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Kate McKegg and Nan Wehipeihana (2010). A practitioners introduction to Developmental Evaluation


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Kate McKegg and Nan Wehipeihana (2010). Developmental Evaluation: A practitioner's introduction. A pre-conference workshop presented at the Australasian Evaluation Society (AES) Conference, September 2010, Wellington, New Zealand.

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Kate McKegg and Nan Wehipeihana (2010). A practitioners introduction to Developmental Evaluation

  1. 1. Developmental evaluation<br />- A practitioner’s introduction <br />Kate McKegg and Nan Wehipeihana<br />
  2. 2. Our whakapapa <br /><ul><li> Who am I?
  3. 3. Where am I from?
  4. 4. What is my history?</li></li></ul><li>Introductions<br />Who are you?<br />Where are you from?<br />What brings you to this workshop?<br />What do you hope to learn today?<br />Pair up with someone you don’t know (or don’t know very well)<br />Listen and pay attention to why each other is here today<br />Tell us your partner’s name and what they hope to get out of this session<br />
  5. 5. Workshop Outline<br />
  6. 6. Developmental Evaluation - what is it?<br />Developmental evaluation supports innovation development to guide adaption to emergent and dynamic realities in complex environments. <br />(Michael Quinn Patton, 2010)<br />
  7. 7. Five purposes of developmental evaluation<br />
  8. 8. Five purposes of developmental evaluation<br />Adapted from Patton (2010)<br />
  9. 9. Development and innovation in complex situations<br />Intractable issues e.g., poverty, homelessness, environmental degradation, family violence, obesity<br />Uncertainty about options and solutions<br />Political and economic turbulence <br />Environment characterised by unpredictability and the unexpected emergence of issues and ideas (e.g., rise of social networking)<br />Rapid adaption and change occurring across many contexts<br />
  10. 10. DE is informed by complexity and systems thinking (picture sourced from Patton, 2009)<br />
  11. 11. Some key complexity concepts<br />Adaption<br />Emergence<br />Non-linearity<br />Uncertainty<br />Interdependence<br />
  12. 12. Exercise One: Handout 1: match each scenario with a complexity concept<br />
  13. 13. Some complexity concepts: Handout 2: practical application<br />
  14. 14. DE - a distinct niche<br />Two distinct niches<br />Pre-formative<br />Dynamic situations<br />Support exploration and innovation before there is a program model (pre-formative)<br />Support the ongoing development and adaption of a programme, or innovation in emergent and complex situations (dynamic situations)<br />
  15. 15. DE - a distinct niche<br />Different to formative and summative<br />Differs from improvement orientated evaluation (making a programme better)<br />It aims to support the ongoing real-time decisions – what to change, expand, close out further develop<br />Important Distinction:<br />Differentiating ongoing strategic thinking and periodic strategic planning <br />DE as a form of thinking and acting strategically as an innovative intervention unfolds<br />
  16. 16. Increase participation in sport and recreation – ‘by Māori’<br />2007-08 review and programme ‘re-visioning’ <br />Focus on participation ‘as Māori’ participation<br />Tino rangatiratanga (self determination)<br />20 years of Māori development<br />The story of He Oranga Poutama<br />
  17. 17. Case example – He Oranga Poutama and complexity<br />Uncertainty around the new programme concept and direction, not sure what ‘as Māori’ participation would involve<br />New innovative programme and goal<br />Values, principles and vision driven<br />No formal evaluation evidence from other efforts about what to expect, no real data available to measure key concepts and variables<br />Complex environment – contracting economy, political environment, changing organisation<br />
  18. 18. DE – and creative thinking<br />Requires critical AND creative thinking<br />We have to think outside the box<br />Ask questions about what makes sense as we try to connect evaluation to the program development<br />
  19. 19. Creative thinking<br />Draw four straight lines which go through the middle of all of the dots without taking the pencil off the paper<br />
  20. 20. Creative thinking:<br />Thinking outside the box<br />Step 2<br />Step 3<br />Start here 1<br />Step 4<br />
  21. 21. MORNING TEA<br />
