explains whyMicrosoft Research Personas are more engaging than design basedOne Microsoft Way primarily on scenarios. As Cooper and others haveRedmond, WA 98052 USA observed, Personas can engage team members very+1 425 706 0784 effectively. They also provide a conduit for conveying broad range of qualitative and quantitative data, and focus attention on aspects of design and use that other methods do not. Keywords Personas, User Archetypes, User Profiles, User Research, Design Method, Scenarios, User-Centered Design. Industry/category Computer software, hardware, and technology Project statement We have used Personas on projects that range fromPermission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work small to large. This paper will discuss two suchfor personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided thatcopies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial projects, one small and one large. The smaller projectadvantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on involved the first version of a new Web browser, MSNthe first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers Explorer. The larger, our most recent Personas effort,or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or afee. Copyright 2003, ACM.©2003 ACM 1-58113-728-1 03/0006 5.00
  2. 2. 2was in support of the Microsoft Windows product Processdevelopment team. The goal of each effort was to help An Introduction to Personasa team identify and understand its target audience as The use of Personas, fictional people, in product designwell as aid in design and development decisions for a is widely heralded: in Alan Cooper’s book The Inmatesspecific product release. are Running the Asylum [8], in tutorials by Kim Goodwin of Cooper Design [11], and in workshops [23]Project participants [24], newsletters [5] [14] [20], on-line resources [10]The MSN Explorer product development team consisted [15] and research papers [4] [12] [19].of several hundred members. The Windows productdevelopment team changed greatly over time, starting The use of abstract representations of users originatedwith several hundred members and growing to several in marketing [e.g., 18], but Cooper’s use of Personas,thousand at the peak of the effort. Each team their goals, and activity scenarios is focused on design.comprised programmers, quality assurance testers, He notes that designers often have a vague orprogram managers, designers, technical writers, contradictory sense of their intended users and mayproduct planners, user researchers, and marketing base scenarios on people similar to themselves. Hisprofessionals, among others. “goal-directed design” provides focus through the creation of fictional Personas whose goals form theThe MSN Explorer Persona team included one full-time basis for scenario creation. Cooper’s early Personasusability engineer and the part-time efforts of a product were rough sketches, but over time his method evolveddesigner and two additional usability engineers. The to include interviews or ethnography to create moreWindows Persona creation team consisted of 22 people: detailed characters [16].several technical writers, several usability engineers,four product planners, and two market researchers. Prior to Cooper, others promoted the use of abstractAfter the Windows Personas were created, the ensuing representations of users to guide design: user profilesPersona campaign involved the part-time efforts of and scenarios derived from contextual inquiry [13] [25]several usability engineers, ethnographers, graphic and user classes fleshed out into “user archetypes”designers, and product planners. [17]. These representations were also used as a basis for scenario construction.Project dates and durationThe MSN Explorer Persona effort started in January of Cooper’s approach can be effective, but our use of2000 and lasted about 10 months. The actual creation Personas diverges in several ways. He emphasizes anof the Personas took about 2 months. Our Windows “initial investigation phase” and downplays ongoingPersona effort started around March of 2001 and is data collection and usability engineering: “Seems likeongoing at the time of writing this paper (roughly two sandpaper…. Very expensive and time-consuming, ityears), though the initial creation and validation of the wasn’t solving the fundamental problem.” [8]Windows Personas took about three months. Statements such as “We always design before putting
  3. 3. 3 up buildings” and claims that designers have an innate profiling, and fictional character definitions created for ability to make intuitive leaps that no methodology can use in scenario-based design. One specific technique, replace [11] understate the value of user involvement. under the name “user archetypes,” started around 1995 with a single product team and focused primarily Personas used alone can aid design, but they can be on product planning, marketing, and product more powerful if used to complement, not replace, a messaging [17]. Their approach resembled Geoffrey full range of quantitative and qualitative methods. They Moore’s “targeting customer characterizations” [18]. can amplify the effectiveness of other methods. Over time, other product teams adopted that method, and adapted it to better suit product development. Personas might help a designer focus. However, their Although much of the adoption and adaptation of greatest value is in providing a shared basis for Persona-like methods by various teams happened communication. Cooper emphasizes communicating the independently, common issues arose and similar design and its rationale among designers and their solutions were developed. From others around the clients: “It’s easy to explain and justify design