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Effective Java with Groovy & Kotlin - How Languages Influence Adoption of Good Practices

Naresha K
Naresha K

There are several instances where Groovy and Kotlin take different approaches to implement Effective Java. As a participant, you walk away appreciating the simplicity with which these JVM languages empower the developers. The talk also provides food for thought - how languages can influence its users to adopt good practices.

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Effective Java
with Groovy & Kotlin
How Languages Influence Adoption of Good
Practices
Naresha K

@naresha_k

https://blog.nareshak.com/
About me
Developer, Architect &
Tech Excellence Coach
Founder & Organiser
Bangalore Groovy User
Group
3
Java Language
JVM
Platform/ Real Machine Platform/ Real Machine Platform/ Real Machine
4
Java Language
Platform/ Real Machine Platform/ Real Machine Platform/ Real Machine
Groovy
JVM
5
Java Language
Platform/ Real Machine Platform/ Real Machine Platform/ Real Machine
Groovy Kotlin
JVM
6
Most people talk about Java the language,
and this may sound odd coming from me,
but I could hardly care less. At the core of
the Java ecosystem is the JVM.
- James Gosling,
Creator of the Java Programming Language(2011, TheServerSide)

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Effective Java with Groovy & Kotlin - How Languages Influence Adoption of Good Practices

