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科学的知見に基づくS&C指導

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2014年のNSCAジャパンS&Cカンファレンスで講義をした時に使用したスライドです。

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科学的知見に基づくS&C指導

  1. 1. 科学的知見に基づくS&C指導 ~研究結果や論文データをどのように活用するか~ 河森直紀 PhD CSCS 国立スポーツ科学センター トレーニング指導員
  2. 2. 講師の経歴 早稲田大学 1998-2002 Singapore Sports Council 2008-2009 Edith Cowan University 2005-2008 Midwestern State University 2002-2004 国立スポーツ科学センター 2009-現在
  3. 3. ブログ『S&Cつれづれ』
  4. 4. 本講義の目標 ~皆さんに何を持って帰ってもらいたいのか?~
  5. 5. 第3部 S&C実例紹介 第1部 科学的知見に基づく S&C指導とは? 1 2 3 4 第2部 科学的知見の使い方 第4部 Q&A
  6. 6. 第1部 科学的知見に基づく S&C指導とは? 1 2 3 4
  7. 7. 科学的 vs. 非科学的?
  8. 8. 『ハイテク』と『科学的』は違う。
  9. 9. ハイテク/科学的 ハイテク/非科学的 ローテク/科学的 ローテク/非科学的 テクノロジー 高い 科学 低い 低い高い
  10. 10. 『エビデンス』に基づいた S&C指導
  11. 11. 科学的知見 エビデンス 論理的推論 自らのトレーニング経験 指導経験 他人の経験 選手からの フィードバック
  12. 12. What? ~『科学的知見』って何だろう?~
  13. 13. 査読を経て学術雑誌に掲載された『論文』
  14. 14. 論文査読の流れ 研究者 編集部 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GROUND REACTION IMPULSE AND SPRINT ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE IN TEAM SPORT ATHLETES NAOKI KAWAMORI,1,2 KAZUNORI NOSAKA,1 AND ROBERT U. NEWTON 1 1School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia; and 2Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT Kawamori, N, Nosaka, K, and Newton, RU. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration perfor-mance in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(3): 568–573, 2013—Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a stand-ing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration per-formance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background per-formed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) analy-sis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p , 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = 20.52) and propulsive impulse (r = 20.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant cor-relations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results sug-gest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longi-tudinal training studies. KEY WORDS biomechanics, kinetics, running, speed, horizontal velocity INTRODUCTION Sprint running is a fundamental activity in many team sports. A faster athlete has an obvious advan-tage during decisive periods of a match because he or she has a greater chance of getting to a ball or moving into open space before an opponent. Maximal sprint-ing over 100 m has consistently shown 3 phases of speed generation: positive acceleration, maintenance of maximum speed, and deceleration (or negative acceleration) (14). In team sports, the positive acceleration ability is of particular importance because sprint efforts during team sport compet-itions are generally of short duration (e.g., 10–20 m, 2–3 seconds) (13). Coaching and conditioning literature com-monly use the word "acceleration" to mean a positive horizontal acceleration (increasing running speed) or even short sprint performance, so the colloquial meaning of the word will be used for the remainder of this article. The acceleration of the athlete’s center of mass during sprint running is determined by body mass and 3 external forces acting on the body: (a) ground reaction force (GRF), (b) gravitational force, and (c) air or wind resistance (6). As an athlete has the most influence on the GRF of these 3 external forces, it is likely that GRF has a significant impact on sprint acceleration performance (6,8). For analytical purposes, GRF during sprint running can be resolved into 3 orthogonal com-ponents (i.e., vertical, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral), of which the vertical and anterior-posterior components are usu-ally of most interest (6). Anterior-posterior GRF (hereafter termed “horizontal” GRF) for each foot strike can be further subdivided into braking and propulsive phases. Each GRF component can be analyzed in terms of kinetic (e.g., peaks, means, impulses) and temporal (e.g., durations of certain phases) characteristics, in relation to sprint acceleration performance. According to the impulse-momentum relationship (Newton’s Second Law), net horizontal GRF impulse nor-malized to body mass is the major determining factor of the change in the horizontal velocity of the athlete during ground contacts. However, simply trying to maximize the net horizontal GRF impulse may not be the best approach to improve sprint acceleration performance because an Address correspondence to Naoki Kawamori, kawamori.naoki@jiss.naash. go.jp. 27(3)/568–573 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research ! 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association 568 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research the TM Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. 論文 Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
  15. 15. 論文査読の流れ 研究者 編集部 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GROUND REACTION IMPULSE AND SPRINT ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE IN TEAM SPORT ATHLETES NAOKI KAWAMORI,1,2 KAZUNORI NOSAKA,1 AND ROBERT U. NEWTON 1 1School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia; and 2Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT Kawamori, N, Nosaka, K, and Newton, RU. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration perfor-mance in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(3): 568–573, 2013—Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a stand-ing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration per-formance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background per-formed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) analy-sis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p , 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = 20.52) and propulsive impulse (r = 20.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant cor-relations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results sug-gest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longi-tudinal training studies. KEY WORDS biomechanics, kinetics, running, speed, horizontal velocity INTRODUCTION Sprint running is a fundamental activity in many team sports. A faster athlete has an obvious advan-tage during decisive periods of a match because he or she has a greater chance of getting to a ball or moving into open space before an opponent. Maximal sprint-ing over 100 m has consistently shown 3 phases of speed generation: positive acceleration, maintenance of maximum speed, and deceleration (or negative acceleration) (14). In team sports, the positive acceleration ability is of particular importance because sprint efforts during team sport compet-itions are generally of short duration (e.g., 10–20 m, 2–3 seconds) (13). Coaching and conditioning literature com-monly use the word "acceleration" to mean a positive horizontal acceleration (increasing running speed) or even short sprint performance, so the colloquial meaning of the word will be used for the remainder of this article. The acceleration of the athlete’s center of mass during sprint running is determined by body mass and 3 external forces acting on the body: (a) ground reaction force (GRF), (b) gravitational force, and (c) air or wind resistance (6). As an athlete has the most influence on the GRF of these 3 external forces, it is likely that GRF has a significant impact on sprint acceleration performance (6,8). For analytical purposes, GRF during sprint running can be resolved into 3 orthogonal com-ponents (i.e., vertical, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral), of which the vertical and anterior-posterior components are usu-ally of most interest (6). Anterior-posterior GRF (hereafter termed “horizontal” GRF) for each foot strike can be further subdivided into braking and propulsive phases. Each GRF component can be analyzed in terms of kinetic (e.g., peaks, means, impulses) and temporal (e.g., durations of certain phases) characteristics, in relation to sprint acceleration performance. According to the impulse-momentum relationship (Newton’s Second Law), net horizontal GRF impulse nor-malized to body mass is the major determining factor of the change in the horizontal velocity of the athlete during ground contacts. However, simply trying to maximize the net horizontal GRF impulse may not be the best approach to improve sprint acceleration performance because an Address correspondence to Naoki Kawamori, kawamori.naoki@jiss.naash. go.jp. 27(3)/568–573 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research ! 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association 568 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research the TM Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. 論文 Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
  16. 16. 論文査読の流れ 査読者査読者 研究者 編集部 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GROUND REACTION IMPULSE AND SPRINT ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE IN TEAM SPORT ATHLETES NAOKI KAWAMORI,1,2 KAZUNORI NOSAKA,1 AND ROBERT U. NEWTON 1 1School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia; and 2Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT Kawamori, N, Nosaka, K, and Newton, RU. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration perfor-mance in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(3): 568–573, 2013—Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a stand-ing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration per-formance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background per-formed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) analy-sis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p , 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = 20.52) and propulsive impulse (r = 20.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant cor-relations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results sug-gest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longi-tudinal training studies. KEY WORDS biomechanics, kinetics, running, speed, horizontal velocity INTRODUCTION Sprint running is a fundamental activity in many team sports. A faster athlete has an obvious advan-tage during decisive periods of a match because he or she has a greater chance of getting to a ball or moving into open space before an opponent. Maximal sprint-ing over 100 m has consistently shown 3 phases of speed generation: positive acceleration, maintenance of maximum speed, and deceleration (or negative acceleration) (14). In team sports, the positive acceleration ability is of particular importance because sprint efforts during team sport compet-itions are generally of short duration (e.g., 10–20 m, 2–3 seconds) (13). Coaching and conditioning literature com-monly use the word "acceleration" to mean a positive horizontal acceleration (increasing running speed) or even short sprint performance, so the colloquial meaning of the word will be used for the remainder of this article. The acceleration of the athlete’s center of mass during sprint running is determined by body mass and 3 external forces acting on the body: (a) ground reaction force (GRF), (b) gravitational force, and (c) air or wind resistance (6). As an athlete has the most influence on the GRF of these 3 external forces, it is likely that GRF has a significant impact on sprint acceleration performance (6,8). For analytical purposes, GRF during sprint running can be resolved into 3 orthogonal com-ponents (i.e., vertical, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral), of which the vertical and anterior-posterior components are usu-ally of most interest (6). Anterior-posterior GRF (hereafter termed “horizontal” GRF) for each foot strike can be further subdivided into braking and propulsive phases. Each GRF component can be analyzed in terms of kinetic (e.g., peaks, means, impulses) and temporal (e.g., durations of certain phases) characteristics, in relation to sprint acceleration performance. According to the impulse-momentum relationship (Newton’s Second Law), net horizontal GRF impulse nor-malized to body mass is the major determining factor of the change in the horizontal velocity of the athlete during ground contacts. However, simply trying to maximize the net horizontal GRF impulse may not be the best approach to improve sprint acceleration performance because an Address correspondence to Naoki Kawamori, kawamori.naoki@jiss.naash. go.jp. 27(3)/568–573 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research ! 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association 568 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research the TM Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. 論文 Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GROUND REACTION IMPULSE AND SPRINT ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE IN TEAM SPORT ATHLETES NAOKI KAWAMORI,1,2 KAZUNORI NOSAKA,1 AND ROBERT U. NEWTON 1 1School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia; and 2Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT Kawamori, N, Nosaka, K, and Newton, RU. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration perfor-mance in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(3): 568–573, 2013—Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a stand-ing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration per-formance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background per-formed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) analy-sis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p , 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = 20.52) and propulsive impulse (r = 20.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant cor-relations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results sug-gest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longi-tudinal training studies. KEY WORDS biomechanics, kinetics, running, speed, horizontal velocity INTRODUCTION Sprint running is a fundamental activity in many team sports. A faster athlete has an obvious advan-tage during decisive periods of a match because he or she has a greater chance of getting to a ball or moving into open space before an opponent. Maximal sprint-ing over 100 m has consistently shown 3 phases of speed generation: positive acceleration, maintenance of maximum speed, and deceleration (or negative acceleration) (14). In team sports, the positive acceleration ability is of particular importance because sprint efforts during team sport compet-itions are generally of short duration (e.g., 10–20 m, 2–3 seconds) (13). Coaching and conditioning literature com-monly use the word "acceleration" to mean a positive horizontal acceleration (increasing running speed) or even short sprint performance, so the colloquial meaning of the word will be used for the remainder of this