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Physics

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Physics

  1. 1. Most of the Earths energy comes from the SunSolar power, thats obvious, but the energy in coal originally came from the Suntoo. Prehistoric plants stored the Suns energy in their leaves, and when they diedand eventually formed coal seams, that energy was still there. So when we burncoal (or any fossil fuel), were releasing chemical energy that was stored in plantsmillions of years ago.The same goes for Wind and Wave power. Waves occur because of winds, and windsblow because the Sun warms our atmosphere. Warm air tends to rise, and winds aredue to other air moving in to replace it.Most power stations burn coal, oil or natural gas to run the generators. Others useuranium, or the flow of water. Electricity is sent around the country using high-voltage power lines. Nearly all of the power we use comes from large powerstations, although some places such as isolated farms, or hospitals, have their owndiesel generators. FUSSOIL FUELSCrude oil (Petroleum) - Easier to get out of the ground than coal, as it can flow along pipes.This also makes it cheaper to transportNatural gas - Provides around 20% of the worlds consumption of energy, and as well as beingburnt in power stations, is used by many people to heat their homes. It is easy to transportalong pipes, and gas power stations produce comparatively little pollution.ADVANTAGES – Very large amounts of electricity can be generated in one place using coal, fairly cheaply. Transporting oil and gas to the power stations is easy. Gas-fired power stations are very efficient. A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost anywhere, so long as you can get large quantities of fuel to it. Did cot power station, in Oxford shire, has a dedicated rail link to supply the coal.
  2. 2. NUCLEAR POWERNuclear power is generated using Uranium, which is a metal mined in various partsof the world. The first large-scale nuclear power station opened at Calder Hall inCambria, England, in 1956. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear powerplants for engines. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the worlds energyneeds, and produces huge amounts of energy from small amounts of fuel, withoutthe pollution that youd get from burning fossil fuels.ADVANTAGES - Nuclear power costs about the same as coal, so its not expensive to make. Does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Produces huge amounts of energy from small amounts of fuel. Produces small amounts of waste. Nuclear power is reliable. SOLAR POWERThe Sun is 150 million kilometers away, and amazingly powerful. Just the tinyfraction of the Suns energy that hits the Earth (around a hundredth of a millionthof a percent) is enough to meet all our power needs many times over. In fact, everyminute, enough energy arrives at the Earth to meet our demands for a whole year -if only we could harness it properly. Currently in the UK there are grants availableto help you install solar power in your home.ADVANTAGES – Solar energy is free - it needs no fuel and produces no waste or pollution. In sunny countries, solar power can be used where there is no easy way to get electricity to a remote place. Handy for low-power uses such as solar powered garden lights and battery chargers, or for helping your home energy bills.
  3. 3. WIND POWERThe Babylonians and Chinese were using wind power to pump water for irrigatingcrops 4,000 years ago, and sailing boats were around long before that. Wind powerwas used in the middle Ages, in Europe, to grind corn, which is where the term"windmill" comes from.ADVANTAGES – Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel. Produces no waste or greenhouse gases. The land beneath can usually still be used for farming. Wind farms can be tourist attractions. A good method of supplying energy to remote areas. TIDAL POWERThe tide moves a huge amount of water twice each day, and harnessing it couldprovide a great deal of energy - around 20% of Britains needs. Although theenergy supply is reliable and plentiful, converting it into useful electrical power isnot easy. There are eight main sites around Britain where tidal power stationscould usefully be built, including the Severn, Dee, Solvay and Humber estuaries.Only around 20 sites in the world have been identified as possible tidal powerstations. A few years ago, "tidal power" meant "tidal barrage", but these daysthere are other options as well.ADVANTAGES – It produces no greenhouse gases or other waste. It needs no fuel. It produces electricity reliably. Not expensive to maintain. Tides are totally predictable. Offshore turbines and vertical-axis turbines are not ruinously expensive to build and do not have a large environmental impact.
