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Problem-Based Learning
for Healthy Hearts


Action Research Project
Nan Ketpura-Ching
University of Hawai‘i, Manoa
What is PBL?
Questions for you:
Are you familiar with problem-based learning?
Questions for you:
Are you familiar with problem-based learning?




Have you used PBL in your own locus of control?
Why PBL?
Currently, new information is introduced to
 students via PowerPoint lectures.




 Boring, teacher-centered, inactive learning
Why PBL?
Currently, new information is introduced to
 students via lecture using PowerPoint.
Hands-on activities such as dissection,
 labs, and/or games reinforce topics
 discussed in lectures.
 Students find these activities to be engaging
  and helpful.
Why PBL?
Currently, new information is introduced to
 students via lecture using PowerPoint.
Hands-on activities such as dissection,
 labs, and/or games reinforce topics
 discussed in lectures.
Would students retain more information
 when role playing as medical assistants in
 a problem-based learning module?
     Authentic
     Task-centered
     Goal-oriented
     Active thinking
Literature Review
 PBL did not impede students learning in undergraduate
  Biology students in Spain (Carrio et al. 2011).
Literature Review
 PBL did not impede students learning in undergraduate
  Biology students in Spain (Carrio et al. 2011).

 PBL had a positive effect on undergraduate Physics
  students' understanding first law of thermodynamics in
  Turkey (Tatar and Oktay, 2011)
Literature Review
 PBL did not impede students learning in undergraduate
  Biology students in Spain (Carrio et al. 2011).

 PBL had a positive effect on undergraduate Physics
  students' understanding first law of thermodynamics in
  Turkey (Tatar and Oktay, 2011)

 PBL used as tool to change misconceptions in first year
  medical students regarding the cardiovascular system
  (Mikkila-Erdman et al., 2012)
Problem Statement
The purpose of this action research project is to
 evaluate the effectiveness of problem-based
 learning in a blended learning environment to
 increase concept attainment of the
 cardiovascular system for high school students in
 an Anatomy and Physiology course at a private
 school in Honolulu.
Research Questions



 What are students’ perceived attitudes towards PBL in
  general?

 What are students’ perceived attitudes towards long-term
  group work as part of the PBL module?

 What are students’ perceived attitudes about concept
  attainment using PBL?

 How effective was PBL in concept attainment?
High School Anatomy and Physiology

                    Grades 10 - 12 students at
                     large independent school in
                     Honolulu.
                    Total of 34 students
                     26 girls and 8 boys

                    Students are digital natives with
                     experience with accessing
                     information on Moodle - the
                     school’s course management
                     system.
Participants & Demographics
                              Pre-requisite for
                               course is Biology
                              Many have taken
                               other science
                               courses
                              15 students stated
                               that they have
                               been taught about
                               the Cardiovascular
                               System before
Methodology
Methodology




     http://tinyurl.com/cardiac-care-clinic
Methodology
Methodology
Scenario-based PBL
  Students as newly hired Medical Assistants
  Instructor/researcher as Training Supervisor
Methodology
 Scenario-based PBL
  Students as newly hired Medical Assistants
  Instructor/researcher as Training Supervisor

 Teams of 3 - 4 to complete 4 tasks
  Draw and label heart anatomy and describe blood
   flow through the body
  Create a report on cardiovascular system vital
   signs (BP, HR, and EKG)
  Report on common heart maladies
  Apply their knowledge of cardiovascular system to
   solve a medical mystery case
Methodology
 Scenario-based PBL
  Students as newly hired Medical Assistants
  Instructor/researcher as Training Supervisor

 Teams of 3 - 4 to complete 3 tasks
  Draw and label heart anatomy and describe blood
   flow through the body
  Create a report on cardiovascular system vital
   signs (BP, HR, and EKG)
  Solve a medical mystery case and apply their
   knowledge of cardiovascular system

 Use of Vernier Probeware and Web 2.0 tools
  to collaborate and create content.
  Google Docs, VoiceThread, Haiku LMS
Medical Mystery – Sample Patient
 A 72-year-old man
   Admitted to hospital due to acute onset of a right facial droop, right arm weakness,
    and some difficulty speaking.
   Occurred while he was sitting at the breakfast table
   No headache, no diminishment of consciousness, and no abnormal involuntary
    movements.
Medical Mystery – Sample Patient
 A 72-year-old man
   Admitted to hospital due to acute onset of a right facial droop, right arm weakness,
    and some difficulty speaking.
   Occurred while he was sitting at the breakfast table
   No headache, no diminishment of consciousness, and no abnormal involuntary
    movements.