article. The acceleration of the athlete’s center of mass during sprint running is determined by body mass and 3 external forces acting on the body: (a) ground reaction force (GRF), (b) gravitational force, and (c) air or wind resistance (6). As an athlete has the most influence on the GRF of these 3 external forces, it is likely that GRF has a significant impact on sprint acceleration performance (6,8). For analytical purposes, GRF during sprint running can be resolved into 3 orthogonal com-ponents (i.e., vertical, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral), of which the vertical and anterior-posterior components are usu-ally of most interest (6). Anterior-posterior GRF (hereafter termed “horizontal” GRF) for each foot strike can be further subdivided into braking and propulsive phases. Each GRF component can be analyzed in terms of kinetic (e.g., peaks, means, impulses) and temporal (e.g., durations of certain phases) characteristics, in relation to sprint acceleration performance. According to the impulse-momentum relationship (Newton’s Second Law), net horizontal GRF impulse nor-malized to body mass is the major determining factor of the change in the horizontal velocity of the athlete during ground contacts. However, simply trying to maximize the net horizontal GRF impulse may not be the best approach to improve sprint acceleration performance because an Address correspondence to Naoki Kawamori, kawamori.naoki@jiss.naash. go.jp. 27(3)/568–573 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research ! 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association 568 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research the TM Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. 論文 Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
  17. 17. 論文査読の流れ Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. 論文 査読者査読者 研究者 編集部 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GROUND REACTION IMPULSE AND SPRINT ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE IN TEAM SPORT ATHLETES NAOKI KAWAMORI,1,2 KAZUNORI NOSAKA,1 AND ROBERT U. NEWTON 1 1School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia; and 2Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT Kawamori, N, Nosaka, K, and Newton, RU. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration perfor-mance in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(3): 568–573, 2013—Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a stand-ing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration per-formance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background per-formed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) analy-sis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p , 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = 20.52) and propulsive impulse (r = 20.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant cor-relations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results sug-gest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longi-tudinal training studies. KEY WORDS biomechanics, kinetics, running, speed, horizontal velocity INTRODUCTION Sprint running is a fundamental activity in many team sports. A faster athlete has an obvious advan-tage during decisive periods of a match because he or she has a greater chance of getting to a ball or moving into open space before an opponent. Maximal sprint-ing over 100 m has consistently shown 3 phases of speed generation: positive acceleration, maintenance of maximum speed, and deceleration (or negative acceleration) (14). In team sports, the positive acceleration ability is of particular importance because sprint efforts during team sport compet-itions are generally of short duration (e.g., 10–20 m, 2–3 seconds) (13). Coaching and conditioning literature com-monly use the word "acceleration" to mean a positive horizontal acceleration (increasing running speed) or even short sprint performance, so the colloquial meaning of the word will be used for the remainder of this article. The acceleration of the athlete’s center of mass during sprint running is determined by body mass and 3 external forces acting on the body: (a) ground reaction force (GRF), (b) gravitational force, and (c) air or wind resistance (6). As an athlete has the most influence on the GRF of these 3 external forces, it is likely that GRF has a significant impact on sprint acceleration performance (6,8). For analytical purposes, GRF during sprint running can be resolved into 3 orthogonal com-ponents (i.e., vertical, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral), of which the vertical and anterior-posterior components are usu-ally of most interest (6). Anterior-posterior GRF (hereafter termed “horizontal” GRF) for each foot strike can be further subdivided into braking and propulsive phases. Each GRF component can be analyzed in terms of kinetic (e.g., peaks, means, impulses) and temporal (e.g., durations of certain phases) characteristics, in relation to sprint acceleration performance. According to the impulse-momentum relationship (Newton’s Second Law), net horizontal GRF impulse nor-malized to body mass is the major determining factor of the change in the horizontal velocity of the athlete during ground contacts. However, simply trying to maximize the net horizontal GRF impulse may not be the best approach to improve sprint acceleration performance because an Address correspondence to Naoki Kawamori, kawamori.naoki@jiss.naash. go.jp. 27(3)/568–573 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research ! 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association 568 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research the TM Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
  18. 18. 論文査読の流れ 査読者査読者 研究者 編集部 学術雑誌 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GROUND REACTION IMPULSE AND SPRINT ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE IN TEAM SPORT ATHLETES NAOKI KAWAMORI,1,2 KAZUNORI NOSAKA,1 AND ROBERT U. NEWTON 1 1School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia; and 2Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT Kawamori, N, Nosaka, K, and Newton, RU. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration perfor-mance in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(3): 568–573, 2013—Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a stand-ing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration per-formance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background per-formed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) analy-sis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p , 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = 20.52) and propulsive impulse (r = 20.