decisions company who had been directly involved with creating when they’re based on Persona goals...” [16]. We have these user abstractions or who were expected to use extended this, using Personas to communicate a them in product definition and design, we found that broader range of information to more people: the early Persona-like efforts suffered from four major designers, developers, testers, writers, managers, problems: marketers, and others. Information from market research, ethnographic studies, instrumented 1. The characters were not believable; either they were prototypes, usability tests, or any other relevant source obviously designed by committee (not based on data)The four problems listed on theright are also noted in a recent can be conveyed rapidly to all project participants. or the relationship to data was not clear.paper by Blomquist and Arvola 2. The characters were not communicated well. Often the[4], describing a Persona effort Our experience with Personasthat was not considered fully main communication method was a resume-like We have actively used Personas, and refined oursuccessful. document blown up to poster size and posted around techniques for using them, for over three years. When the hallways. the MSN Explorer effort began, we did not set out to create Personas. In fact, we were only vaguely familiar 3. There was no real understanding about how to use the with the concept. Our goal was to help a development characters. In particular, there was typically nothing team understand and focus on a set of target users. We that spoke to all disciplines or all stages of the read Cooper’s 1999 book and looked around the development cycle. industry and our company to see how other teams had 4. The projects were often grass-roots efforts with little or defined their audiences and communicated that no high-level support (such as people resources for information to their broader team. Many product teams creating and promoting Personas, budget for posters or within our company had done significant work with other materials to make the Personas visible, or market segmentation, user role definition, user
  4. 4. 4 encouragement from team leaders: “thou shalt use of the cycle. We had neither time nor resources to do these characters”). original research, but were fortunate that others had completed several field studies and market research The approach outlined here was developed specifically pertinent to our product. Finally, the whole idea of to address these four problems. It has been refined to using fictional characters to aid design was new to most address additional issues encountered along the way: people on our development team, so there was much! How best to create user abstractions? resistance to overcome and education required.! How much can be fictional, and what should be based By the time we began the Windows Personas effort, our on data? understanding of the method had grown tremendously! What data is most appropriate? through our experiences and through sharing! How can different types of data be combined? experiences with other Persona practitioners [23].! How can you validate your creations? Because of the success of previous Persona efforts and the Persona buzz around the industry, the method had! Can multiple related product teams share a common become more familiar and fairly well accepted by the set of abstractions? development team. We were given people resources! How can you determine whether the effort was worth and a decent budget for posters, events, and other it? promotional exploits. Most important, Personas were! Did the product get better as a result? and so on. being requested by execs and team leaders as well as members of the design and development team. What Our method and process by necessity combined we had set out to do in our first effort was more likely techniques gleaned from the previous Persona-like to be achieved in this larger effort. efforts with what we could learn from Cooper’s book, which was not written as a “how to” manual. Practice details Creating and using Personas: Our approach Our MSN Explorer Personas effort suffered from several The following is a bulleted sketch of our current problems. First, because this was new to us, we began process. Where appropriate, we call out differences in with little idea of how much work was involved and the resource-lacking Explorer Personas effort and the what would be gained. Thus, obtaining resources and resource-intensive Windows Personas effort. creating reasonable timelines was difficult. We started with no budget and two people who had plenty of other ! We attempt to start an effort using previously work to do. We began the Personas effort as the executed, large-sample market segmentation studies, product vision and initial planning were being much like those discussed by Weinstein [27]. Highest completed. By the time we finished creating Personas, priority segments are fleshed out with user research which took much longer than expected, our team had that includes field studies, focus groups, interviews, fully completed the basic design and specification phase and further market research. We use metrics around