 Two weeks ago, he had a transient painless loss of vision in his left eye,
  which resolved spontaneously within a few hours.
Medical Mystery – Sample Patient
 A 72-year-old man
   Admitted to hospital due to acute onset of a right facial droop, right arm weakness,
    and some difficulty speaking.
   Occurred while he was sitting at the breakfast table
   No headache, no diminishment of consciousness, and no abnormal involuntary
    movements.

 Two weeks ago, he had a transient painless loss of vision in his left eye,
  which resolved spontaneously within a few hours.

 Has had long-standing hypertension and myocardial infarction 4 years
  previously, which was treated with percutaneous angioplasty.
Medical Mystery – Sample Patient
 A 72-year-old man
   Admitted to hospital due to acute onset of a right facial droop, right arm weakness, and
    some difficulty speaking.
   Occurred while he was sitting at the breakfast table
   No headache, no diminishment of consciousness, and no abnormal involuntary
    movements.

 Two weeks ago, he had a transient painless loss of vision in his left eye, which
  resolved spontaneously within a few hours.

 Has had long-standing hypertension and myocardial infarction 4 years
  previously, which was treated with percutaneous angioplasty.

 He is afebrile, heart rate 62 bpm, and blood pressure 135/87 mmHg. The
  corner of his mouth droops, with slight flattening of the right nasolabial fold,
  but his is able to fully elevate his eyebrows.
   His strength is 4/5 in his right arm and hand, and the rest of his neurologic examination
    is normal.
                                          Adapted from Toy et al. (2007) Case Files: Internal Medicine.
Materials – Data collected
 Pre-Module Survey
  Google Form
Materials – Data collected
 Pre-Module Survey
  Google Form

 Classroom observations

 Students' work
  Google Docs
  VoiceThread
Materials – Data collected
 Pre-Module Survey
  Google Form

 Classroom observations

 Students' work
  Google Docs
  VoiceThread

 Cardiovascular System Unit Test
  online assessment on Haiku LMS
Materials – Data collected
 Pre-Module Survey
  Google Form

 Classroom observations

 Students' work
  Google Docs
  VoiceThread

 Cardiovascular System Unit Test
  online assessment on Haiku LMS

 Post-Module Survey
  Google Form
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
Results
 What are students’ perceived attitudes towards PBL in
  general?

                                                         % agreed or
     Questions
                                                       strongly agreed


     I think problem-based learning is a good way of
                                                            75%
     learning new material.



     PBL should be used in other courses too.               69%
Results
 What are students’ perceived attitudes towards long-term
  group work as part of the PBL module?


                                                       % agreed or
   Questions
                                                     strongly agreed

   Did you enjoy working with a team in this unit?        91%
   Did you feel that your team worked productively
                                                          91%
   during class time?
   Working in groups was a waste of time                  15%
Results
 What are students’ perceived attitudes about concept
  attainment using PBL?

                                                            % agreed or
 Questions
                                                          strongly agreed

 I found it helpful for this Cardiovascular PBL Unit to
    be based on a real-life company. It made learning          78%
    the cardiovascular system more real to me.
 I feel very confident about the knowledge I gained
                                                               63%
 from this cardiovascular unit.
 Did you learn new concepts about the cardiovascular
                                                               97%
 system from this unit?
 Did you find the tasks to be interesting?                     94%
Results
 How effective was PBL in concept attainment?
Results
 How effective was PBL in concept attainment?
Results
 How effective was PBL in concept attainment?
Discussion - Successes
Discussion - Successes
Discussion - Successes
Discussion - Challenges
Discussion - Challenges
Discussion - Challenges
Students’ thoughts
 “I really enjoyed being able to stretch my
  learning and being able to solve something with
  what I learned [in] this unit. My experience with
  problem based learning this year has fostered a
  basic want for education and excitement to
  learn that I haven't had in a school environment
  in a long time…
Students’ thoughts
 “I really enjoyed being able to stretch my
  learning and being able to solve something with
  what I learned [in] this unit. My experience with
  problem based learning this year has fostered a
  basic want for education and excitement to learn
  that I haven't had in a school environment in a
  long time…