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant cor-relations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results sug-gest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longi-tudinal training studies. KEY WORDS biomechanics, kinetics, running, speed, horizontal velocity INTRODUCTION Sprint running is a fundamental activity in many team sports. A faster athlete has an obvious advan-tage during decisive periods of a match because he or she has a greater chance of getting to a ball or moving into open space before an opponent. Maximal sprint-ing over 100 m has consistently shown 3 phases of speed generation: positive acceleration, maintenance of maximum speed, and deceleration (or negative acceleration) (14). In team sports, the positive acceleration ability is of particular importance because sprint efforts during team sport compet-itions are generally of short duration (e.g., 10–20 m, 2–3 seconds) (13). Coaching and conditioning literature com-monly use the word "acceleration" to mean a positive horizontal acceleration (increasing running speed) or even short sprint performance, so the colloquial meaning of the word will be used for the remainder of this article. The acceleration of the athlete’s center of mass during sprint running is determined by body mass and 3 external forces acting on the body: (a) ground reaction force (GRF), (b) gravitational force, and (c) air or wind resistance (6). As an athlete has the most influence on the GRF of these 3 external forces, it is likely that GRF has a significant impact on sprint acceleration performance (6,8). For analytical purposes, GRF during sprint running can be resolved into 3 orthogonal com-ponents (i.e., vertical, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral), of which the vertical and anterior-posterior components are usu-ally of most interest (6). Anterior-posterior GRF (hereafter termed “horizontal” GRF) for each foot strike can be further subdivided into braking and propulsive phases. Each GRF component can be analyzed in terms of kinetic (e.g., peaks, means, impulses) and temporal (e.g., durations of certain phases) characteristics, in relation to sprint acceleration performance. According to the impulse-momentum relationship (Newton’s Second Law), net horizontal GRF impulse nor-malized to body mass is the major determining factor of the change in the horizontal velocity of the athlete during ground contacts. However, simply trying to maximize the net horizontal GRF impulse may not be the best approach to improve sprint acceleration performance because an Address correspondence to Naoki Kawamori, kawamori.naoki@jiss.naash. go.jp. 27(3)/568–573 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research ! 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association 568 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research the TM Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. 論文 Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
  19. 19. Why? ~なぜ『科学的知見』が必要なのか~
  20. 20. なぜ『科学的知見』が必要なのか? ・できるだけ客観的な根拠に基いてS&C指導を行うため  →倫理観のあるS&Cコーチとしてのマナー!! ・自分が抱いた疑問は過去に他の人も抱いた可能性が高い  →すでに研究によって解決されているかもしれない(しかも、自 分よりはるかに頭の良い偉大な研究者たちによって・・・)
  21. 21. なぜ『科学的知見』が必要なのか? D Schmidtbleicher GG Haff MH Stone JB Cronin J Garhammer PV Komi RU Newton WJ Kraemer WB Young K Hakkinen M Buchheit I Mujika
  22. 22. How? ~『科学的知見』をどう使うのか~
  23. 23. 1 2 3 4 第2部 科学的知見の使い方
  24. 24. 『科学的知見に基づくS&C指導』 が完成するまでの流れ ・科学者として・裏付け ・S&Cコーチ  として ・行動/思考を変える ・直接使う 収集 ・論文検索 ・手に入れる読む ・データベース化 活用
  25. 25. performance. Third, the results are not necessarily applicable to other phases of sprinting and outside the caliber and the type of athletes we tested. Finally, causation or long-term training effects cannot automatically be assumed for all results in this article. In conclusion, the ability to produce large net horizontal and propulsive impulses, or in other words applying impulse in a more horizontal direction, appears to be important to achieve high acceleration during 10-m sprints from a stand-ing start. This should be considered in training and practice to improve sprint acceleration performance. Future research is required to validate the application hypothesis that altering the magnitude and direction of GRF impulse through training and practice improves sprint acceleration performance. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study showed that the magnitude of relative ground reaction impulse (resultant impulse) is not correlated with sprint acceleration performance and that the direction of impulse application is likely to be more important so that applying impulse in a more horizontal direction may lead to faster sprint acceleration. Because correlations do not prove causation or training effects, future studies should investigate, using a longitudinal (pretest-posttest) experimental design, whether the ability to apply impulse more horizontally could be trained or improved, by what means (practice or training exercises typically used to emphasize horizontal force/ impulse production), and whether the improved ability to apply impulse horizontally could actually enhance sprint acceleration performance. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank Jonathon Green for his technical assistance and the participants for their involvement in this research. There was no financial assistance with the project. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research the TM | www.nsca.com REFERENCES 1. Baker, D and Nance, S. The relation between running speed and measures of strength and power in professional rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res 13: 230–235, 1999. 2. Cronin, JB, Green, JP, Levin, GT, Brughelli, ME, and Frost, DM. Effect of starting stance on initial sprint performance. J Strength Cond Res 21: 990–992, 2007. 3. Cronin, JB and Hansen, KT. Strength and power predictors of sports speed. J Strength Cond Res 19: 349–357, 2005. 4. Delecluse, C, Van Coppenolle, H, Willems, E, Van Leemputte, M, Diels, R, and Goris, M. Influence of high-resistance and high-velocity training on sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27: 1203–1209, 1995. 5. Hunter, JP, Marshall, RN, and McNair, PJ. Interaction of step length and step rate during sprint running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36: 261–271, 2004. 6. Hunter, JP, Marshall, RN, and McNair, PJ. Relationships between ground reaction force impulse and kinematics of sprint-running acceleration. J Appl Biomech 21: 31–43, 2005. 7. Kraan, GA, van Veen, J, Snijders, CJ, and Storm, J. Starting from standing; why step backwards? J Biomech 34: 211–215, 2001. 8. Mero, A. Force-time characteristics and running velocity of male sprinters during the acceleration phase of sprinting. Res Q Exerc Sport 59: 94–98, 1988. 9. Morin, JB, Edouard, P, and Samozino, P. Technical ability of force application as a determinant factor of sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43: 1680–1688, 2011. 10. Mullineaux, DR, Milner, CE, Davis, IS, and Hamill, J. Normalization of ground reaction forces. J Appl Biomech 22: 230–233, 2006. 11. Salo, A and Bezodis, I.Which starting style is faster in sprint running— standing or crouch start? Sports Biomech 3: 43–53, 2004. 12. Sleivert, G and Taingahue, M. The relationship between maximal jump-squat power and sprint acceleration in athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 91: 46–52, 2004. 13. Spencer, M, Bishop, D, Dawson, B, and Goodman, C. Physiological and metabolic responses of repeated-sprint activities: Specific to field-based team sports. Sports Med 35: 1025–1044, 2005. 14. Volkov, NI and Lapin, VI. Analysis of the velocity curve in sprint running. Med Sci Sports 11: 332–337, 1979. 15. Weyand, PG, Sternlight, DB, Bellizzi, MJ, and Wright, S. Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements. J Appl Physiol 89: 1991–1999, 2000. VOLUME 27 | NUMBER 3 | MARCH 2013 | 573 Google Scholar PubMed Copyright © N論ational Stre文ngth and Coのnditioning A引ssociation U用nauthorized文 reproductio献n of this article is prohibited. Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. 論文検索 ~まずは読みたい論文を見つけてみよう!!~