  5. 5. 5 market size, historical revenue, and strategic or ! As we wrote the Personas’ stories, we employed competitive placement to determine which segments qualitative data and observational anecdotes where are enriched into Personas. We try to keep the set of possible. A not quite yet achieved goal is to have every characters down to a manageable number: 3 to 6 statement in our Personas generated from or related to Personas, depending on the breadth of product use. user data or observation.! Generally, we collect as much existing related market ! In all Persona efforts, we use a central “foundation” and user research as possible (from internal and document for each Persona as a storehouse for external sources) to help inform and “fill out” the information about that Persona (data, key attributes, Personas. We have yet to start a Persona effort in an photos, reference materials, and so on). Figure 1 shows area that does not have some existing quantitative and the table of contents for a typical foundation document. qualitative data. Thus, our own research endeavors Note that the foundation document is not the primary typically start after we create our Personas. means of communicating information about the Persona! Although we have not yet created full-on international to general team members (more on this following). or disabled Personas, we included international market Likewise, the foundation documents do not contain all and accessibility information in our Personas. Several of or even most of the feature scenarios (for example, our partner teams have also created “anti-Personas”: “walk-through” scenarios are located directly in the Personas intended to identify people that are feature specs). Instead, the foundation document specifically not being designed for. contains goals, fears, and typical activities that motivate and justify scenarios that appear in feature! In our larger Persona effort, involving 22 people, we specs, vision documents, storyboards, and so forth. divided the team so that each Persona (6 in all) had 2 or more dedicated people. At the other extreme, two ! Links between Persona characteristics and the people created all four MSN Explorer Personas, though supporting data are made explicit and salient in the a few other people contributed to or reviewed various foundation documents. These documents contain aspects of the work from time to time. As mentioned, copious footnotes, comments on specific data, and links this lighter effort relied solely on existing user research, to research reports that support and explain the and as a result, generated far less detailed Personas. Personas’ characteristics. All Persona illustrations and materials point to the foundation documents (which are! The Windows Personas effort drew on many research on an intranet site) to enable team members to access studies. We divvied up the research documents, with the supporting documentation. each team member becoming well acquainted with only a few studies. We then held “affinity” sessions where ! Once a basic Persona description is written, we find we physically cut data points and interesting/relevant local people to serve as models and hold one- to two- facts out of the studies and pinned them to a wall to hour photo shoots to get visual material to help form groups of related findings across studies. The illustrate and communicate each Persona. We have resulting groups of findings were used in writing avoided stock photo galleries because they typically narratives that told the story of the data.
  6. 6. 6 characteristics to see how well they match on low-levelFigure 1: The table of contents Overview – Alan Waters (Business Owner) characteristics. We do this because our creation methodfor a foundation document. Get to know Alan, his business, and family. utilizes multiple data sources, many of which are not A Day in the Life directly comparable or inherently compatible. Follow Alan through a typical day. ! Once the Personas’ documents and materials are in Work Activities place, we hold a kick-off meeting to introduce the Look at Alan’s job description and role at work. Personas to the team at large. Household and Leisure Activities Get information about what Alan does when he’s not at work. ! Communicating our Personas has been multifaceted, Goals, Fears, and Aspirations multimodal, ongoing, and progressively discloses more Understand the concerns Alan has about his life, career, and and more information about them. Our foundation business. documents are available to anyone on the team who Computer Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities wishes to review them, but they are not the primary Learn about Alan’s computer experience. means for delivering information. Instead, we create Market Size and Influence many variations of posters, flyers, and handouts over Understand the impact people like Alan have on our business. the course of the development cycle. For the Windows Demographic Attributes Personas we even created a few gimmicky (and Read key demographic information about Alan and his family. popular) promotional items (e.g., squeeze toys, beer Technology Attributes glasses, and mouse pads—sprinkled with Persona Get a sense of what Alan does with technology. images and information). We created Web sites that Technology Attitudes host foundation documents, links to supporting Review Alan’s perspective on technology, past and future. research, related customer data and scenarios, and a Communicating host of tools for using the Personas (screening material Learn how Alan keeps in touch with people. for recruiting usability test participants, spreadsheet International Considerations tools, comparison charts, posters and photos, etc.). In Find out what Alan is like outside the U.S. an ongoing “Persona fact of the week” e-mail Quotes campaign, each Persona gets a real e-mail address Hear what Alan has to say. used occasionally to send information to the References development team. Figure 2 shows two general posters See source materials for this document. designed to further a team’s understanding of the Personas. One compares important characteristics of four Personas. The other communicates the fact that offer only one or two shots of a given model and the our Personas are based on real people and tries to images are too “slick.” provide a sense of the essence of a Persona by ! For our Windows Personas effort, after our Personas providing quotations from real users who are similar to were created, we set up “sanity check” site visits with that Persona. Figure 3 shows two posters from a series users who match the Personas on high-level
