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Computer Network: A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources, exchange files, or allow electronic communications. The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams 4
Need of Computer Network: File sharing Resource sharing Communication and collaboration Remote access Data protection 5
Devices Use To Connect Network: Routers Gateways Repeaters Bridges Hub Modem 6
Types Of Network: Local Area Network Wide Area Network Metropolitan Area Network 7
Local Area Network: A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link. Typically, connected devices share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographic area . . A local area network may serve as few as two or three users or as many as thousands of users. 8
Wide Area Network: The WAN is a communications network that makes use of existing technology to connect local computer networks into a larger working network that may cover both national and international locations. 10
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines 12
Network Topologies Network Topology – Maps of how the physical or logical paths of network devices connect. The three major topologies are star, ring, and bus. Star Topology – Most common Ethernet network topology where each device connects to a central hub or switch. Hub – A device used with the Universal Serial Bus or in a star network topology that allows multiple device connections. Switch – In star networks, a Layer 2 central controlling device. A switch looks at each data frame as it comes through each port. Ring Topology – Network that is physically wired like a star network but, logically in a ring; passes control from one device to the next in a continuous fashion using a special data packet called a token. Used in Token Ring networks. Bus Topology – Network wherein all devices connect to a single cable. If the cable fails, the network is down. Mesh Topology – Network where all devices connect to each other by cabling to provide link redundancy for maximum fault tolerance. Most likely in WANs. 13