  26. 26. 手に入れる ~S&Cコーチにとっては一番難しいプロセスかも?~
  27. 27. データベース化 - Endnote ~手に入れた論文を管理して、後で探しやすい状態にする~
  28. 28. 『科学的知見に基づくS&C指導』 が完成するまでの流れ ・科学者として ・S&Cコーチ  として ・裏付け ・行動/思考を変える ・直接使う 収集 ・論文検索 ・手に入れる ・データベース化 読む活用
  29. 29. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Physiological correlates of performance. Case study of a world-class rower Jean-Rene´ Lacour Æ Laurent Messonnier Æ Muriel Bourdin Accepted: 23 February 2009 / Published online: 18 March 2009 ! Springer-Verlag 2009 Abstract This report describes the changes in physiolog-ical capacity of a heavy-weight rower who obtained seven medals in World Championships and Olympic Games. The investigation was carried out over the last 6 years of the rower’s international competition career in comparison with peer champions, and the following 4 years. Over the first period, maximal oxygen uptake ( _V O2 max) remained above 6 l min-1 which is an outstanding value. The training load measured over the last 18 months of the period increased from 119 to 142 km wk-1 of rowing. Four years after the international competition period, _V O2 max had only declined by 3.6% although the training load had declined by 35%. These data suggest that the ability of this rower to compete at top level for years was related to ability to maintain an outstanding _V O2 max. Gross efficiency and ability to rely on anaerobic glycolysis did not emerge as relevant factors. Keywords Maximal oxygen uptake ! Peak power ! Blood lactate concentration ! Training load Introduction Changes in peak exercise performance of highly trained athletes, whether endurance runners (Evans et al. 1995) or swimmers (Tanaka and Seals 1997), describe an age-rela-ted decrease in performance or in maximal oxygen uptake ( _V O2 max), starting at 20–25 years of age. However, these studies which included individuals with different back-grounds in terms of achievement and training did not lead to conclusive results. One way of circumventing these interfering factors is to study individual champions over several years during their best-achievement period, but in point of fact such several-year monitoring of world-class endurance athletes is rare. Jones (1998) reported a regular decrease of _V O2 max in a 3,000 m runner between the ages of 17 and 22 years, compensated for by an increase in running economy. Two studies described _V O2 maxvalues similar at 25–28 years to those measured at 20–21 (Coyle 2005; Daniels 1974). To the best of our knowledge, there are no longitudinal data for athletes older than 28 years, although cyclists (Padilla et al. 2000) and rowers may still be competing at top level at such an age. Most rowing competitions involve crews, which limits the predictive value of individual physiological parameters for competition performance. However, official competi-tions include not only on-water races but also rowing ergometer events during which rowers are known to do their best, since the results are taken into account in selecting national crews. Rowing ergometer performances are highly reliable (Schabort et al. 1999), and closely correlated with physiological parameters (notably, maxi-mal power) as measured in incremental tests on similar ergometers (Bourdin et al. 2004a). The studied rower obtained an Olympic gold medal in 2000 as he was aged 32. In view of the close relationship between _V O2 max and performance in rowing (Secher et al. 1982), it was of interest to investigate whether this per-formance was related to a preservation of _V O2 max, in contradiction with what was suggested by most studies J.-R. Lacour ! M. Bourdin (&) Universite´ de Lyon, Lyon, France, INRETS, LBMC UMR_T 9406, Universite´ Lyon 1, BP12, F-69921 Oullins, France e-mail: bourdin@univ-lyon1.fr L. Messonnier Laboratoire de Physiologie de l’Exercice, Universite´ de Savoie, Le Bourget du Lac, Annecy, France 123 Eur J Appl Physiol (2009) 106:407–413 DOI 10.1007/s00421-009-1028-3 論文の種類 Sports Med (2014) 44:1347–1359 DOI 10.1007/s40279-014-0214-6 REVIEW ARTICLE Ballistic Exercise as a Pre-Activation Stimulus: A Review of the Literature and Practical Applications Sean J. Maloney • Anthony N. Turner • Iain M. Fletcher Published online: 19 June 2014 ! Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014 Abstract Post-activation potentiation (PAP) refers to the acute enhancement of muscular function as a direct result of its contractile history. Protocols designed to elicit PAP have commonly employed heavy resistance exercise (HRE) as the pre-activation stimulus; however, a growing body of research suggests that low-load ballistic exercises (BE) may also provide an effective stimulus. The ability to elicit PAP without the need for heavy equipment would make it easier to utilise prior to competition. It is hypoth-esised that BE can induce PAP given the high recruitment of type II muscle fibres associated with its performance. The literature has reported augmentations in power per-formance typically ranging from 2 to 5 %. The perfor-mance effects of BE are modulated by loading, recovery and physical characteristics. Jumps performed with an additional loading, such as depth jumps or weighted jumps, appear to be the most effective activities for inducing PAP. Whilst the impact of recovery duration on subsequent performance requires further research, durations of 1–6 min have been prescribed successfully in multiple instances. The effect of strength and sex on the PAP response to BE is not yet clear. Direct comparisons of BE and HRE, to date, suggest a tendency for HRE protocols to be more effective; future research should consider that these strategies must be optimised in different ways. The role of acute augmentations in lower limb stiffness is proposed as an additional mechanism that may further explain the PAP response following BE. In summary, BE demonstrates the potential to enhance performance in power tasks such as jumps and sprints. This review pro-vides the reader with some practical recommendations for the application of BE as a pre-activation stimulus. Key Points Post-activation potentiation (PAP) acutely enhances short-duration athletic performances that require maximal power production. Ballistic exercise-based PAP-induced improvements in performance range from 2 to 5 % and are not dissimilar to those induced by heavy resistance exercise. Ballistic exercise protocols that employ either depth jumps or weighted jumps (including weightlifting variations) appear to be the most effective. 1 Introduction Post-activation potentiation (PAP) refers to the acute enhancement of muscular function as a direct result of its contractile history, for example, an augmentation of power output following a pre-conditioning contraction [1, 2]. Heavy resistance exercise (HRE) involves the performance of a multi-joint free weight exercise at loads typically exceeding 85 % 1 repetition maximum (1RM). PAP has commonly been utilised through the medium of complex training, where HRE is performed prior to a matched, S. J. Maloney (&) ! I. M. Fletcher Department of Sport Science and Physical Activity, Research Graduate School, University of Bedfordshire, Polhill Avenue, Bedford MK41 9EA, UK e-mail: sean.maloney@beds.ac.uk A. N. Turner School of Health and Social Sciences, London Sport Institute, Middlesex University, London, UK 123 原著論文レビュー論文ケース報告 74 2013: 23: 74–83
  30. 30. 科学者として論文を読む