 Even though I struggled, I appreciated the
  learning that I did in this class and the
  progression of my thinking that it fostered and I
  feel so inspired by what I learned in this
  problem based learning this year.”
Conclusion



PBL does not offer a universal panacea
for teaching and learning in medicine.
Wood, 2003
Conclusion
Picture Credits
 http://www.trade-schools.net/program-directory/images/medical-assistant-schools.jpg

 http://0.media.collegehumor.cvcdn.com/92/46/collegehumor1b3f179c5ea22aad7b75ea8323fad20a.jpg

 http://www.examiner.com/article/finding-your-research-question-a-helpful-exercise

 http://www.projectappleseed.org/question-mark.jpg

 https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Linia_izoelektryczna_EKG.svg/435px-
  Linia_izoelektryczna_EKG.svg.png

 http://preparednessadvice.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/BloodPressureCuff1.jpg

 http://paulrheller.com/2010/08/the-unfortunate-motivation-behind-assigning-group-work

 http://sclworkshop.wordpress.com/scl-vs-traditional/

 http://www.personal.psu.edu/glh10/ist110/topic/topic67/topic67_05.html

 https://changeforkids.org/blog/tag/new-york-city-public-schools/
OTEC Professors:
  Dr. Peter Leong
  Dr. Mike Menchaca
  Dr. Ari Eichelberger

Critical friends group:
  Kasey Fernandez
  Marie Sack

OTEC Cohort
OTEC Professors:          PRLS Workshop Leaders:
  Dr. Peter Leong           Leanne Chun Riseley
  Dr. Mike Menchaca         Lani Ho
  Dr. Ari Eichelberger
                           Colleagues:
Critical friends group:     Darcy Iams
  Kasey Fernandez           Terry Yamamoto-Edwards
  Marie Sack                Anna Liem

OTEC Cohort               My family
Questions?


                     Nan Ketpura-Ching
                     nankc@hawaii.edu
https://sites.google.com/a/hawaii.edu/cardiac-care-clinic/home

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Problem-Based Learning for Heathy Hearts