  • 1. Effective Java with Groovy & Kotlin How Languages Influence Adoption of Good Practices Naresha K @naresha_k https://blog.nareshak.com/
  • 2. About me Developer, Architect & Tech Excellence Coach Founder & Organiser Bangalore Groovy User Group
  • 3. 3 Java Language JVM Platform/ Real Machine Platform/ Real Machine Platform/ Real Machine
  • 4. 4 Java Language Platform/ Real Machine Platform/ Real Machine Platform/ Real Machine Groovy JVM
  • 5. 5 Java Language Platform/ Real Machine Platform/ Real Machine Platform/ Real Machine Groovy Kotlin JVM
  • 6. 6 Most people talk about Java the language, and this may sound odd coming from me, but I could hardly care less. At the core of the Java ecosystem is the JVM. - James Gosling, Creator of the Java Programming Language(2011, TheServerSide)
  • 7. 7
  • 9. 9 initial idea was to make a little dynamic language which compiles directly to Java classes and provides all the nice (alleged) productivity benefits - James Strachan http://radio-weblogs.com/0112098/2003/08/29.html
  • 12. Know your guides Context/ the Problem What does “Effective Java” say? The traps Idiomatic Solution Lessons Learned Tool Wisdom 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14 class Product { String sku String description BigDecimal price }
  • 15. 15 Product book1 = new Product( sku: 'P101', description: 'Effective Java’, price: 40.0) Product book2 = new Product( sku: 'P101', description: 'Effective Java’, price: 40.0) println book1 == book2 false
  • 16. 16 Product book1 = new Product( sku: 'P101', description: 'Effective Java’, price: 40.0) Product book2 = new Product( sku: 'P101', description: 'Effective Java’, price: 40.0) def stock = [:] stock[book1] = 100 println stock[book2] null
  • 17. 17
  • 18. 18 #10: Obey the general contract when overriding equals #11: Always override hashCode when you override equals
  • 19. 19
  • 20. 20 class Product { String sku String description BigDecimal price } class Product { String sku String description BigDecimal price LocalDate dateOfManufacture } class Product { String sku String description BigDecimal price LocalDate dateOfManufacture LocalDate dateOfExpiry }
  • 21. 21 @EqualsAndHashCode class Product { String sku String description BigDecimal price }
  • 22. 22 Product book1 = new Product( sku: 'P101', description: 'Effective Java’, price: 40.0) Product book2 = new Product( sku: 'P101', description: 'Effective Java’, price: 40.0) println book1 == book2 true
  • 23. 23 Product book1 = new Product( sku: 'P101', description: 'Effective Java’, price: 40.0) Product book2 = new Product( sku: 'P101', description: 'Effective Java’, price: 40.0) def stock = [:] stock[book1] = 100 println stock[book2] 100
  • 24. 24 @EqualsAndHashCode(includes = 'id') class Product { Long id String sku String description BigDecimal price }
  • 25. 25 @EqualsAndHashCode(includes = 'id') class Product { Long id String sku String description BigDecimal price }
  • 26. 26 @EqualsAndHashCode(includes = ‘sku') class Product { Long id String sku String description BigDecimal price }
  • 27. 27 class Product(val sku: String, val description: String, val price: BigDecimal) fun main() { val book1 = Product("P101", "Effective Java", BigDecimal("35.08")) val book2 = Product("P101", "Effective Java", BigDecimal("35.08")) println(book1 == book2) val stock = mapOf(book1 to 100) println(stock[book2]) } false null
  • 28. 28 data class Product(val sku: String, val description: String, val price: BigDecimal) fun main() { val book1 = Product("P101", "Effective Java", BigDecimal("35.08")) val book2 = Product("P101", "Effective Java", BigDecimal("35.08")) println(book1 == book2) val stock = mapOf(book1 to 100) println(stock[book2]) } true 100
  • 29. 29 data class Product(val sku: String, val description: String, val price: BigDecimal, var id: Long?) fun main() { val book1 = Product("P101", "Effective Java", BigDecimal("35.08"), null) val book2 = Product("P101", "Effective Java", BigDecimal("35.08"), 1L) println(book1 == book2) val stock = mapOf(book1 to 100) println(stock[book2]) } false null
  • 30. 30 data class Product(val sku: String, val description: String, val price: BigDecimal) { var id: Long? = null } fun main() { val book1 = Product("P101", "Effective Java", BigDecimal("35.08")) val book2 = Product("P101", "Effective Java", BigDecimal("35.08")) book2.id = 1L println(book1 == book2) val stock = mapOf(book1 to 100) println(stock[book2]) } true 100
  • 31. 31 AST Transformation Single point of representation of any knowledge Language / Compiler
  • 32. 32
  • 33. 33 List<String> languages = List.of("Java", "Groovy", "Kotlin"); for (int i = 0; i < languages.size(); i++) { System.out.println(languages.get(i)); } for (String language : languages) { System.out.println(language); }
  • 34. 34 #58: Prefer for-each loops to traditional for loops
  • 35. 35 numbers.forEach { println(it) } println(numbers.map { it * 2 }) println(numbers.fold(0) { acc, number -> acc + number }) 10 20 30 40 [20, 40, 60, 80] 100
  • 36. 36 numbers.each { number -> println number } println numbers.collect { number -> number * 2 } println numbers.inject(0, { result, number -> result + number } ) 10 20 30 40 [20, 40, 60, 80] 100
  • 37. 37 Closures/ Higher Order Functions Favor Internal iterators to external iterators Minimise the moving parts
  • 40. 40 List<Speaker> getSpeakers(String conference) { return null; } List<Speaker> speakers = getSpeakers(“I Code Java Africa"); if (speakers != null) { //... }
  • 41. 41 #54: Return empty arrays or collections, not nulls
  • 42. 42 println getSpeakers('I Code Java Africa') .collect { it.firstName } println getSpeakers('I Code Java Africa') .findAll { it.firstName.length() > 5 }