  7. 7. 7 that provides information specifically about how customers think about security and privacy. The first again provides real quotes from users who fit our various Persona profiles. The second poster shows how a real hacker targeted people who resemble one of our Personas. ! We instruct our team in Persona use and provide tools to help. Cooper describes Persona use mostly as a discussion tool. “Would Alan use this feature?” This is valuable, but we have generated additional activities and incorporated them into specific development processes. We created spreadsheet tools and document templates for clearer and consistent Persona utilization. As an example of how Personas can become explicitly Figure 2: Two general posters: one comparing characteristics involved in the design and development process, across Personas; the other presenting real quotes from users that fit the profile of one of our Personas. Figure 4 shows an abstract version of a feature-Persona weighted priority matrix that can help prioritize features for a product development cycle. In the example, the scoring in the feature rows is as follows: -1 (the Persona is confused, annoyed, or in some way harmed by the feature), 0 (the Persona doesn’t care about the feature one way or the other), +1 (the feature provides some value to the Persona), +2 (the Persona loves this feature or the feature does something wonderful for the Persona even if they don’t realize it). The sums are weighted according to the proportion of the market each represents. Once completed, the rows can be sorted according to the weighted sum and criteria can be created to establish what features should be pursued and what features should be reconsidered. Shown below, features 2 and 4(Note: Figures 2 and 3 are should be made a high priority for the development Figure: 3: Two more targeted posters: one communicatingintentionally small and hide detail aspects of security and privacy across all of our Personas; theto preserve proprietary team; feature 3 should probably be dropped. other showing how certain types of hackers can target one ofinformation in them.) our Personas
  8. 8. 8 Persona 1 Persona 2 Persona 3 Weight: 50 35 15 Weighted SumFigure 4: A feature ! As a communication mechanism useful to the Personaby Persona- Feature 1 0 1 2 65 team itself, we create Persona screeners and recruitweighted priority Feature 2 2 1 1 150 participants for usability and market research. We thenmatrix. Feature 3 -1 1 0 -15 categorize, analyze, and report our findings by Persona Feature 4 1 1 1 100 type. For the Windows Personas, we have gone to the extreme of creating a Persona user panel. Through an Etc. - - - - outside firm, we established a 5,000-person panel of users that match our Persona profiles. We poll the ! We make a strong effort to ensure that all product and panel on a regular basis to better understand reported feature specification documents contain walk-through activities, preferences, and opinions, as well as scenarios that utilize our Personas. We do the same reactions to our feature plans, vision, and with vision documents, storyboards, demos, and so implementations. We have not aged our Personas over forth. Unfortunately for the MSN Explorer effort, we time, but we do revise them as new data becomes completed our Personas too late in the process to use available. Unlike Cooper, we support a strong, ongoing this approach. effort to obtain as much quantitative and qualitative information about users as possible, thereby improving ! During the Windows Personas effort, we collected the selection, enrichment, and evolution of sets of Persona scenarios from across the product team in a Personas. spreadsheet that enables us to track and police the use of the Personas (this also enables us to roughly gauge ! One of our technical writing groups, a partner to the the direction of a product as it is developed—for Windows team, used the Windows Personas to plan and example, how many scenarios are written for Toby vs. write “How to” and reference books for the popular Abby when we know Abby is a higher-priority target). press. In doing so, they expanded the Personas to include notions of learning style, book usage patterns, ! Design teams have made creative visual explorations and so forth to enrich how they authored for specific based on the Personas. More specifically, they created audiences. branding and style collages by cutting and pasting images that “feel like” our Personas from a variety of ! Although this hasn’t happened for the Persona efforts magazines onto poster boards [Fig. 5]. They then used described here, in other efforts the quality assurance these boards to do a variety of visual treatments across test team has used Personas to organize bug bashes several areas of our product. In another Persona effort, and select/refine scenarios for their QA testing. we took these types of explorations to focus groups to ! For the Windows Personas, we undertook a large effort understand in detail what aspects of the designs were to reconcile two sets of target audiences (one in the appealing and how they worked together to form a form of Personas and one in the form of customer holistic style. Although the Personas were not critical to segments) when a team working on a related product this process, they served as springboard that inspired was directed to be “better together” with our product. creation.