  • 1. Problem-Based Learning for Healthy Hearts Action Research Project Nan Ketpura-Ching University of Hawai‘i, Manoa
  • 3. Questions for you: Are you familiar with problem-based learning?
  • 4. Questions for you: Are you familiar with problem-based learning? Have you used PBL in your own locus of control?
  • 5. Why PBL? Currently, new information is introduced to students via PowerPoint lectures. Boring, teacher-centered, inactive learning
  • 6. Why PBL? Currently, new information is introduced to students via lecture using PowerPoint. Hands-on activities such as dissection, labs, and/or games reinforce topics discussed in lectures. Students find these activities to be engaging and helpful.
  • 7. Why PBL? Currently, new information is introduced to students via lecture using PowerPoint. Hands-on activities such as dissection, labs, and/or games reinforce topics discussed in lectures. Would students retain more information when role playing as medical assistants in a problem-based learning module?  Authentic  Task-centered  Goal-oriented  Active thinking
  • 8. Literature Review  PBL did not impede students learning in undergraduate Biology students in Spain (Carrio et al. 2011).
  • 9. Literature Review  PBL did not impede students learning in undergraduate Biology students in Spain (Carrio et al. 2011).  PBL had a positive effect on undergraduate Physics students' understanding first law of thermodynamics in Turkey (Tatar and Oktay, 2011)
  • 10. Literature Review  PBL did not impede students learning in undergraduate Biology students in Spain (Carrio et al. 2011).  PBL had a positive effect on undergraduate Physics students' understanding first law of thermodynamics in Turkey (Tatar and Oktay, 2011)  PBL used as tool to change misconceptions in first year medical students regarding the cardiovascular system (Mikkila-Erdman et al., 2012)
  • 11. Problem Statement The purpose of this action research project is to evaluate the effectiveness of problem-based learning in a blended learning environment to increase concept attainment of the cardiovascular system for high school students in an Anatomy and Physiology course at a private school in Honolulu.
  • 12. Research Questions  What are students’ perceived attitudes towards PBL in general?  What are students’ perceived attitudes towards long-term group work as part of the PBL module?  What are students’ perceived attitudes about concept attainment using PBL?  How effective was PBL in concept attainment?
  • 13. High School Anatomy and Physiology Grades 10 - 12 students at large independent school in Honolulu. Total of 34 students 26 girls and 8 boys Students are digital natives with experience with accessing information on Moodle - the school’s course management system.
  • 14. Participants & Demographics Pre-requisite for course is Biology Many have taken other science courses 15 students stated that they have been taught about the Cardiovascular System before
  • 16. Methodology http://tinyurl.com/cardiac-care-clinic
  • 18. Methodology Scenario-based PBL  Students as newly hired Medical Assistants  Instructor/researcher as Training Supervisor
  • 19. Methodology  Scenario-based PBL  Students as newly hired Medical Assistants  Instructor/researcher as Training Supervisor  Teams of 3 - 4 to complete 4 tasks  Draw and label heart anatomy and describe blood flow through the body  Create a report on cardiovascular system vital signs (BP, HR, and EKG)  Report on common heart maladies  Apply their knowledge of cardiovascular system to solve a medical mystery case
  • 20. Methodology  Scenario-based PBL  Students as newly hired Medical Assistants  Instructor/researcher as Training Supervisor  Teams of 3 - 4 to complete 3 tasks  Draw and label heart anatomy and describe blood flow through the body  Create a report on cardiovascular system vital signs (BP, HR, and EKG)  Solve a medical mystery case and apply their knowledge of cardiovascular system  Use of Vernier Probeware and Web 2.0 tools to collaborate and create content.  Google Docs, VoiceThread, Haiku LMS
  • 21. Medical Mystery – Sample Patient  A 72-year-old man  Admitted to hospital due to acute onset of a right facial droop, right arm weakness, and some difficulty speaking.  Occurred while he was sitting at the breakfast table  No headache, no diminishment of consciousness, and no abnormal involuntary movements.
  • 22. Medical Mystery – Sample Patient  A 72-year-old man  Admitted to hospital due to acute onset of a right facial droop, right arm weakness, and some difficulty speaking.  Occurred while he was sitting at the breakfast table  No headache, no diminishment of consciousness, and no abnormal involuntary movements.  Two weeks ago, he had a transient painless loss of vision in his left eye, which resolved spontaneously within a few hours.
  • 23. Medical Mystery – Sample Patient  A 72-year-old man  Admitted to hospital due to acute onset of a right facial droop, right arm weakness, and some difficulty speaking.  Occurred while he was sitting at the breakfast table  No headache, no diminishment of consciousness, and no abnormal involuntary movements.  Two weeks ago, he had a transient painless loss of vision in his left eye, which resolved spontaneously within a few hours.  Has had long-standing hypertension and myocardial infarction 4 years previously, which was treated with percutaneous angioplasty.
