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28.0 irri climate smart rice june 2017

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28.0 irri climate smart rice june 2017

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28.0 irri climate smart rice june 2017

  1. 1. Climate change and rice: Challenges and mitigation through plant breeding Shalabh Dixit Scientist- Plant Breeder, International Rice Research Institute Email: s.dixit@irri.org
  2. 2. • 57 years • >1200 staff • 36 Nationalities • >600 R&D partners Worldwide Mailing address DAPO Box 7777 Metro Manila 1301 Philippines About IRRI
  3. 3. Improve livelihoods among those who rely on rice-based food systems Reduce poverty, hunger and malnutrition Improve the health of rice farmers and consumers Ensure environmental sustainability Promote the empowerment of women and support opportunities for youth in agriculture 1 2 3 4 What Do We Do? 5
  4. 4. Innovation leadership for the global rice sector providing scientific innovation and thought leadership to solve complex problems through deep research Catalyze impact at scale for people and planet Create and support catalytic networks for wide-spread adoption of innovations and technologies Transform rice-based agri-food systems Support policy interventions and institutional capacity building programs to underpin an equitable rice sector How do we do it? 1 2 3
  5. 5. Harvested from 166 million Hectares (10% of world crop land) Feeds 4 billion People (56% of world population) Yearly receives 880 km3 Irrigation water (35% of world total) Grown by 144 million Farm families (25% of world farmers) Home to 400 million Rural poor (40% of world poor) Annual value of $206 billion (13% of world crop value) Yearly uses 25 million tons Fertilizers (15% of world total) RICE
  6. 6. Climate change and agriculture
  7. 7. Climate change predicted impact on crop yields Source: Ray et al. 2012 http://www.nationalgeographic.c om/climate-change/how-to-live- with-it/crops.html
  8. 8. Why effect on rice may have the largest impact? Poverty Each dot represents 250,000 people living on less than $1.25 a day, 2005 Rice Consumption Annual consumption per capita <25kg 25-50 50-75 75-100 >100kg
  9. 9. Overview  What are we up against? • Abiotic stresses: Temperature, Drought, Flood, Salinity • Biotic stresses: Known and new diseases and pests  Plant Breeding impact  New breeding targets and methods • Emission in rice fields and DSR  The way forward • New breeding approaches
  10. 10. Predicted climate change scenarios
  11. 11. Temperature (heat) impact on rice Optimum temperature ranges are needed at different growth stages Fluctuation leads to decline in yield and grain quality Year 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Maximumtemperature(ºC) 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0 31.5 32.0 y = 2.3 + 0.014x (r 2 = 0.14) Year 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Minimumtemperature(ºC) 22.0 22.5 23.0 23.5 24.0 24.5 25.0 y = -65.1 + 0.044x (r 2 = 0.68) insignificant trend 1.19ºC increase in 27 years (IRRI Climate Unit)(IRRI Climate Unit) P > 0.05 P < 0.01 22.0 22.5 23.0 23.5 24.0 129.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0 31.5 32.0 Grainyield(tonsha-1 ) 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 y = -393.8 + 36.6x - 0.83x2 (r2 = 0.77) Minimum temperature (ºC)Maximum temperature (ºC) •• •• Peng et al.2004
  12. 12. Drought and flood impact on rice
  13. 13. Drought effect on rice
  14. 14. Flooding effect on rice Bihar - 2013 Nigeria - 2012
  15. 15. Flooding or water logging after direct seeding Transient flash floods (1-2 wks) Long-term Stagnant floods (20-50 cm, or more) Annually over 15 m ha affected in Asia Irrigated & rainfed Flooding types
  16. 16. Sea level trends: The future different scenarios 2000 2050 2100 year 80 60 40 20 0 sea level rise (cm) IPCC 2001 Δ20 Δ45 Scenarios in study on Mekong Delta Salinity and flooding A. Ismail, IRRI
  17. 17. Salinity and flooding (Nicholls and Cazenave, 2010. Science: 1517-20) Tropical cyclones: 1985- 2005 Source: Wikipedia/Tropical cyclones. Based on data from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center and others
  18. 18. Salinity effect on rice
  19. 19. Biotic stresses affecting rice: PathogensBiotic stresses affecting rice: Diseases Known major diseases New upcoming diseases
