Euclid the mathematician


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Euclid the mathematician

  1. 1. EUCLID THE MATHEMATICIANAbout BORN – 300BC DIED – Unknown RESIDENCE – Alexandria, Egypt FIELDS – Mathematics KNOWN FOR – Euclidean geometry and Euclid’s Elements.LifeLittle is known about Euclids life, as there are only a handful of references to him. The date andplace of Euclids birth and the date and circumstances of his death are unknown and only roughlyestimated in proximity to contemporary figures mentioned in references. No likeness or descriptionof Euclids physical appearance made during his lifetime survived antiquity. Therefore, Euclidsdepiction in works of art is the product of the artists imagination.ElementsAlthough many of the results in Elements originated with earlier mathematicians, one of Euclidsaccomplishments was to present them in a single, logically coherent framework, making it easy to useand easy to reference, including a system of rigorous mathematical proofs that remains the basis ofmathematics 23 centuries later. There is no mention of Euclid in the earliest remaining copies ofthe Elements, and most of the copies say they are "from the edition of Theon" or the "lectures ofTheon", while the text considered being primary, held by the Vatican, mentions no author. The onlyreference that historians rely on of Euclid having written the Elements was from Proclus, whobriefly in his Commentary on the Elements ascribes Euclid as its author. Although best-known for itsgeometric results, the Elements also include number theory. It considers the connectionbetween perfect numbers and Messene primes, the infinitude of prime, Euclids lemma onfactorization (which leads to the fundamental theorem of arithmetic on uniqueness of primefactorizations), and the Euclidean algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor of twonumbers. The geometrical system described in the Elements was long known simply as geometry, andwas considered to be the only geometry possible. Today, however, that system is often referred toas Euclidean geometry to distinguish it from other so-called non-Euclidean geometries thatmathematicians discovered in the 19th century.
  2. 2. Other worksIn addition to the Elements, works of Euclid have survived to the present day. They followthe same logical structure as Elements, with definitions and proved propositions. Data deals with the nature and implications of "given" information in geometrical problems; the subject matter is closely related to the first four books of the Elements. On Divisions of Figures, which survives only partially in Arabic translation, concerns the division of geometrical figures into two or more equal parts or into parts in given ratios. It is similar to a third century AD work by Heron of Alexandria. Catoptrics, which concerns the mathematical theory of mirrors, particularly the images formed in plane and spherical concave mirrors. The attribution to Euclid is doubtful. Its author may have been Theon of Alexandria. A phenomena, a treatise on spherical astronomy, survives in Greek; it is quite similar to On the Moving Sphere by Autolycus of Pitane, who flourished around 310 BC. MATHEMATICAL FACTS π=3.14159 26535 89793 23846 26433 83279 50288 41971 69399 37510 58209 74944 59230 78164 06286 20899 86280 34825 34211 70679 82148 08651 32823 ... You can remember the value of π (3.1415926) by counting each words letters in "May I have a large container of coffee?" You are wrong if you think Mathematics is not fun 2 is called the "oddest" Even-Prime number. 2 is a unique Even-Prime because while all Evens are divisible by 2, any number apart from 2 that is divisible by 2, is not a Prime. In a group of 23 people, at least two have the same birthday with the probability greater than ½. Everything you can do with a ruler and a compass you can do with the compass alone. Among all shapes with the same perimeter a circle has the largest area. One can cut a pie into 8 pieces with three movements Among any two integers or real numbers one is larger, another smaller. But you cant compare two complex numbers. 1089 multiplied by 9 gives an exact reverse: 9801. From 0 to 1,000, the letter "A" only appears in 1,000. The only triangle with rational sides and angles is equilateral. For every object there is a distance at which it looks its best. For every object there is a distance at which it looks its best.WRITTEN AND EDITED BY – NANDEESH LAXETTY