  • 24. Medical Mystery – Sample Patient  A 72-year-old man  Admitted to hospital due to acute onset of a right facial droop, right arm weakness, and some difficulty speaking.  Occurred while he was sitting at the breakfast table  No headache, no diminishment of consciousness, and no abnormal involuntary movements.  Two weeks ago, he had a transient painless loss of vision in his left eye, which resolved spontaneously within a few hours.  Has had long-standing hypertension and myocardial infarction 4 years previously, which was treated with percutaneous angioplasty.  He is afebrile, heart rate 62 bpm, and blood pressure 135/87 mmHg. The corner of his mouth droops, with slight flattening of the right nasolabial fold, but his is able to fully elevate his eyebrows.  His strength is 4/5 in his right arm and hand, and the rest of his neurologic examination is normal. Adapted from Toy et al. (2007) Case Files: Internal Medicine.
  • 25. Materials – Data collected  Pre-Module Survey  Google Form
  • 26. Materials – Data collected  Pre-Module Survey  Google Form  Classroom observations  Students' work  Google Docs  VoiceThread
  • 27. Materials – Data collected  Pre-Module Survey  Google Form  Classroom observations  Students' work  Google Docs  VoiceThread  Cardiovascular System Unit Test  online assessment on Haiku LMS
  • 28. Materials – Data collected  Pre-Module Survey  Google Form  Classroom observations  Students' work  Google Docs  VoiceThread  Cardiovascular System Unit Test  online assessment on Haiku LMS  Post-Module Survey  Google Form
  • 37. Results  What are students’ perceived attitudes towards PBL in general? % agreed or Questions strongly agreed I think problem-based learning is a good way of 75% learning new material. PBL should be used in other courses too. 69%
  • 38. Results  What are students’ perceived attitudes towards long-term group work as part of the PBL module? % agreed or Questions strongly agreed Did you enjoy working with a team in this unit? 91% Did you feel that your team worked productively 91% during class time? Working in groups was a waste of time 15%
  • 39. Results  What are students’ perceived attitudes about concept attainment using PBL? % agreed or Questions strongly agreed I found it helpful for this Cardiovascular PBL Unit to be based on a real-life company. It made learning 78% the cardiovascular system more real to me. I feel very confident about the knowledge I gained 63% from this cardiovascular unit. Did you learn new concepts about the cardiovascular 97% system from this unit? Did you find the tasks to be interesting? 94%
  • 40. Results  How effective was PBL in concept attainment?
  • 41. Results  How effective was PBL in concept attainment?
  • 42. Results  How effective was PBL in concept attainment?
  • 49. Students’ thoughts  “I really enjoyed being able to stretch my learning and being able to solve something with what I learned [in] this unit. My experience with problem based learning this year has fostered a basic want for education and excitement to learn that I haven't had in a school environment in a long time…
  • 50. Students’ thoughts  “I really enjoyed being able to stretch my learning and being able to solve something with what I learned [in] this unit. My experience with problem based learning this year has fostered a basic want for education and excitement to learn that I haven't had in a school environment in a long time…  Even though I struggled, I appreciated the learning that I did in this class and the progression of my thinking that it fostered and I feel so inspired by what I learned in this problem based learning this year.”
  • 51. Conclusion PBL does not offer a universal panacea for teaching and learning in medicine. Wood, 2003
  • 53. Picture Credits  http://www.trade-schools.net/program-directory/images/medical-assistant-schools.jpg  http://0.media.collegehumor.cvcdn.com/92/46/collegehumor1b3f179c5ea22aad7b75ea8323fad20a.jpg  http://www.examiner.com/article/finding-your-research-question-a-helpful-exercise  http://www.projectappleseed.org/question-mark.jpg  https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Linia_izoelektryczna_EKG.svg/435px- Linia_izoelektryczna_EKG.svg.png  http://preparednessadvice.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/BloodPressureCuff1.jpg  http://paulrheller.com/2010/08/the-unfortunate-motivation-behind-assigning-group-work  http://sclworkshop.wordpress.com/scl-vs-traditional/  http://www.personal.psu.edu/glh10/ist110/topic/topic67/topic67_05.html  https://changeforkids.org/blog/tag/new-york-city-public-schools/
  • 54. OTEC Professors:  Dr. Peter Leong  Dr. Mike Menchaca  Dr. Ari Eichelberger Critical friends group:  Kasey Fernandez  Marie Sack OTEC Cohort
  • 55. OTEC Professors: PRLS Workshop Leaders:  Dr. Peter Leong  Leanne Chun Riseley  Dr. Mike Menchaca  Lani Ho  Dr. Ari Eichelberger Colleagues: Critical friends group:  Darcy Iams  Kasey Fernandez  Terry Yamamoto-Edwards  Marie Sack  Anna Liem OTEC Cohort My family
  • 56. Questions? Nan Ketpura-Ching nankc@hawaii.edu https://sites.google.com/a/hawaii.edu/cardiac-care-clinic/home