  9. 9. 9Figure 5: A Persona focused style collage. Figure 6: A design exploration based on the Figure 5 style collage.Results bashes—even used by VPs arguing for user concerns inBenefits of Personas product strategy meetings). Not only have ourIt is clear to us that Personas can create a strong focus development teams engaged with Personas, but alsoon users and work contexts through the fictionalized correspondingly they have engaged with our othersettings. Though we have not tried to formally measure user-centered activities. Our Persona campaignsthe impact of our Personas, the subjective view of the generated a momentum that increased general userPersonas and the surrounding effort by the focus and awareness. With our most recent Personadevelopment team has been favorable. A wide range of effort, we’ve had partner teams building related butteam members (from executives to designers and different products adopt and adapt our Personas in andevelopers) knows about and discuss our product in effort to enhance cross-team collaboration, synergy,terms of the Personas. We’ve seen Personas go from and communication.scattered use (in early Persona projects) to widespreadadoption and understanding (in recent product cycles). The act of creating Personas has helped us make ourOur Personas are seen everywhere and used broadly assumptions about the target audience more explicit.(for example, feature specs, vision documents, Once created, the Personas have helped makestoryboards, demo-ware, design discussions, bug assumptions and decision-making criteria equally
  10. 10. 10explicit. Why are we building this feature? Why are we test a product focusing on Alan scenarios, another daybuilding it like this? Without Personas, development focusing on Laura scenarios. As stated in the previousteams routinely make decisions about features and section, this works for testers and other product teamimplementation without recognizing or communicating members, in “bug bashes,” for example. Antheir underlying assumptions about who will use the experienced tester reported feeling that he wasproduct and how it will be used. The “feature by identifying “the right kind” of problems in drawing onPersona-weighted priority matrix” described in the knowledge of a Persona in guiding his test scripts andprevious section is a good example of this. Using that activities. Compare this to an observation from a studytool inevitably results in favored features or seemingly of interface development:important features being pushed down in the list. Whenthis happens, teams must be very explicit with their Some people realized that tests conducted by Qualityreasoning to get a feature back in the plan. We stress Control to ensure that the product matches specificationto the team that this tool is not “golden,” it is a guide; were not sufficient. One manager noted, “I would say thatexceptions can and should be made, when appropriate. testing should be done by a group outside Development, ‘cause Development knows how the code works, and evenPersonas are a medium for communication; a conduit though you don’t want it to, your subconscious makes youfor information about users and work settings derived test the way you know it works. See, those people in thefrom ethnographies, market research, usability studies, Quality Control group have nothing to do with customers.interviews, observations, and so on. Once a set of They’re not users.”Personas is familiar to a team, a new finding can be In fact, two members of Field Support were reported toinstantly communicated: “Alan cannot use the search have found more bugs than the Quality Control group intool on your Web page” has an immediacy that “a the latest release, and they had accomplished this bysubset of participants in the usability study had working with the product as they imagined that usersproblems with the search tool” doesn’t, especially for would. Testing by Field Support was an innovativeteam members who now, for all intents and purposes, experiment, however, and not part of the acceptedsee Alan (a Persona) as a real person. We have found development process.this to be extremely powerful for communicating results “The Quality Control group has a lot of systematicand furthering our teammates’ understanding of the testing, and you need some of that, but at the same time,Personas. you need somebody who is essentially a customer. It is as if you had a customer in house who uses it the way aFinally, Personas focus attention on a specific target customer would every day, and is particularly tough on itaudience. The method helps establish who is and and shakes all these things out. That’s what these twoconsequently who is not being designed for. Personas guys did, and it was just invaluable.” [21, p. 64]explicitly do not cover every conceivable user. Theyalso help focus sequentially on different kinds of users.For example, a quality assurance engineer can one day