  31. 31. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GROUND REACTION IMPULSE AND SPRINT ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE IN TEAM SPORT ATHLETES NAOKI KAWAMORI,1,2 KAZUNORI NOSAKA,1 AND ROBERT U. NEWTON 1 1School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia; and 2Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan ABSTRACT Kawamori, N, Nosaka, K, and Newton, RU. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration perfor-mance in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(3): 568–573, 2013—Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a stand-ing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration per-formance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background per-formed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) analy-sis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p , 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = 20.52) and propulsive impulse (r = 20.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant cor-relations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results sug-gest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longi-tudinal training studies. KEY WORDS biomechanics, kinetics, running, speed, horizontal velocity INTRODUCTION Sprint running is a fundamental activity in many team sports. A faster athlete has an obvious advan-tage during decisive periods of a match because he or she has a greater chance of getting to a ball or moving into open space before an opponent. Maximal sprint-ing over 100 m has consistently shown 3 phases of speed generation: positive acceleration, maintenance of maximum speed, and deceleration (or negative acceleration) (14). In team sports, the positive acceleration ability is of particular importance because sprint efforts during team sport compet-itions are generally of short duration (e.g., 10–20 m, 2–3 seconds) (13). Coaching and conditioning literature com-monly use the word "acceleration" to mean a positive horizontal acceleration (increasing running speed) or even short sprint performance, so the colloquial meaning of the word will be used for the remainder of this article. The acceleration of the athlete’s center of mass during sprint running is determined by body mass and 3 external forces acting on the body: (a) ground reaction force (GRF), (b) gravitational force, and (c) air or wind resistance (6). As an athlete has the most influence on the GRF of these 3 external forces, it is likely that GRF has a significant impact on sprint acceleration performance (6,8). For analytical purposes, GRF during sprint running can be resolved into 3 orthogonal com-ponents (i.e., vertical, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral), of which the vertical and anterior-posterior components are usu-ally of most interest (6). Anterior-posterior GRF (hereafter termed “horizontal” GRF) for each foot strike can be further subdivided into braking and propulsive phases. Each GRF component can be analyzed in terms of kinetic (e.g., peaks, means, impulses) and temporal (e.g., durations of certain phases) characteristics, in relation to sprint acceleration performance. According to the impulse-momentum relationship (Newton’s Second Law), net horizontal GRF impulse nor-malized to body mass is the major determining factor of the change in the horizontal velocity of the athlete during ground contacts. However, simply trying to maximize the net horizontal GRF impulse may not be the best approach to improve sprint acceleration performance because an Address correspondence to Naoki Kawamori, kawamori.naoki@jiss.naash. go.jp. 27(3)/568–573 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research ! 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association 568 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research the TM Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
  32. 32. 論文の構成 ・Title(題名) ・Author(著者・所属) ・Abstract(要約) ・Introduction(緒言) ・Methods(方法) ・Results(実験結果) ・Discussion(考察) ・Conclusion(結論) ・Reference(参考文献) BETWEEN GROUND REACTION SPRINT ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE ATHLETES KAZUNORI NOSAKA,1 AND ROBERT U. NEWTON 1 Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia; and 2Japan Institute of Newton, RU. Relationships sprint acceleration perfor-mance Strength Cond Res 27(3): acceleration in short sprints many team sport athletes. horizontal impulse at each short sprint performance, but vertical impulses is not well are initiated from a stand-ing investigation of the relationships sprint acceleration per-formance team sport athletes. Thirty sport background per-formed start, whereas sprint time recorded during the first ground Associations between sprint normalized to body mass) correlation coefficient (r) analy-sis. significantly (p , 0.01) correlated and propulsive impulse start. No significant cor-relations time and impulses recorded start. These results sug-gest impulse in a more horizontal acceleration from a standing start. of training to increase net sled towing or using elastic validated by future longi-tudinal kinetics, running, speed, INTRODUCTION Sprint running is a fundamental activity in many team sports. A faster athlete has an obvious advan-tage during decisive periods of a match because he or she has a greater chance of getting to a ball or moving into open space before an opponent. Maximal sprint-ing over 100 m has consistently shown 3 phases of speed generation: positive acceleration, maintenance of maximum speed, and deceleration (or negative acceleration) (14). In team sports, the positive acceleration ability is of particular importance because sprint efforts during team sport compet-itions are generally of short duration (e.g., 10–20 m, 2–3 seconds) (13). Coaching and conditioning literature com-monly use the word "acceleration" to mean a positive horizontal acceleration (increasing running speed) or even short sprint performance, so the colloquial meaning of the word will be used for the remainder of this article. The acceleration of the athlete’s center of mass during sprint running is determined by body mass and 3 external forces acting on the body: (a) ground reaction force (GRF), (b) gravitational force, and (c) air or wind resistance (6). As an athlete has the most influence on the GRF of these 3 external forces, it is likely that GRF has a significant impact on sprint acceleration performance (6,8). For analytical purposes, GRF during sprint running can be resolved into 3 orthogonal com-ponents (i.e., vertical, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral), of which the vertical and anterior-posterior components are usu-ally of most interest (6). Anterior-posterior GRF (hereafter termed “horizontal” GRF) for each foot strike can be further subdivided into braking and propulsive phases. Each GRF component can be analyzed in terms of kinetic (e.g., peaks, means, impulses) and temporal (e.g., durations of certain phases) characteristics, in relation to sprint acceleration performance. According to the impulse-momentum relationship (Newton’s Second Law), net horizontal GRF impulse nor-malized to body mass is the major determining factor of the change in the horizontal velocity of the athlete during ground contacts. However, simply trying to maximize the net horizontal GRF impulse may not be the best approach to improve sprint acceleration performance because an kawamori.naoki@jiss.naash. Association Conditioning Research TM Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
  33. 33. 論文は疑って読め!!