Editor's Notes

  1. Hi everyone! My name is Nan Ketpura-Ching and I’m a 2 nd year masters student in Educational Technology at UH, Manoa. This presentation will be about my action research project on problem-based learning in a high school anatomy and physiology course. If you can hear me, can you give me a smiley face? Anytime during the presentation, please feel free to type in your questions into the chat box, I will answer them at the end.
  2. So what is problem-based learning? Many of you are probably familiar with the “traditional” learning in that…. With PBL…
  3. Polls: Are you familiar with problem-based learning? Have you used PBL in your own locus of control?
  4. Polls: Are you familiar with problem-based learning? Have you used PBL in your own locus of control?
  5. Since anatomy and physiology is a content-heavy course, I tend to introduce new content using PPT lectures. It’s boring, teacher-centered, and inactive. So I get a lot of students who look like this, especially after lunch.
  6. To follow up with lectures, we usually do hands-on activities such as dissections, lab, or games to help students learn the concepts. Students find these to be helping and engaging.
  7. So when I was introduced to PBL, I wonder if my students would benefit from being immersed in a PBL module by role playing as medical assistants? PBL are authentic, task-centered, goal-oriented, and require active thinking.
  8. From the literature review, I was encouraged to see that there have been positive results of PBL in science education….
  9. … However, these studies were conducted in undergraduate and graduate science courses. I was not able to find any studies on PBL in high school science courses here in the US. I was curious to see how effective PBL would be in a HS science course.
  10. Hence, my problem statement is….
  11. These are the 4 research questions I aim to address:
  12. The course is a science elective and I have students in 10 -12 grades. Students were informed of the purpose of the project and that participation was voluntary. Out of 35 students, 34 students signed the consent form. All of my students are digital natives have used Moodle in other courses. None has used Haiku LMS before. However when the module started, they’ve been using Haiku for 2 months.
  13. Since it’s an elective course, the only pre-requisite is 9 th grade biology. Many of my seniors have taken higher level science courses in the past. This graph does not show what they are taking concurrently. So of the 15 students who have been taught the cardiovascular system before, some had taken honors bio, AP bio. I have some seniors AP bio concurrently.
  14. In May 2012, I was fortunate to attend the Pacific Region Learning Summit (PRLS) at Leeward Community College (LCC). The week-long workshop I attended was on Transforming Instruction with Problem-Based Learning. Through this workshop led by Leanne Chun Riseley and Lani Ho, I was able to create my action research module.
  15. The idea behind this type of PBL is that students are immersed in a real-life scenario. In my case, I chose a cardiology clinic as the setting for teaching my students about the human cardiovascular system. This is a screenshot and URL address for the module I developed on Google Site during the workshop last May.
  16. In the Fall, I moved the content from Google Sites over to my course website on Haiku LMS. Here is a screen shot of the module on Haiku LMS. The module was implemented from late October to end of November in 2012, which was part of the second quarter for the 2012-2013 school year.
  17. In scenario-based PBL, it’s crucial to make the setting as authentic as possible. In this case, I chose to have my students act as medical assistants who have been hired and need to be trained for the Healthy Heart Project. The goal of the project is to screen high-risk population in Hawaii for signs of cardiovascular diseases. As the instructor and researcher, I acted as the training supervisor by providing guidance and answering questions as needed.
  18. In order to show that they are prepared to go out into the field to screen patients, the medical assistants need to show that they are able to do the following tasks… Demonstrate their knowledge of heart anatomy and how blood flows through the body. Be able to take vital signs such as BP, HR, and EKG and report on anomalies of these vital signs. They should also recognize signs of common heart maladies such as heart attach, arrhythmia, and strokes. Finally, they should be able to apply the knowledge of the CV system to solve a medical mystery case
  19. Through the 4 tasks, students work together to collaborate and create content. Some technology used were Vernier probeware to collect vital signs for Task 2. Students worked together on a Google presentation then narrated the presentation using VoiceThread on Task 4. All of the assignments are submitted through Haiku. I try as much as possible to have a paperless classroom. Students also utilize the assessment, discussion, and wikiproject features on Haiku – hence the blended learning component for this course.
  20. This is an example of the information given to students for Task4 – Medical Mystery
  21. This is an example of the information given to students for Task4 – Medical Mystery Here are some information regarding the patient’s symptoms Then the patient’s medical history
  22. This is an example of the information given to students for Task4 – Medical Mystery Here are some information regarding the patient’s symptoms Then the patient’s medical history
  23. This is an example of the information given to students for Task4 – Medical Mystery This is an example of the information given to students for Task4 – Medical Mystery Here are some information regarding the patient’s symptoms Then the patient’s medical history … and vital signs Based on these information, student have to work together to determine a diagnosis and provide both short-term and long-term treatment plan for the patient. It’s basically “House” for HS students.
  24. T he data collected were the following: Pre-Module Survey via Google Form is an anonymous survey asking for basic information such as grade level, gender, as well as effectiveness of teaching methods.
