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HC 177
        Biotechnology and Art




Nano Onco Detector (NOD)


                  Soheila Azghadi
     Molecular, Cell...
NOD


      Nano Onco Detector (NOD) particles are species whose coding genes
are engineered in tomato’s genome. Transgeni...
NOD, A Diagnostic Tool


      Early diagnosis of cancer cells proliferation is very crucial in cancer treatment.
  Usuall...
NOD-Cancer Promotion


 Initiation is the fist step in two-step model of cancer development. Initiators are always
 mutagen...
In order to clone NOD gene in to tomato’s genome, it needs to be inserted
 into a plasmid which has a ability to replicate...
The next step is to give transgenic tomatoes to patients who are at
higher risk at getting cancer due to their family hist...
In their circulation in all organs in the body, NOD particles will
detect any abnormal cell devision. Any abnormality in c...
In their circulation in all organs in the body, NOD particles will
detect any abnormal cell devision. Any abnormality in c...
In their circulation in all organs in the body, NOD particles will
detect any abnormal cell devision. Any abnormality in c...
In their circulation in all organs in the body, NOD particles will
detect any abnormal cell devision. Any abnormality in c...
In their circulation in all organs in the body, NOD particles will
detect any abnormal cell devision. Any abnormality in c...
In their circulation in all organs in the body, NOD particles will
detect any abnormal cell devision. Any abnormality in c...
As a result of increased environmental stresses, as well as spontaneous mutations in
DNA, the rate of cancer has increased...
References
1- Bogan, J. Michael. “ Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles.” California Livermore. 2005. <http://
    www....
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector
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Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector

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Soheila Midterm - Nano Onco Detector