  11. 11. 11The Field Support engineers could “test as a user” users. We’ve had some success in collaborating here,because of their extensive experience with customers. but there are rough edges.That Persona use results in similar positive reports isencouraging. Finally, we have seen a certain level of “Persona mania” within our organization and others. Personas can beRisks of Personas overused. At worst, they could replace other user-Getting the right Persona or set of Personas is a centered methods, ongoing data collection, or productchallenge. Cooper argues that designing for any one evaluation. Personas are not a panacea. They shouldexternal person is better than trying to design vaguely augment and enhance: augment existing designfor everyone or specifically for oneself. This may be processes and enhance user focus. We’ve found thattrue, and it does feel as though settling on a small set Personas enhance user testing and other evaluationof Personas provides some insurance, but it also seems methods, field research, scenario generation, designclear that Personas should be developed for a particular exploration, and solution brainstorming.effort. In making choices it becomes clear that thechoices have consequences. For example, they will Discussionguide participant selection for future studies and could Theory of mind: how personas workbe used to filter out data from sources not matching At first encounter, Personas may seem too “arty” for aone of the Persona profiles. science and engineering-based enterprise. It may seem more logical to focus directly on scenarios, which afterRelated to this is the temptation of Persona reuse. After all describe the actual work processes one aims tothe investment in developing Personas and acquainting support. Cooper offered no explanation for why it ispeople with them, it may be difficult to avoid over- better to develop Personas before scenarios.extending their use when it would be better to disbandone cast of characters and recruit another one. It can For 25 years, psychologists have been exploring ourbe good or bad when our partner teams adopt or adapt ability to predict another person’s behavior byour Personas. Different teams and products have understanding their mental state. Theory of Mind firstdifferent goals, so the Personas are stretched a bit. So asked whether primates share this ability [22] and thenfar, the stretching has been modest and closely tied to explored its development in children [1]. Every day ofdata (because our target customers do indeed overlap), our lives, starting very young, we use partialbut it is a concern. knowledge to draw inferences, make predictions, and form expectations about the people around us. We areIn addition, marketing and product development have not always right, but we learn from experience.different needs that require different Persona Whenever we say or do something, we anticipate theattributes, and sometimes different target audiences. reactions of other people. Misjudgments stand out inMarketing is generally interested in buyer behavior and memory, but we usually get it right.customers; product development is interested in end
  12. 12. 12Personas invoke this powerful human capability and Method acting uses a great deal of detail to enablebring it to the design process. Well-crafted Personas people to generate realistic behavior. Detailed historiesare generative: Once fully engaged with them, you can are created for people and even objects, detail that isalmost effortlessly project them into new situations. In not explicitly referred to but which is drawn oncontrast, a scenario covers just what it covers. implicitly by the actor.If team members are told, “Market research shows that A fiction based on research can be used to20% of our target users have bought cell phones,” it communicate. For example, watching a charactermay not help them much. If told “Alan has bought a succumb slowly to a dementia on ER, one cancell phone” and Alan is a familiar Persona, they can understand the disease and perhaps even designimmediately begin extrapolating how this could affect technology to support sufferers, if the portrayal isbehavior. They can create scenarios. We do this kind of based on real observation and data.extrapolation all the time, we are skilled at it—notperfect, but very skilled. Merging personas with other approaches As noted above, we see Personas complementing otherTHE POWER OF FICTION TO ENGAGE approaches, or used where another approach isPeople routinely engage with fictional characters in impractical.novels, movies, and television programs, often fiercely.They shout advice to fictional characters and argue SCENARIOS AND