  20. 20. Biotic stresses affecting rice: Insects
  21. 21. Addressing Stresses associated with CC Drought (~23 m ha): − Early, crop establishment/vegetative stage − Late - reproductive stage Flooding (~22 m ha): − During germination − Complete submergence during vegetative stage − Partial: stagnant, medium deep and deepwater Soil problems − Salt stress (salinity, alkalinity/sodicity, ~16 m ha) − Nutrient deficiency (P and Zn) − Mineral toxicity (Fe, Al) Temperature extremes (heat, cold) Biotic: diseases, insects and weeds
  22. 22. Research and development needs to cope with CC High-yielding varieties adapted to current and emerging biotic and abiotic factors, high grain quality Good agronomic practices and better use of resources − land and water More efficient production systems - Mechanization (land preparation, harvest, milling, processing, packaging) - Inputs: timely and at affordable prices - Effective delivery systems – seed and information Supporting policies and strategies
  23. 23. Numerous drought tolerant varieties released during 2009-16. Yield advantage of up to 1.5tha-1 under moderate to severe drought, no penalty when conditions are good New lines with drought + Sub tolerance being released in Nepal Sahbhagi dhan in India Tarharra 1 in Nepal Sahod Ulan 1 in Philippines Stress tolerant varieties: Drought
  24. 24. Stress tolerant varieties: Flooding Samba-Sub1 Samba Samba-Sub1 IR64-Sub1 IR49830 (Sub1) IR64 IR42 IR64 IR64-Sub1 Samba-Sub1 IR49830 (Sub1) Samba IR64 IR64-Sub1 IR49830 (Sub1) IR42 IR64-Sub1 IR64 IR49830 (Sub1) IR49830 (Sub1) IR42 Samba IR42 Samba • Varieties can be converted in 2 years using MABC • Yield advantage of 1 to 3.5 t/ha • Sub+ SF tolerant lines coming up
  25. 25. Pooja Swarna-Sub1 released in 2009, grown by over 4 million farmers on >2.5 m ha Orissa, Nov. 2011 Swarna-Sub1 Swarna-Sub1 Field flooded with turbid water for 10 d Field submerged for 10 d, UP, India Swarna
  26. 26. Salt tolerant varieties have considerable impacts in farmers’ fields CSR-89IR-8 BRRI dhan28 BRRI dhan47 Before After High yields in saline coastal & alkaline inlands Help reclaim salt affected areas
  27. 27. Bangladesh 1. BRRI dhan 47 (2007) 2. BRRI dhan 53 (2010) 3. BRRI dhan 54 (2010) 4. BINA dhan-8 (2011) 5. BRRI dhan-55 (AS966) (2011) 6. BINA Dhan 10 (2012) 7. BRRI dhan61 in 2013 India 1. CR dhan 405 “Luna Sankhi” (2013) 2. CR Dhan 406 “Luna Barial” (2013) 3. CSR43 (CSR-89IR-8) Sodic soils tolerant (2014) Salt tolerant varieties CSR-89IR-8 Khandagiri CR dhan 405 New Salinity+ Submergence tolerant lines coming up
  28. 28. Methane emission from rice fields Epule et al. 2011
  29. 29. Direct seeded rice Benefits: 1. Water saving 2. Requires less labor 3. Cost effecting 4. Mechanization potential 5. Reduced drudgery Challenges: 1. Suitable rice varieties 2. Crop establishment 3. Weeds 4. Effective management practices 5. Other issues: yield decline, soil sickness A.Kumar, IRRI Source: Shah (2013)
  30. 30. Variety-Germplasm Advancement Gateway NARES Trait Family Key Economic Traits Trait Value Bench Mark Variety Assessment Yield (Paddy) Yield 2-Must Have Trait Mziva Abiotic Stress Tolerance Drought tolerance 2-Must Have Trait Mziva Biotic Resistance (Fungal) Blast 2-Must Have Trait PI2 & PI9 Biotic Resistance (Bacterial) BLB 2-Must Have Trait Xa 5, Xa21 Yield (Economic)-Head Rice Head rice recovery 2-Must Have Trait Makassane Quality (Aroma) Aroma and flavour 1-Nice to Have Chupa Consumer Traits Amylose content 2-Must Have Trait Chupa Maturity Intermediate range 2-Must Have Trait Mziva Trait Value 1 2 3 Trait Value Descriptors 1) M'ziva is a released variety in Central Mozambique for rainfed ecosystem. 2) Aroma and flavour should be a must. 3) The HRR should be at least at the same level as Makassane (~75%). The traits are ranked by priority from the top. 1-“Nice to Have” are traits that are sometimes appreciated a limited segment of the market but in general the traits very little econmic impact across the broader market. Nice to have traits have the least economical value. 