  1. 1. HC 177 Biotechnology and Art Nano Onco Detector (NOD) Soheila Azghadi Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology
  2. 2. NOD Nano Onco Detector (NOD) particles are species whose coding genes are engineered in tomato’s genome. Transgenic tomatoes, which are harboring NOD proteins, are given to people who are at higher risk of getting any kind of cancer. NOD particles survive the acidic condition of stomach, and the digestive enzymes of small intestine. By circulating in lymphatic and circulatory systems, NOD particles diffuse to any tissue in any organ, and they reach the optimal size in order to escape from filtration in excretory systems. Confrontation with any oncogene product or environmental cues which accelerate oncogene pathways, NOD particles will change their native conformation, be self-digested to many small fragments, and expose their fluorescence tags. Small, fluorescent-tagged NODs can be secreted in urine, tear, and sweat.
  3. 3. NOD, A Diagnostic Tool Early diagnosis of cancer cells proliferation is very crucial in cancer treatment. Usually, cancer is diagnosed when it is in the third or fourth stage which means cells have already gone through making colonies and metastases. There hasn’t been any diagnostic test to identify cancer at cellular level. Late diagnosis of cancer makes the treatment inefficient, and sometimes, impossible. Since every oncogene pathway starts with one abnormal cell division, NOD is an appropriate tool to detect the onset of any cancer in the first step. NOD particles are safe, sensitive, and non-invasive tool to use to diagnose cancer in an early stage.
  4. 4. NOD-Cancer Promotion Initiation is the fist step in two-step model of cancer development. Initiators are always mutagens that can make changes in DNA structure. Once a cell has been effected by an initiator, it is susceptible to promotion. The promoter substances promote the cell proliferation, which causes large number of daughter cells that harbor mutation caused by the initiator. NOD detects cancer at very early proliferation stage. Abnormal cell division, which alters the natural homeostasis in tissues, targets NOD particles. Targeted NOD particles transform to thousand small pieces with exposed fluorescence tag. The transformed NODs can be secreted by excretory systems.
  5. 5. In order to clone NOD gene in to tomato’s genome, it needs to be inserted into a plasmid which has a ability to replicate in tomatoes’ cells. We will select for the cells which show having two copies of NOD gene in the culture dish. After obtaining enough cells that harbor the genetic modification, we cultivate them to get more products. Making a Plasmid containing NOD gene. Culture the cells Producing homozygous tomatoes. Massive production of transgenic tomatoes Google Image
  6. 6. The next step is to give transgenic tomatoes to patients who are at higher risk at getting cancer due to their family history or environmental exposure to mutagenes. It is just one single dose consumption and NOD particles can last in human body for ten years. After taking the transgenic tomatoes through mouth, NOD particles will release in stomach and ingested to the circulatory and lymphatic systems in small intestine. In the circulatory system NOD’s will absorb enough plasma to reach to the optimal size in order to escape filtration in kidneys. Google Image
  7. 7. In their circulation in all organs in the body, NOD particles will detect any abnormal cell devision. Any abnormality in cell devision will target the digestion of NODs in to hundreds of small particles which each of those has a fluorescent tag on them. As a result of digestion, NODs can be easily secreted in urine, sweat, and tear. Therefore, patients can detect an early onset of any abnormality in cell division by observing a color change in their body’s secretion. This step is a warning for patients to act immediately in order to prevent further progression of cancer. Google Image
  8. 8. In their circulation in all organs in the body, NOD particles will detect any abnormal cell devision. Any abnormality in cell devision will target the digestion of NODs in to hundreds of small particles which each of those has a fluorescent tag on them. As a result of digestion, NODs can be easily secreted in urine, sweat, and tear. Therefore, patients can detect an early onset of any abnormality in cell division by observing a color change in their body’s secretion. This step is a warning for patients to act immediately in order to prevent further progression of cancer. Google Image
  9. 9. In their circulation in all organs in the body, NOD particles will detect any abnormal cell devision. Any abnormality in cell devision will target the digestion of NODs in to hundreds of small particles which each of those has a fluorescent tag on them. As a result of digestion, NODs can be easily secreted in urine, sweat, and tear. Therefore, patients can detect an early onset of any abnormality in cell division by observing a color change in their body’s secretion. This step is a warning for patients to act immediately in order to prevent further progression of cancer. Google Image
  10. 10. In their circulation in all organs in the body, NOD particles will detect any abnormal cell devision. Any abnormality in cell devision will target the digestion of NODs in to hundreds of small particles which each of those has a fluorescent tag on them. As a result of digestion, NODs can be easily secreted in urine, sweat, and tear. Therefore, patients can detect an early onset of any abnormality in cell division by observing a color change in their body’s secretion. This step is a warning for patients to act immediately in order to prevent further progression of cancer. Google Image
  11. 11. In their circulation in all organs in the body, NOD particles will detect any abnormal cell devision. Any abnormality in cell devision will target the digestion of NODs in to hundreds of small particles which each of those has a fluorescent tag on them. As a result of digestion, NODs can be easily secreted in urine, sweat, and tear. Therefore, patients can detect an early onset of any abnormality in cell division by observing a color change in their body’s secretion. This step is a warning for patients to act immediately in order to prevent further progression of cancer. Google Image
  12. 12. In their circulation in all organs in the body, NOD particles will detect any abnormal cell devision. Any abnormality in cell devision will target the digestion of NODs in to hundreds of small particles which each of those has a fluorescent tag on them. As a result of digestion, NODs can be easily secreted in urine, sweat, and tear. Therefore, patients can detect an early onset of any abnormality in cell division by observing a color change in their body’s secretion. This step is a warning for patients to act immediately in order to prevent further progression of cancer. Google Image
  13. 13. As a result of increased environmental stresses, as well as spontaneous mutations in DNA, the rate of cancer has increased in human population. NOD is an appropriate tool to detect the onset of any kind of cancer at molecular level. Individuals can detect the abnormal cell devision in their body by observing a change in urine, tear, and sweat color. Early diagnosis of cancer make the treatment very efficient, and patients will have better prognosis. Furthermore, consumption of transgenic tomatoes which include NOD protein is so easy that patients prefer to use it rather than to go through more invasive and harmful cancer detection methods, such as MRI or CT scan.
  14. 14. References 1- Bogan, J. Michael. “ Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles.” California Livermore. 2005. <http:// www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090221087>. 2- Desai PN. , Shrivastava, N, Padh H. “ Production of heterologous proteins in plants: Strategies for optimal expression.” Biotechnology Advanced. 2010. 3- Kimball’s Biology Pages. Feb. 10 2010. < http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/W/ Welcome.html>. 4- Kinro, Y. Gerald. “ Brave New Fruit: An Introduction to Transgenic.” California Rare Fruit Growers. 1998. <http:/ /www.beyondveg.com/kinro-g/transgenic/fruit-1a.shtml>. 5- Krishnamurthy, T. Gerbail, and Krishnamurthy, Shakuntala. Liver and Spleen Function. First edition, 2009. 6- Kontunen-Soppela, S., Sillanpää, M., Tuhkanen, EM., Sutinen, S., Kangasjärvi, J., Vapaavuori, E., Häggman, H.“Photosynthetic characteristics in genetically modified sense-RbcS silver birch lines.” Plant Journal Feb. 18 2010. 7- Nussbaum, McInnes, and Willard. Thompson and Thompson Genetics in Medicine. Seventh edition, 2007. 8- Oey, M., Lohse, M., Kreikemeyer, B., Bock, R. “Exhaustion of the chloroplast protein synthesis capacity by massive expression of a highly stable protein antibiotic.” Plant Journal Feb. 2009. 9- Orloff, M. Gregg. “ Cancer Initiation, Promotion, and Progression.” Cancer Quest. 2008. < http:// www.cancerquest.org/index.cfm?page=4683>. 10- Yin, X, and Zhang, ZJ. “Recent Patents on Plant Transgenic Technology.” Recent Plant Biotechnology. 2010.

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