  34. 34. 論文の構成 ・Title(題名) ・Author(著者・所属) ・Abstract(要約) ・Introduction(緒言) ←主観入る ←主観入る ・Methods(方法) ・Results(実験結果) ・Discussion(考察) ・Conclusion(結論) ・Reference(参考文献) BETWEEN GROUND REACTION SPRINT ACCELERATION PERFORMANCE ATHLETES KAZUNORI NOSAKA,1 AND ROBERT U. NEWTON 1 Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia; and 2Japan Institute of Newton, RU. Relationships sprint acceleration perfor-mance Strength Cond Res 27(3): acceleration in short sprints many team sport athletes. horizontal impulse at each short sprint performance, but vertical impulses is not well are initiated from a stand-ing investigation of the relationships sprint acceleration per-formance team sport athletes. Thirty sport background per-formed start, whereas sprint time recorded during the first ground Associations between sprint normalized to body mass) correlation coefficient (r) analy-sis. significantly (p , 0.01) correlated and propulsive impulse start. No significant cor-relations time and impulses recorded start. These results sug-gest impulse in a more horizontal acceleration from a standing start. of training to increase net sled towing or using elastic validated by future longi-tudinal kinetics, running, speed, INTRODUCTION Sprint running is a fundamental activity in many team sports. A faster athlete has an obvious advan-tage during decisive periods of a match because he or she has a greater chance of getting to a ball or moving into open space before an opponent. Maximal sprint-ing over 100 m has consistently shown 3 phases of speed generation: positive acceleration, maintenance of maximum speed, and deceleration (or negative acceleration) (14). In team sports, the positive acceleration ability is of particular importance because sprint efforts during team sport compet-itions are generally of short duration (e.g., 10–20 m, 2–3 seconds) (13). Coaching and conditioning literature com-monly use the word "acceleration" to mean a positive horizontal acceleration (increasing running speed) or even short sprint performance, so the colloquial meaning of the word will be used for the remainder of this article. The acceleration of the athlete’s center of mass during sprint running is determined by body mass and 3 external forces acting on the body: (a) ground reaction force (GRF), (b) gravitational force, and (c) air or wind resistance (6). As an athlete has the most influence on the GRF of these 3 external forces, it is likely that GRF has a significant impact on sprint acceleration performance (6,8). For analytical purposes, GRF during sprint running can be resolved into 3 orthogonal com-ponents (i.e., vertical, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral), of which the vertical and anterior-posterior components are usu-ally of most interest (6). Anterior-posterior GRF (hereafter termed “horizontal” GRF) for each foot strike can be further subdivided into braking and propulsive phases. Each GRF component can be analyzed in terms of kinetic (e.g., peaks, means, impulses) and temporal (e.g., durations of certain phases) characteristics, in relation to sprint acceleration performance. According to the impulse-momentum relationship (Newton’s Second Law), net horizontal GRF impulse nor-malized to body mass is the major determining factor of the change in the horizontal velocity of the athlete during ground contacts. However, simply trying to maximize the net horizontal GRF impulse may not be the best approach to improve sprint acceleration performance because an kawamori.naoki@jiss.naash. Association Conditioning Research TM Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. ←客観的事実 ←客観的事実 ←主観入る ←主観入る
  35. 35. 論文は疑って読め!!
  36. 36. 走速度には地面反力の大きさが関係 ~著者の主張をそのまま受け入れていいの?~ Weyand et al. (2000) J Appl Physiol 89(5):1991-9 
  37. 37. 走速度には地面反力の大きさが関係 ~著者の主張をそのまま受け入れていいの?~ • 著者の解釈『スプリントのトップスピードを速くするには、地面に対して 垂直方向に大きな力を発揮することが重要』 • 問題点#1『相関関係イコール因果関係ではない』 • 問題点#2『被験者のスプリント能力の幅が大きい(男女混ぜてる)』 • 問題点#3『水平方向の地面反力は調べていない』 Weyand et al. (2000) J Appl Physiol 89(5):1991-9 
  38. 38. 客観的事実を批判的に読み『自分なりの解釈』をする
  39. 39. S&Cコーチとして論文を読む
  40. 40. 科学的知見の解釈で気をつけること ~特にS&Cコーチの立場で活用を考えている場合~ ・『効果の有る無し』だけを気にするのではなく、『効果の大 きさ』も考慮に入れる →効果量(effect size)