3-"Game Changer" or “Value Added” Traits are significant step-change traits that cause a radical shift in the market. Once the basic package is satisfied, these traits drive market acceptance. They are worth the most provided the basic trait need is satisfied. = Mziva = Mziva 2-Must Have Trait or “Basic” Traits are required by the market. An variety could not compete in the market place without these traits. The are a trait that need to be incorporated into the variety. Discussion Notes <= Chupa Standard Evaluation Scale =< 3 = Makassane CGIAR Variety Replacement Strategy Market Leading Variety (Replacement): CHUPA (aroma and good flavour) Trait Benchmarking Details = Mziva = Chupa; Nene is ultimate goal IRRI Breeding Product Profiles (20% Breeding Program Focus) Country or Region: Central and North Mozambique Market Slot: Rainfed Lowland Rice (semi to long grain) Standard Evaluation Scale =< 3 PLC 1 PLC 2 PLC 3 PLC 4 PLC 5 PLC 6 1 = Stage Gate Decisions By Cross Functional Team 2 3 4 5 PLC = Product Life Cycle Code G.Kotch, IRRI
  31. 31. Variety Replacement Strategy and Traits? PROJECT TRAIT INVESTMENT ANALYSIS Looking Across Product Profiles Reveals Traits of Value…..Especially there is limited or no trait variation. This provides the opportunity to invest across the RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT CHAIN Trait Family Key Economic Traits Trait Value Bench Mark Variety Assessment IRRI Breeding Program Assessment Yield (Paddy) Yield 2-Must Have Trait Mziva Program is actively working with trait Abiotic Stress Tolerance Drought tolerance 2-Must Have Trait Mziva Program is actively working with trait Biotic Resistance (Fungal) Blast 2-Must Have Trait PI2 & PI9 Program is actively working with trait Biotic Resistance (Bacterial) BLB 2-Must Have Trait Xa 5, Xa21 Program is actively working with trait Yield (Economic)-Head Rice Head rice recovery 2-Must Have Trait Makassane Program is actively working with trait Quality (Aroma) Aroma and flavour 3- Game Changer Chupa Trait Limited or NOT Available Consumer Traits Amylose content 2-Must Have Trait Chupa Program is actively working with trait Maturity Intermediate range 2-Must Have Trait Mziva Program is actively working with trait Trait Value Gene Frequency in Program 1 Program is actively working with trait 2 Program has trait available 3 Trait Limited or NOT available Trait Value Descriptors 1) M'ziva is a released variety in Central Mozambique for rainfed ecosystem. 2) Aroma and flavour should be a must. 3) The HRR should be at least at the same level as Makassane (~75%). The traits are ranked by priority from the top. 1-“Nice to Have” are traits that are sometimes appreciated a limited segment of the market but in general the traits very little econmic impact across the broader market. Nice to have traits have the least economical value. 3-"Game Changer" or “Value Added” Traits are significant step- change traits that cause a radical shift in the market. Once the basic package is satisfied, these traits drive market acceptance. They are worth the most provided the basic trait need is satisfied. = Mziva = Mziva 2-Must Have Trait or “Basic” Traits are required by the market. An variety could not compete in the market place without these traits. The are a trait that need to be incorporated into the variety. Discussion Notes <= Chupa Standard Evaluation Scale =< 3 = Makassane Rice Variety Replacement Strategy Market Leading Variety (Replacement): CHUPA (aroma and good flavour) Trait Benchmarking Details = Mziva = Chupa; Nene is ultimate goal IRRI Breeding Product Profiles (20% Breeding Program Focus) Country or Region: Central and North Mozambique Market Slot: Rainfed Lowland Rice (semi to long grain) Standard Evaluation Scale =< 3 G. Kotch, IRRI
  32. 32. The Integrated Trait Research Investment Vision APPLIED RESEARCH Linking function with performance BASIC RESEARCH Linking process with function+ Crop Management Marker Discovery Evaluations G x E x M CLIENT Needs Variety Replacement Strategy Product Deliveries Genome Wide Selection Breeding Zone + Product Management CLIENT Satisfaction G. Kotch, IRRI
  33. 33. Thank you
  34. 34. Molecular Breeding for Transforming Product Development What: This is a course which:  covers the stages and components of a molecular breeding program with specific focus on product development  upon completion of the course, participants will be able to design and execute their own breeding programs. When: October 2-14, 2017 Where: International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baños, Philippines For more information, please send an email to Ms. Achu Arboleda at m.s.arboleda@irri.org

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