  25. During the module, I collected Classroom observations Students' work Here is an example of a student’s drawing of the heart and the relevant anatomy for task 1.
  26. Students also took a test on line through Haiku to see how much information they’ve learned through the module.
  27. Lastly, students are asked to fill out the Post-Module Survey via Google form anonymously to gather information about their attitudes and feeling about PBL as experienced through the module.
  28. Here is the result of the pre-module survey – an average of all of my students’ responses. It was interesting to see how students feel about these methods of instructions.
  29. Here is the result of the pre-module survey.
  30. Here is the result of the pre-module survey.
  31. Here is the result of the pre-module survey.
  32. Here is the result of the pre-module survey.
  33. Here is the result of the pre-module survey.
  34. Here is the result of the pre-module survey.
  35. Here is the result of the pre-module survey.
  36. Overall students scored well on the four tasks/deliverables assigned during the PBL module. The mean for Task 2, cardiovascular vital signs report, was 87.5%.
  37. The mean score on the cardiovascular unit test was 87%.
  38. The mean for the final culminating Task 4, mystery case presentation on VoiceThread was 96%.
  39. Throughout the module: Students are active and interested Students enjoyed the scenarios-based tasks and working in fictitious cardiology clinic “ It made me feel like a real scientist” I had high participation rate - 34 students participating out of 35. The module went smoothly Students were comfortable using Haiku The debriefs at the end of each task were really helpful in having students reflect on what they've learned. As a teacher, I tend to plow through the material without taking a step back to listening to my students. These debriefs gave me a chance to hear their voice. It gave them a chance to stop and think about what it is that they’ve been learning. I really appreciated this opportunity to hear their feedback on how to improve the tasks for the future.
  40. Other things that worked well are the overall quality of the assignments submitted. This is a screen shot showing one of my students reporting on myocardial infarction or a heart attack using the discussion feature on Haiku LMS.
  41. Here is a screenshot of the culminating project - team’s Medical Mystery Presentation for Task 4. This particular task was initially frustrating for some of my students. But they worked together to solve the cases given to them. Upon reflection, my students enjoyed solving medical mystery cases. Students created their presentations on Google Doc, then exported to VoiceThread to narrate their presentation. Google Doc and VoiceThread worked out well as a collaboration tool for presenting the case.
  42. Negatives: The quality of Task 2 could be better. The content itself was fine. But the report they’ve submitted were filled with typos, grammatical errors, and did not show scientific writing. This could be due to the fact that students have not had much exposure to scientific writing since their term paper in 9 th grade Biology. For my seniors, this was a long time ago for them. For the future, I should have students turn in drafts. Additionally, I can provide more examples vs. non-examples on scientific writing.
  43. Negatives: Some students also having difficulty with group work. One particular group did not work well together due to conflict in personalities. One girl with a type A personality didn’t think the her team’s product was up to her standards, so she re-did everything. This of course resulted in conflict within the group. I had to sit down the team and discuss teamwork etiquette. It may help to have students choose their own groups rather than randomly assign groups. Additionally, a contract may be drafted by each team outlining clear roles for each group member.
  44. The other challenge I faced is not being able to lecture and giving my students the information they needed. I was so used to front-loading them with information before allowing them to do the labs and the fun stuff. So watching them struggle was a little painful at first. Also, I wasn’t sure if they were retaining as much info as before. Some students expressed that they didn’t like having no lectures. They are used to memorizing the information, and had a hard time thinking through the tasks presented. This could be the reason why only 63% of students felt confident about the concepts learned through PBL. They were not confident in the information they’ve gathered themselves. They want me to reassure them that they have the right information. All in all, PBL definitely requires a shift in paradigm both me and my students. Students have to trust that they will learn the material given the time and collaboration. And as a teacher, I have to let my students discover knowledge on their own. It could be that students need more time to dialogue with one another and with the content through PBL compared to traditional lecture- based instruction.
  45. I would like to end with a couple of quotes from my students obtained from the Post-module surveys…
  46. And another example…
  47. So, in conclusion…. Or in science education in this case… From this study, PBL can be an effective way to teach new materials.
  48. Furthermore, PBL fosters the following 21 st century skills: Students are responsible for their own learning and create products demonstrating higher orders of thinking. The real-world application and authentic tasks help to engage students while “sneaking” in the content. As one student reflected, “there are good and bad parts of working in problem-based learning, but it really does put a lot more responsibility of learning on the student.” This is definitely one of the key skills we’re hoping to achieve in science education.
  49. Are there any questions? Please feel free to contact me at this e-mail address The module I implemented is on the school’s website, which is password protected, but I’ve also put here the link to the Google Site I used as I was developing the module during the Pacific Region Learning Summit. The information is publicly accessible on this Google Site.