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  1. 1. Managerial Effectiveness fromthe Perspectives of the Bhagavad-Gita By Balakrishnan Muniapan School of Business Curtin University of similar visit for Technology Sarawak, MALAYSIA. ppts/articles/video
  2. 2. AbstractManagerial effectiveness is predominately culture specific (Sharma, 2001).This means each country and community need to develop their own systemof developing managerial effectiveness.Recognizing the important of culture in management practice, this paperattempts to explore managerial effectiveness from the perspectives of theBhagavad-Gita.The Bhagavad-Gita is an ancient Indian spiritual and philosophical text andis more than 5000 years old. Chinmayananda (2003) asserted that fromtime to time an ancient philosophy needs intelligent re-interpretation toapply effectively in the context of modern times.Based on text and content analysis of selected verses from theBhagavad-Gita, some relevance of the Bhagavad-Gita in thedevelopment of managerial effectiveness is explored in this paper. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  3. 3. Introduction (1)People, today is exploring philosophy, transpersonal psychology, meditation,Yoga, Vedanta, Buddhism,Taoism, and many other spiritual schools ofthought.There has also been an increasing interest inintegrating spirituality andmanagement as the numbers of articles on spirituality in managementjournals are increasing (Kale and Shrivastava, 2003).One of the ancient Indian spiritual text is the Bhagavad-Gita or the “Song ofthe Lord” , which provides the essence of the Vedas, which was delivered bySri Krishna to Arjuna more than 50centuries ago in Kurukshestra, India. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  4. 4. Introduction (2)The background for the Bhagavad-Gita is the epic Mahabharata. TheMahabharata was composed by Sri Vyasa Muni (son of Parasara Muni) andwas written by Sri Ganesa more than 5000 years ago and it has 110,000verses.The Bhagavad-Gita appears in 700 verses (of which 575 are uttered by SriKrishna) in Bhisma Parva of the Mahabharata and consists of 18 chapters.The Mahabharata narrates the war between two cousins; the 5 Pandavasand 100 Kauravas to claim the kingdom of Hastinapura.The Bhagavad-Gita was given on the battlefield before the commencementof the war. The battlefield represent our body where an unending battle israging between the forces of good and evil. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  5. 5. Sri Krishna and Arjuna in the Midst of the Two Armies visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  6. 6. Objectives of the PaperThe broad purpose of this paper is to explore the managerialeffectiveness from the perspectives of the Bhagavad-Gita,which presents one of the Indian (Vedic) views on managerialeffectiveness.The philosophy of Bhagavad-Gita should not be viewed fromspiritual perspectives only but also as a guide in developingmanagerial effectiveness.The scope, content and context of managerial effectiveness iswide, however in this paper the author explores three basicprinciples on improving managerial effectiveness from theselected verses from the Bhagavad-Gita.The three principles are mind management, management of dutyand the principles of self management. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  7. 7. MethodologyThis paper is based on the qualitative research methodologycalled hermeneutics, which is the interpretation of ancient orclassical literatures.Hermeneutics is also concerned with the usage of language andthe process of using language. The Mahabharata was written inthe Sanskrit language, one of the oldest languages in the world.The translation of the Bhagavad-Gita requires a good mastery ofSanskrit. As a result the main English translation of theBhagavad-Gita verses quoted in this paper is based on theauthoritative translation of AC Bhaktivedanta SwamiPrabhupada. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  8. 8. LimitationsThe Bhagavad-Gita is perceived as a spiritual and philosophicaltext, as such it is not directly related to managerial effectiveness.The Bhagavad-Gita is also perceived only as an Hindu scripture,as such foreigners and other Indians who are not Hindu will findit difficult to accept the Bhagavad-Gita.However, there is no doubt that the principles propounded in theBhagavad-Gita are have universal application and useful formanagers to mould their character and strengthen their self todevelop their managerial effectiveness. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  9. 9. Managerial Effectiveness (ME)Management is an interdisciplinary field with contributions fromvarious fields such as psychology, social psychology, sociology,anthropology, political science, economics and finance.(Muniapan, 2005)Management is an art of getting things done through people,efficiently and effectively . Henry Minzberg (1973), in his bookthe Nature of Managerial Work (cited in Robbins, 2003) providedten roles of managers play for increasing managerialeffectiveness, which can be divided into interpersonal roles,informational roles and decisional roles.In order to play these roles effectively, managers need some sets ofskills; Robbins (2003) also cited Robert Kaltz three types ofmanagerial skills, which includes technical skills, human skillsand conceptual skills. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  10. 10. Bhagavad-Gita and ME (Managerial Effectiveness ) The Bhagavad-Gita was delivered by Sri Krishna to boost Arjuna’s declining morale, motivation, confidence to his (Arjuna) intra-personal conflict, which was to fight or not to fight the war at Kurukshestra. Sri Krishna gave not only spiritual enlightenment to Arjuna ( and to all of us) but also the art of self management, conflict management, stress &, anger management, transformational leadership, motivation, goal setting and many others aspects of management which can be used as a guide to increase our managerial effectiveness. Unlike the western approach to managerial effectiveness, which focuses in exploring the external world of matter and energy, the Bhagavad-Gita recommends a managerial effectiveness approach, which focuses on exploring the inner world of the self. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  11. 11. Bhagavad-Gita and ME (Managerial Effectiveness ) When Arjuna saw his friends and relatives, he was de-motivated. Sri Krishna, played the role of teacher (management trainer, developer), to revive Arjuna’s motivation visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  12. 