TASK ANALYSISover what they have done off-screen or after the novel Scenarios are a natural element of Persona-basedends. Particularly in ongoing television dramas or design and development. In Carroll’s words [7], asituation comedies, characters come to resemble scenario is a story with a setting, agents, or actors whonormal people to some extent. Perhaps better looking have goals or objectives, and a plot or sequence ofor wittier on average, but moderately complex— actions and events. Given that scenarios have “actors”stereotypes would become boring over time. and Personas come with scenarios, the distinction is in which comes first, which takes precedence. Actors orMETHOD ACTING AND FOCUSING ON DETAIL agents in scenario-based design are typically notMany actors prepare by observing and talking with defined fully enough to promote generativepeople who resemble the fictional character they will engagement. Consider Carroll’s example:portray. As with Personas, the fictional character isbased on real data. An actor intuits details of the “An accountant wishes to open a folder on a systemcharacter’s behavior in new situations. A designer, desktop in order to access a memo on budgets. However,developer, or tester is supported in doing the same for the folder is covered up by a budget spreadsheet that thethe people on whom a Persona is based. accountant wishes to refer to while reading the memo. The spreadsheet is so large that it nearly fills the display. The accountant pauses for several seconds, resizes the
  13. 13. 13 spreadsheet, moves it partially out of the display, opens novel, predictable stereotypes become boring, so more the folder, opens the memo, resizes and repositions the complex, realistic characters are more effective. memo and continues working.” CONTEXTUAL DESIGN AND ETHNOGRAPHYThe lifelessness of characters in such scenarios has Contextual Design [3], a powerful approach tobeen critiqued from a writer’s perspective [19] and by obtaining and analyzing behavioral data, is a strongscenario-based design researchers who suggest using candidate for informing Personas. As it evolved overcaricatures, perhaps shocking or extreme ones [6] [9]. two decades, Contextual Design increasingly stressedBødker writes in [6], “It gives a better effect to create communication with team members, ways to sharescenarios that are caricatures… it is much easier… to knowledge acquired in the field. Personas are primarilyrelate to.… Not that they ‘believe’ in the caricatures, a tool to achieve this and thus a natural partner toindeed they do not, but it is much easier to use one’s Contextual Design [4] [14].common sense judgment when confronted with anumber of extremes than when judging based on some Ethnographic data may help the most in developingkind of ‘middle ground.’” She also recommends realistic Personas, when available in sufficient depth.constructing both utopian and nightmarish scenarios Quantitative data may be necessary in selectingaround a proposed design to stimulate reflection. appropriate Personas, but does not replace observation. Again, the parallel to method acting arises.Task analysis is generally directed toward formalrepresentations that are particularly difficult to engage Why not just use real people? Designing for a realwith generatively. An exception is [2], which person is better than designing blind, but just aboutrecommends detailed character sketches. everyone has some behaviors one would not want to focus design on. Using a real individual would excludeThese thoughtful analyses point to weaknesses in or complicate the use of data from market research,scenarios taken alone. Unless based strongly on data, a usability testing, and so on. It could undermine thescenario can be created to promote any feature, any confidence of team members in the generality ofposition (utopian or dystopian), and can be difficult to particular behaviors—team members do step back andengage with. recognize that a Persona represents a group of people, as when they describe “testing six Alans.”Personas need not be extreme or stereotypedcharacters; the team engages with them over a long PARTICIPATORY DESIGN AND VALUE-SENSITIVE DESIGNenough time to absorb nuances, as we do with real Participatory or cooperative design focuses on thepeople. This duration of engagement is critical. In a eventual users of a system or application. It has themovie, heroes and villains may be stereotyped because same goal of engaging developers with user behaviorof a need to describe them quickly, as with stand-alone and also enlists our ability to anticipate behaviors ofscenarios. But in an ongoing television series or a familiar people. When designing for a relatively small,