  22. 22. When not to use DE<br />Not able or willing to commit the time to actively participate in the evaluation and to build and sustain relational trust – no room for the set and forget evaluation management approach<br />High levels of certainty required – no tolerance for ambiguity<br />Lack of openness to experimentation and reflection – high level of design certainty required<br />No adaptive capacity – no real ability to make changes<br />Unwillingness to ‘fail’ or hear ‘bad news’ – fear of failure context overrides learning focus<br />Poor relationships between management and staff and evaluators – respectful and trusting relationships critical in a context of uncertainty, ambiguity and turbulence<br />
  23. 23. Traditional evaluation is not well suited to all contexts<br />
  24. 24. Exercise 2:Teasing out complexity<br />Handout 3:<br />Read the brief description of Whānau Ora<br />What if anything is complex about Whānau Ora?<br />Share and discuss in small groups<br />Make notes to feedback to the larger group<br />
  25. 25. Roles and relationships of the DE evaluator<br />Evaluator is part of the innovation team<br />Facilitator and learning coach<br />Brings evaluative thinking to the group<br />Support or share innovators’ values and vision<br />Support the feedback process around “what is being developed”<br />
  26. 26. DE - the context and the evaluator<br />
  27. 27. Skills, abilities and dispositions<br />The ability to build and maintain trusting relationship<br />Critical in a context of uncertainty, ambiguity and turbulence<br />High level of facilitation skills, multiple settings, stakeholders and contexts<br />To generate and ‘test’ ideas, to provide feedback, to ask the ‘tough’ questions; highly engaging, to build evaluative capability<br />Deep methodological toolkit<br />Methodological flexibility, eclecticism, and adaptability (Patton, p27, 2010)<br />Enquiring<br />Observant and critically reflective<br />Systematic <br />Attention to data and making data driven decisions<br />Courageous<br />Flexible, adaptable, responsive ‘on the run, on the fly’<br />
  28. 28. LUNCH TIME<br />
  29. 29. What will happen to the piece of wood when the person lets go of it?<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. DE in practice - Inquiry approaches<br />Focus of DE is on what is being developed?<br />What’s emerging?<br />Given what’s emerged, what’s next?<br />The DE evaluator:<br />Inquires into developments<br />Tracks developments<br />Facilitates interpretation of developments so that judgments can be made about the what, how, impact and consequence of developments<br />
  32. 32. DE: Asking questions that matter and matching questions to context<br />Patton (2010) suggests that questions that matter can be thought of as “a tool for working in complex situations” (p227)<br />Matching questions to particular situations is a central challenge - situational responsiveness and adaption<br />
  33. 33. 6 simple rules (Patton, 2010)<br />Connect questions with the ideas, language and frameworks of the people you are working with<br />Less is more. Limit the number of questions within the enquiry framework. 7+ or - 2 is a good rule of thumb<br />Keep the evaluation grounded in whatever basic developmental inquiry framework you and those you’re working with choose to guide your work<br />Distinguish overarching inquiry questions from detailed implementation questions <br />There are (no) stupid questions<br />Remember that whatever inquiry framework you are using, the focus is on What is being developed?<br />
  34. 34. DE – is values based‘[DE] sits alongside, doesn’t control or dampen the core values of innovation’ (Wehipeihana, cited in Patton, 2010). <br />Values / processes / relationships become very important<br />‘How’ outcomes / results are achieved is very important<br />Process matters<br />People and relationships matter<br />Where the end is unpredictable and emergent, values and process become anchors<br />‘there will never be enough certain knowledge to guide action’ Wendell Berry cited in Patton, 2010. <br />
  35. 35. DE – inquiry approaches<br />There is no definitive list of developmental evaluation inquiry approaches - neither should one be constructed<br />Developmental evaluation creatively adapts whatever approaches and methods fit the complexities of the situation. <br />It is responsive, appropriate, and credible to those you work with, and support opening up new understandings and guiding further development<br />It’s all about persistently asking questions and pursuing credible answers in time to be used. Questioning is the ultimate method. Questions are the quintessential tools. (Patton, 2010)<br />
  36. 36. DE – uses a range of interpretive frameworks<br />But applies evaluation logic and thinking in complex situations<br />Enables people to engage in data based, ongoing evaluative sense-making and reasoned argument<br />ensuring the criteria (values) people use to decide what’s ‘good’ and desirable are open to scrutiny and made explicit<br />ensuring the decisions made about development / the ‘forks in the road’ are documented and systematically reflected upon in a critical and open minded way<br />