  • 43. 43 println getSpeakers('I Code Java Africa') .collect { it.firstName } // [] println getSpeakers('I Code Java Africa') .findAll { it.firstName.length() > 5 } // []
  • 44. 44
  • 45. 45 fun getSpeakers(conference: String): List<Speaker> { return null }
  • 46. 46 fun getSpeakers(conference: String): List<Speaker> { return null } Null can not be a value of a non-null type List<Speaker>
  • 47. 47 fun getSpeakers(conference: String): List<Speaker> { return null } Null can not be a value of a non-null type List<Speaker> fun getSpeakers(conference: String): List<Speaker>? { return null }
  • 48. 48 NullObject Pattern No boilerplate code - $$$ Life is too short for null checks! Type system
  • 51. Rules to make a class immutable 1. Don’t provide any mutators 2. Ensure that the class can’t be extended 3. Make all fields final 4. Make all fields private 5. Ensure exclusive access to any mutable components
  • 52. 52 class ImmutableClass{ private final def field1 private final def field2 //... private final def field10 public ImmutableClass(f1, f2,… f10){ //initialization } }
  • 53. 53 import groovy.transform.Immutable @Immutable class Rectangle { int length int breadth } def r = new Rectangle(length: 10, breadth: 5) println r // Rectangle(10, 5)
  • 54. 54 public final class Rectangle extends java.lang.Object implements groovy.lang.GroovyObject { private final int length private final int breadth public Rectangle(int length, int breadth) { // } public Rectangle(java.util.Map args) { } public Rectangle() { this([:]) } } new Rectangle(length: 10, breadth: 5)
  • 55. 55 data class Rectangle(val length: Int, val breadth: Int) public final class Rectangle { private final int length; private final int breadth; public final int getLength() { return this.length; } public final int getBreadth() { return this.breadth; } public Rectangle(int length, int breadth) { this.length = length; this.breadth = breadth; } // more code }
  • 56. 56 data class Rectangle(val length: Int, val breadth: Int) fun main() { val rectangle = Rectangle(20, 10) val r2 = Rectangle(length = 20, breadth = 10) } public static final void main() { Rectangle rectangle = new Rectangle(20, 10); Rectangle r2 = new Rectangle(20, 10); }
  • 58. 58
  • 59. 59 #18: Favour composition over inheritance
  • 60. 60 def ph = ['919812312345', '4512341234', ‘19252199916'] as PhoneNumbers println ph.find { it == '19252199916'} println ph.findAll { it.endsWith('4') }
  • 61. 61 def ph = ['919812312345', '4512341234', '19252199916'] as PhoneNumbers println ph.find { it == '19252199916'} println ph.findAll { it.endsWith('4') } println ph.indianNumbers()
  • 63. 63 class PhoneNumbers { private @Delegate List phoneNumbers PhoneNumbers(numbers) { phoneNumbers = numbers } def indianNumbers() { phoneNumbers.findAll { it.startsWith('91') } } }
  • 64. 64 class PhoneNumbers(val list: List<String>) : List<String> by list { fun indianNumbers(): List<String> { return list.filter { it.startsWith("91") } } }
  • 65. 65 trait CanSing { def sing() { println "Singing" } } trait CanDance { def dance() { println "Dancing" } } class Person implements CanSing, CanDance {} Person reema = new Person() reema.sing() reema.dance() https://www.slideshare.net/nareshak/designing-with-groovy-traits-gr8conf-india
  • 67. 67
  • 68. 68 #3: Enforce the singleton property with a private constructor or an enum type
  • 69. 69 class Manager { private static final Manager manager = new Manager() private Manager() { super() } static Manager getInstance() { manager } } def m1 = Manager.getInstance() def m2 = Manager.getInstance() println m1 == m2 true
  • 70. 70 class Manager { private static final Manager manager = new Manager() private Manager() { super() } static Manager getInstance() { manager } } def m1 = Manager.getInstance() def m2 = Manager.getInstance() println m1 == m2 true def m3 = new Manager() println m3 Manager@b968a76
  • 71. 71 @Singleton class Manager {} def m1 = Manager.getInstance() def m2 = Manager.getInstance() println m1 == m2 def m3 = new Manager() println m3 true Caught: java.lang.RuntimeException: Can't instantiate singleton Manager. Use Manager.instance
  • 72. 72 object Manager { init { println("Initialising Manager") } } public final class Manager { public static final Manager INSTANCE; private Manager() { } static { Manager var0 = new Manager(); INSTANCE = var0; String var1 = "Initialising Manager"; boolean var2 = false; System.out.println(var1); } }
  • 73. 73 private static Manager manager static Manager getInstance() { if(!manager){ manager = new Manager() } manager }
  • 74. 74 private static Manager manager static synchronized Manager getInstance() { if(!manager){ manager = new Manager() } manager }
  • 75. 75 private static volatile Manager manager static synchronized Manager getInstance() { if(!manager){ manager = new Manager() } manager }
  • 76. 76 @Singleton(lazy=true) class Manager {} public static Manager getInstance() { if (instance != null) { return instance } else { synchronized (Manager) { if (instance != null) { return instance } else { return instance = new Manager() } } } }
  • 77. 77 AST Transformation YAGNI Premature optimisation is the root of all evil Object Declaration
  • 79. 79 Some of the ‘Effective Java’ already built into the languages
  • 80. 80 Favour compiler generated code to IDE generated code
  • 81. 81 Don’t fall into the trap of copying the Java implementation
  • 82. 82 Programming languages can reduce friction to implement good practices
  • 83. 83 There could be multiple right solutions. Choose what fits your context
  • 84. 84 The way we code is influenced not just by the language we code in, but also by the languages we know.