  14. 14. 14accessible group of people, this approach makes the Acknowledgmentsmost sense. Product development is more challenging We thank Gayna Williams, Shari Schneider, Markfor participatory design. We discuss the relationship of Patterson, Chris Nodder, Holly Jamesen, Tamara Adlin,Personas and participatory design in depth in [12]. Larry Parsons, Steve Poltrock, Jeanette Blomberg, and members of the Microsoft Personas and Qual groups.Early participatory design efforts included a strongfocus on sociopolitical and “quality of life” issues. These Referencesissues are more significant today as the reach of [1] Astington, J.W., & Jenkins, J.M. (1995). Theory of mindcomputing extends [26]. Although the industry and development and social understanding. Cognition and Emotion, 9, 151-65.many companies have engaged these issues at a highlevel, most usability and interaction design techniques [2] Benyon, D. & Macauley, C. (2002). Scenarios and the HCI-SE design problem. Interacting with computers,avoid addressing these issues. Persona use brings 14, 4, 397-405.sociopolitical issues to the surface. Each Persona has agender, age, race, ethnic, family or cohabitation [3] Beyer, H. & Holtzblatt, K. (1998). Contextual design. Morgan Kaufmann.arrangement, socio-economic background, work, orhome environment. This provides an effective avenue [4] Blomquist, Å. & Arvola, M. (2002). Personas in action: Ethnography in an interaction design team. To appearfor recognizing and perhaps changing assumptions in Proc. NordiCHI 2002.about users. If one populated a Persona set withmiddle-aged white males, it would be obvious that this [5] Brechin, E. (2002). Reconciling market segments and a mistake. ng_ market_seg ments_and_Personas.htmCooper writes “all things being equal, I will use people [6] Bødker, S. (2000). Scenarios in user-centred design—of different races, genders, nationalities, and colors.” Setting the stage for reflection and action. InteractingRealism, not “political correctness,” is his stated goal. with computers, 13, 1, 61-75.He stereotypes if he feels it will provide more credence [7] Carroll, J. (2000). Making use: Scenario-based designand avoids casting strongly against expectations if he of human-computer interactions. MIT Press.feels it will undermine credibility. [8] Cooper, A. (1999). The inmates are running the asylum. Macmillan.Persona use does require decision-making. It isn’t a [9] Djajadiningrat, J.P., Gaver, W.W. & Frens, J.W. (2000).science. If not used appropriately, any powerful tool Interaction relabelling and extreme characters:can take one down the wrong path, as in lying with Methods for exploring aesthetic interactions. Proc. DISstatistics or using non-representative video examples. 2000, 66-71.Personas are one such powerful tool. It is up to all of us [10] Freydenson, E. (2002). Bringing your Personas to life intogether to develop effective ways to use them. real life.
  15. 15. 15[11] Goodwin, K. (2002). Goal-directed methods for great [22] Poltrock, S.E. and Grudin, J. (1994). Organizational design. CHI 2002 tutorial. obstacles to interface design and development: Two participant observer studies. ACM Transactions on[12] Grudin, J. & Pruitt, J. (2002). Personas, participatory Computer-Human Interaction, 1, 1, 52-80. design, and product development: An infrastructure for [23] Premack, D. & Woodruff, G. (1978). Does the engagement. Proc. PDC 2002, 144-161. chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behavioral & Brain[13] Hackos, J. & Redish, J. (1998). User and task analysis Sciences, 4, 515-526. for interface design. John Wiley and Sons, New York. [24] Pruitt, J.S., Jamesen, H. & Adlin, T. (2001). Personas,[14] Holtzblatt, K. (2002). Personas and contextual design. user archetypes, and other user representations in software design. UPA 2001 workshop. 0913.html ops/w2.html[15] Hourihan, M. (2002). Taking the “you” out of user: My experience using Personas. Boxes and arrows. [25] Pruitt, J.S., Jamesen, H. & Adlin, T. (2002). Creating and using personas: A practitioner’s workshop. UPA 2002 workshop.[16] Interview with Kim Goodwin (2002). User Interface 7 East. 2/program/workshops/wkshop_Personas.php[17] [26] Tahir, M. F. (1997). Whos on the other side of your[18] Mikkelson, N. & Lee, W. O. (2000). Incorporating user software: Creating user profiles through contextual archetypes into scenario-based design. Proc. UPA 2000. inquiry. Proc. UPA ’97.[19] Moore, G. A. (1991). Crossing the chasm. Harper [27] Value-sensitive design site: Collins Publishers, New York. [28] Weinstein, Art, (1998). Defining your market: winning[20] Nielsen, L. (2002). From user to character—an strategies for high-tech, industrial, and service firms. investigation into user-descriptions in scenarios. Proc. New York: Haworth Press. DIS 2002.[21] Perfetti, C. (2002). Personas: Matching a design to the users goals. User Interface 7 East.