  37. 37. Our experience: introducing DE to the uninitiated<br />Small steps, getting people grounded, on the same page really matters<br />The most simple of frameworks:<br />What, why, when, how, where and who<br />What is happening and what has changed? <br />Why?<br />Who has been affected, Who is involved?<br />How did this happen?<br />Where is the situation / programme at now?<br />When do key people need to know what?<br />How do people feel about the change? Why?<br />etc<br />
  38. 38. Or some slightly more evaluative questions:<br />What’s being developed? (WHAT?)<br />What sense can we make of emerging issues, evidence, data about this development? (WHAT’S EMERGING?)<br />What is the value / importance /significance of what we are doing / achieving? What does it mean to us now and in the future? (SO WHAT?)<br />What does this mean for how we should now act? What are our options? And into the future? (NOW WHAT)<br />
  39. 39. Applying DE questions<br />
  40. 40. Some useful interpretive frameworks:<br />See Handout 5<br />Appreciative Inquiry<br />Success Case Method<br />Most Significant Change<br />Systems approaches – with an emphasis on perspectives, boundaries and interrelationships<br />Outcome mapping<br />Action research<br />
  41. 41. Example – ‘as Māori’ a developmental journey<br />See Handout 6<br />The process<br />As Māori not prescribed in the provider selection process<br />Series of facilitated discussions <br />1 and 2 day provider hui (n=4)<br />individual providers<br />Ongoing iteration<br />Cycle of feedback loops<br />What’s emerging<br />Shared understanding<br />Co-constructed<br /><ul><li>But still emergent</li></li></ul><li>Emergent understanding of ‘as Māori’<br />It’s something that is led by tikanga<br />In a Māori way, underpinned by Māori ways, values and perspectives. <br />It may also be in Māori places… but not necessarily. <br />It may also be doing Māori activities… but not necessarily.<br />It’s not specific just to Māori contexts e.g. Māori people participating as Māori in the wider world context.<br />There’s not going to be one answer<br />I just want some clear definitions of what non-Māori are thinking of it <br />
  42. 42. Co-construction of ‘as Māori’<br />Te reo<br />Kanohi ki te kanohi<br />Guided by kawa and tikanga<br />Whānau, hapu, iwi and Māori <br />Uses Māori institutions e.g. marae, kohanga<br />Whanaungatanga<br />Traditional Māori sports<br />Spirit of us<br />Creating a feeling of belonging and empowerment<br />
  43. 43. What’s the value of ‘as Māori’<br />It’s our own self determination of how we do it, in ways that we want to do it. <br />To do the things we want to do, in ways that we want to do them<br />Opportunity to portray our uniqueness<br />Effective and better engagement achieved when cultural values and aspects core and/or included<br />Traditional sports are just as valuable - in terms of engaging our communities<br />
  44. 44. Example – ‘as Māori’ a developmental journey<br />An ‘as Māori’ continuum with five dimensions emerging: <br />
  45. 45.
  46. 46. AFTERNOON TEA<br />
  47. 47. Some final thoughts, tips and questions<br />FAQs we have encountered:<br />How systematic is DE?<br />How does DE differ from Action Research?<br />Isn’t DE just a bunch of stories – when do you get to outcomes? And measurement? And judgment?<br />What questions do you have about DE?<br />
  48. 48. What we’ve learned a long the way<br />It’s a journey with others, this is not for the sole trader, nor for the feint hearted!<br />As an evaluation team, we model the reflection process together<br /> This is hard thinking stuff, it doesn’t come easy<br />Great rewards possible<br />Thank goodness we chose and are able to use DE, it’s the right way to go, but it is hard work<br />
  49. 49. Wrap up<br />One thing you learned today<br />One thing you will do as a result of today<br />One thing you will follow up on<br />
  50. 50. References<br />Gamble J., A Developmental Evaluation Primer, J.W. McConnell Family Foundation, 2008.<br />Patton, M. Q. Developmental Evaluation: Applying Complexity Concepts to Enhance Innovation and Use. Guilford Press, June 2010.<br />Patton, M.Q. Utilization-Focused Evaluation, 4th ed., Sage, 2008. <br />Wehipeihana, N and McKegg K, Developmental Evaluation in an Indigenous Context, Reflections on the journey to date. Presentation to American Evaluation Conference, Orlando, Florida, 2009<br />Westley, Frances; Zimmerman, Brenda; Patton, Michael Q. Getting to Maybe: How the World Is Changed? Random House Canada, 2006<br />