12. Mind Management & ME (1)Sri Krishna, embarked on the following sermon:-“O son of Prtha (Arjuna), do not yield to this degrading impotence. Itdoes not become you. Give up such petty weakness of heart and arise,O chastiser of enemy” (B.G. 2.3)Sri Krishna desired that Arjuna as well as all the readers of Bhagavad-Gita could cast off weakness of heart in performing duties.Managers who are mentally weak cannot attain the organizationalvision and mission. The mind of the manager must be firmin driving the organizational resources (human resources) towardsvision and mission. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  13. 13. Arjuna said: For the mind is restless, turbulent, obstinate and very strong, O Krishna, and to subdue it is, it seems to me, more difficult than controlling the wind. (B.G. 6.34) Sri Krishna said: O mighty-armed son of Kunti (Arjuna), it is undoubtedly very difficult to curb the restless mind, but it is possible by constant practice and by detachment. (B.G.6.35)visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  14. 14. Mind Management & ME (2)Management development programs in organizations should focus increating and developing managers and organizational members to bestrong and be mentally fearless.An untrained mind is very weak and unstable, as a result even a smallobstacle coming in its way may make it lose initiative.Sri Krishna also mentioned that for one who has conquered the mind,the mind is the best of friends, but for one who has failed to controltheir mind, the mind will be the greatest enemy. (B.G. 6.6) visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  15. 15. In the chariot of the body, the five horses represent the five senses (tongue, eyes, ears, nose and skin). The reins, the driving instrument, symbolize the mind, the driver is the intelligence, and the passenger is the self. Managers should use their intelligence to control the mind (the driving instrument), they should not let the mind to be controlled by the senses.visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  16. 16. Duty and ME (1)Duty is given great importance in the Bhagavad-Gita. Duty in theorganizational context goes beyond contractual agreement in theemployment relationship. Sri Krishna motivates and encourages Arjunato do his duty and not to run away from the battlefield.Perform your prescribed duty, for doing so is better than notworking. One cannot even maintain one’s physical body without work(B.G 3.8)Sri Krishna further stressed that duty needs to be done withoutattachment and for those who do their duty without attachment willattain the supreme goal (B.G 3.19).Sri Krishna instructed Arjuna to perform his work (duty) for the sakeof educating the people in general. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  17. 17. Duty and ME (2)The success and failures of any organization can be attributed toleadership.The manager (leader) in the context of organization needs to set exampleto their followers as whatever the leader does, the followers will followand whatever standards or example the leader sets people in general willfollow. (B.G. 3.21)This lesson in leadership given by Sri Krishna is not only limited toleaders in the work organization but each and every leader, includingkings, ministers, community leaders, fathers or teachers. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  18. 18. Self Management & ME (1)The Bhagavad-Gita stresses the importance of self management orpersonal management first before personnel management (HRM). Selfmanagement includes all aspects of management of oneself such asmanaging life, time, stress, anger, fear and self-control.In explaining the position of a self realized person (B.G. 18.51-18.53), among others, Sri Krishna stressed the aspects such ascontrolling the mind, determination, giving up sense gratification, beingfree from attachment and hatred, body and mind control, power ofspeech, free from false ego, false pride and anger as essential part of selfmanagement.Sri Krishna described that from anger, complete delusion arises, andfrom delusion bewilderment of memory. When memory is bewildered,intelligence will be lost and when intelligence is lost one falls down. (B.G.2.63) visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  19. 19. Self Management & ME (2)In describing qualities of brahmanas (intelligent managers) (B.G. 18.42),Sri Krishna stressed the qualities such as peacefulness, self-control,austerity, purity, honesty, knowledge, wisdom andreligiousness and in describing the qualities of ksatriyas (administrativemanagers) (B.G. 18.43), Sri Krishna identified qualities such as heroism,power, determination, resourcefulness, courage in battle, generosity andleadership.The Bhagavad-Gita gives the importance to self (personal) managementbefore any other management especially personnel management (HRM). visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  20. 20. Motivation to Succeed & METhe term “motivation” refers to the driving force (internal andexternal), which explains behavior.Motivating employees towards high performance is the task of everymanager. Although the level of motivation varies among individuals, themanager firstly must understand the employee’s need.In many verses of the Bhagavad-Gita, Sri Krishna motivates andenergizes Arjuna to do his duty. Sri Krishna focuses on the internal(intrinsic) motivation more than external (extrinsic). visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  21. 21. Transformational Leadership & MEAfter hearing 575 verses from Sri Krishna in the Bhagavad-Gita,Arjuna was motivated, energized and acted according to Sri Krishna’sinstruction.This is transformation management (leadership), as quoted byNarayana (1998) who explained what happened after the Bhagavad-Gita – “He (Arjuna) stood steady on the ground with bow and arrow inhand. He lifted his arms ready to fight the war”.Sri Krishna demonstrated transformational leadership qualities indeveloping and guiding Arjuna to victory in the war. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  22. 22. ConclusionModern managers, can benefit from thephilosophy of Bhagavad-Gita,which serves as aguide in developing managerial effectiveness. Mereimitation of western ME approaches may not be appropriate in theIndian (Asian) context due todifferences in the cultural environment.The philosophy of Bhagavad-Gita has remained and will remain as aguide for developing managerial effectiveness, not only in this 21stcentury but also for many centuries more to come. visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  23. 23. Arjunas illusion has now gone. He is motivated to win the war for the Pandavas. This is due to Sri Krishna, who became the adviser for Arjuna and transformed him (Arjuna) and the Pandavas to victory. This is a lesson in ME.visit for similar ppts/articles/video
  24. 24. Wherever there is Sri Krishna and Arjuna, there will be Victoryvisit for similar ppts/articles/video