  4. 4. HYDROELECTRIC POWERThe first house in the world to be lit by hydroelectricity was Crag side House, inNorthumberland, England, in 1878. In 1882 on the Fox River, in the USA,hydroelectricity produced enough power to light two paper mills and a house.Nowadays there are many hydro-electric power stations, providing around 20% ofthe worlds electricity. The name comes from "hydro", the Greek word for water.ADVANTAGES – Once the dam is built, the energy is virtually free. No waste or pollution produced. Much more reliable than wind, solar or wave power. No waste or pollution produced. Water can be stored above the dam ready to cope with peaks in demand. Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power very quickly, unlike other power stations. Electricity can be generated constantly. Electricity can be generated constantly. PUMPED STORAGEPumped storage reservoirs arent really a means of generating electrical power.Theyre a way of storing energy so that we can release it quickly when we need it.Demand for electrical power changes throughout the day. For example, when apopular TV programmer finishes, a huge number of people go out to the kitchen toput the kettle on, causing a sudden peak in demand. This is called a "TV pickup”. Ifpower stations dont generate more power immediately, therell be power cutsaround the country - traffic lights will go out, causing accidents, and all sorts ofother trouble will occur.ADVANTAGES – Pumped storage reservoirs arent really a means of generating electrical power. Theyre a way of storing energy so that we can release it quickly when we need it. Demand for electrical power changes throughout the day. For example, when a popular TV programmer finishes, a huge number of people go out to the kitchen to put the kettle on, causing a sudden peak in demand. This is called a "TV pickup". If power stations dont generate more power immediately, therell be power cuts around the country - traffic lights will go out, causing accidents, and all sorts of other trouble will occur.
  5. 5. WAVE POWEROcean waves are caused by the wind as it blows across the sea. Waves are apowerful source of energy. The problem is that its not easy to harness this energyand convert it into electricity in large amounts. Thus, wave power stations are rare.ADVANTAGES – The energy is free - no fuel needed, no waste produced. Not expensive to operate and maintain. Can produce a great deal of energy GEOTHERMAL POWERThe centre of the Earth is around 6000 degrees Celsius - easily hot enough to meltrock. Even a few kilometers down, the temperature can be over 250 degreesCelsius if the Earths crust is thin. In general, the temperature rises one degreeCelsius for every 30 - 50 meters you go down, but this does vary depending onlocation in volcanic areas, molten rock can be very close to the surface. Sometimeswe can use that heat. Geothermal energy has been used for thousands of years insome countries for cooking and heating. The name "geothermal" comes from twoGreek words: "geo" means "Earth" and "thermal" means "heat".ADVANTAGES – Geothermal energy does not produce any pollution, and does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. The power stations do not take up much room, so there is not much impact on the environment. No fuel is needed. Once youve built a geothermal power station, the energy is almost free. It may need a little energy to run a pump, but this can be taken from the energy being generated.
  6. 6. BIO FUELSBIOMASS –Wood was once our main fuel. We burned it to heat our homes and cook our food.Wood still provides a small percentage of the energy we use, but its importance asan energy source is dwindling. Sugar cane is grown in some areas, and can befermented to make alcohol, which can be burned to generate power. Alternatively,the cane can be crushed and the pulp (called "biogases") can be burned, to makesteam to drive turbines. Other solid wastes, can be burned to provide heat, or usedto make steam for a power station. "Bioconversion" uses plant and animal wastes toproduce "bio- fuels" such as methanol, natural gas, and oil. We can use rubbish,animal manure, woodchips, seaweed, corn stalks and other wastes.ADVANTAGES – It makes sense to use waste materials where we can. The fuel tends to be cheap. Less demand on the fossil fuelsBIOGAS –Biogas usually means a mixture of methane and hydrogen produced by usingbacteria to break down organic material.ADVANTAGES:- It makes sense to use waste materials where we can. The methane gas from the waste would otherwise end up in the atmosphere - and methane is a worse "greenhouse gas" than carbon dioxide. The fuel tends to be cheap. Less demand on the fossil fuels. PHYSICS PROJECT WORK
  7. 7. SOURCES OF ENERGY AND THEIR ADVANTAGES MADE AND EDITED BY- NANDEESH LAXETTY IX C KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA E.M.E VADODARA FOSSIL FUELS NUCLEAR POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER TIDAL POWER HYDROELECTRIC POWER WAVE POWER GEOTHERMAL POWER BIO FUELS PUMPED STORAGE

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