  41. 41. P値 vs. 効果の大きさ ~S&Cコーチとして統計を見る~ 衣笠泰介 (2013) http://www.slideshare.net/umekinu/jsc-statistics-for-sports-scientists-handout 
  42. 42. 科学的知見の解釈で気をつけること ~特にS&Cコーチの立場で活用を考えている場合~ ・『効果の有る無し』だけを気にするのではなく、『効果の大 きさ』も考慮に入れる →効果量(effect size) ・長期的なトレーニング効果だけでなく、短期的な影響(例: 疲労、筋肉痛)も考慮に入れて判断する ・外的妥当性:科学的知見が得られた研究の被験者と、指導す るアスリートの特徴が大きく異る場合、科学的知見をそのまま 当てはめることは危険 ・科学的知見に基いて下す決断には『幅』がある
  43. 43. 一時的なトレーニング中断の影響 ~長期的なトレーニング効果にはそれほど影響しない?~ • 客観的事実『トレーニング中断期間を挟んだら、短期的には筋力が落ちる けど、長期的に見たトレーニング効果は変わらない』 • 著者の解釈『トレーニング時間・量が少なくても同じ効果 ⇒ 効率が良い』 • 私の解釈『中断期間中は、筋力が低い状態で練習するのか・・・』 Ogasawara et al. (2013) Eur J Appl Physiol 113(4):975-85 
  44. 44. 科学的知見の解釈で気をつけること ~特にS&Cコーチの立場で活用を考えている場合~ ・『効果の有る無し』だけを気にするのではなく、『効果の大 きさ』も考慮に入れる →効果量(effect size) ・長期的なトレーニング効果だけでなく、短期的な影響(例: 疲労、筋肉痛)も考慮に入れて判断する ・外的妥当性:科学的知見が得られた研究の被験者と、指導す るアスリートの特徴が大きく異る場合、科学的知見をそのまま 当てはめることは危険 ・科学的知見に基いて下す決断には『幅』がある
  45. 45. “Research never tells us what do; it simply helps guide decision-­‐making” Brad Schoenfeld
  46. 46. 科学的知見を適切に解釈するまで ~いくつかのフィルターを通す必要がある~ 客観的データ S&Cコーチ としての解釈① S&Cコーチ としての解釈② 活用!! S&Cコーチ としての解釈③ 論文 フィルター#1 科学者として フィルター#2 S&Cコーチとして
  47. 47. 科学的知見を適切に解釈するまで ~いくつかのフィルターを通す必要がある~ 客観的データ 活用!! フィルター#1 科学者として S&Cコーチ としての解釈① S&Cコーチ としての解釈② S&Cコーチ としての解釈③ フィルター#2 S&Cコーチとして 論文
  48. 48. 『科学的知見に基づくS&C指導』 が完成するまでの流れ ・科学者として・裏付け ・S&Cコーチ  として ・行動/思考を変える ・直接使う 収集 ・論文検索 ・手に入れる読む ・データベース化 活用
  49. 49. ①裏付け 『科学的知見』により、これまでの方法に自信を 持ったり、理由を説明できるようになる →行動には変化なし
  50. 50. SQの深さとトレーニング効果 ~ 10週間のトレーニングがジャンプ力に与える影響~ クウォーターSQ ディープSQ +7.8% -0.0% Hartmann et al. (2012) J Strength Cond Res 26(12):3243-61 
  51. 51. ②行動/思考を変える 新たな『科学的知見』を知ることにより これまで実施してきた方法を変える
  52. 52. ローテーターカフの鍛え方 ~筋電図研究~ “full can” エクササイズ“empty can” エクササイズ Reinold et al. (2007) J Athl Train 42(4):464-9  棘上筋 三角筋中部* 三角筋後部* 62 ± 40 % 52 ± 27 % 38 ± 32 % 63 ± 45 % 77 ± 44 % 54 ± 28 % (% MVC)
  53. 53. ③直接使う 『科学的知見』を直接使ってS&C指導を行う
  54. 54. 第3部 S&C実例紹介 1 2 3 4
  55. 55. 実例 『科学的知見』を利用して、VO2max向上のために インターバル走プログラムを組み立てる
  56. 56. 高強度インターバルトレーニング ~英語で言うと「high-intensity interval training (HIIT)」~ ・VO2maxを向上するためには、VO2maxに相当する強度またはそ れに近い強度(90-100% VO2max)でのトレーニングをできる だけ長い時間行うのが重要 ・ランニング等を一定のペースで実施する場合、VO2maxに近い 強度を長時間キープするのは難しい ・途中に休息を挟む「インターバルトレーニング」を利用すれ ば、VO2maxに近い強度を保ちつつ、長い時間トレーニングでき るのではないか? Newton「MAS Field Testを使ったAeroci Interval Trainingの処方」 
  57. 57. HIIT:最適な運動強度 ~「15秒走/15秒パッシブリカバリー」を疲労困憊まで繰り返す~ 間欠的 110%MAS 120±42 秒 間欠的 130%MAS 50±47 秒 Dupont et al. (2002) Can J Appl Physiol 27(2):103-15  継続的 100%MAS 116±42 秒 間欠的 120%MAS 202±66 秒* 間欠的 140%MAS 48±59 秒
  58. 58. HIIT:休息期の最適な運動強度 ~15秒走@120%MASを疲労困憊まで繰り返す~ Dupont et al. (2003) Eur J Appl Physiol 89(6):548-54  アクティブリカバリー 15秒@50%MAS パッシブリカバリー 15秒@0%MAS 445 ± 79 秒継続時間745 ± 171 秒* 120%MAS 1219 ± 212 m で走った距離2077 ± 459 m*
  59. 59. HIIT:トレーニングプロトコル ~科学的知見に基いて考えると決めると~ Dupont et al. (2004) J Strength Cond Res 18(3):584-9  運動 120% MAS 15秒 休息 0% MAS 15秒
  60. 60. Maximal Aerobic Speed テスト ~『The University of Montreal Track Test』縮小版~ • 10km/hから走り始め、2分毎に1km/hずつペースが上がる • 3回連続でコーンに届かない OR 選手自身が「もう走れない」と感じた場合、そ こでテストは終了
  61. 61. MASを利用する問題点 ~ 個人差を考慮したはずなのに、意外に個人差がある~ Buchheit (2008) J Strength Cond Res 22(2):365-74  
  62. 62. Anaerobic Speed Reserve ~ MASが同じだけどスプリント能力が異なる2人~ 35 ASR ASR 33% 24% 18 MAS 0 アスリートA アスリートB 最大スプリント 速度 33 29 走速度(km/h) 21.5 トレーニング 走速度 Buchheit (2010) http://www.martin-buchheit.net  
  63. 63. 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test ~脱落した時点での最高スピードをVIFTとする~ Buchheit (2010) http://www.martin-buchheit.net  
  64. 64. 30-15 IFTの利点 ~ ASRも考慮に入れて、同じ相対強度を処方できる~ Buchheit (2008) J Strength Cond Res 22(2):365-74  
  65. 65. 15”-15”インターバル走の実践例 ~30-15 IFTの結果をもとに個別化@100%VIFT(≒120%MAS)~ VIFT = 20 km/h → 距離 = 79 m VIFT = 19 km/h → 距離 = 75 m VIFT = 18 km/h → 距離 = 71 m VIFT = 17 km/h → 距離 = 67 m Buchheit (2010) http://www.martin-buchheit.net  
  66. 66. 15”-15”インターバル走の計画 ~漸進性過負荷の法則に基づいた中期計画(8週間)~ 強度 (%VIFT) セット x レップ運動休息セット間休息 Week#1 2 x 12 95% 0% 4分間 Week#2 2 x 13 100% 0% 4分間 Week#3 2 x 14 100% 0% 4分間 Week#4 2 x 15 100% 0% 4分間 Week#5 2 x 14 95% 0% 4分間 Week#6 2 x 16 100% 0% 4分間 Week#7 2 x 16 105% 0% 4分間 Week#8 2 x 16 105% 0% 4分間 Mosey (2009) J Aust Strength Cond 17(4):49-51 
  67. 67. 1 2 3 4 第4部 Q&A
  68. 68. 科学的知見に精通し続ける ~オススメの方法を3つご紹介します~ Strength & Conditioning Research YLMSportScience ブログ

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