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Energy flow in ecosystem


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Energy flow in ecosystem

  1. 1. By – N.G.Palit
  2. 2. Energy Flow in Ecosystem  Begins with Sun. Green plants use water, carbon dioxide and sun light to make glucose, through the process of ‘Photosynthesis’.
  3. 3. Movement of Energy  The flow of energy is the most important factor that controls what kind of organisms live in an ecosystem and how many organisms the Ecosystem can support
  4. 4. Primary Energy Source  Most life on earth depends on photosynthetic organisms, which capture sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in organic molecules.  These organic molecules are what we call as ‘food.’
  5. 5. Photosynthesis It is the chemical reaction by which green plants use water , carbon dioxide and light from Sun to make glucose.
  6. 6. Living Things  All living things (organisms) need food (nourishment) to live.  Living things in an Ecosystem depend on each other for food.
  7. 7. Primary Energy Source * Most organisms in an ecosystem can be compared with chemical machines driven by the energy produced in photosynthesis.  Organisms that make glucose during photosynthesis are called producers. and include plants, some kinds of bacteria etc.
  8. 8. Movement of energy through Ecosystem  Producers use most of the energy they make for themselves.  All other organisms in an ecosystem are consumers.  Consumers eat plants or other organisms to obtain their energy.
  9. 9. Movement of Energy through an Ecosystem  Energy moves from one trophic level to the next, from sunlight to - producer to - primary consumer and so on, down the food chain.
  10. 10. Food Chain  The path of energy through the tropic levels of an ecosystem is called a Food Chain.  Food chain starts with producers (plants, algae, bacteria) which use sunlight and convert it to food energy.
  11. 11. Food Chain  The most obvious aspect of nature is that the energy must pass from one living organism to the other.  A food chain starts with what gets eaten, like a fly is eaten by a bird. A food chain shows which animals eat other animals or plants.
  12. 12. Producers  Producers use the energy of the sun to build energy-rich carbohydrates.  Solar energy provides practically all energy for Ecosystem.
  13. 13. Producers  Plants are called ‘Producers’, because they make their own food inside themselves.  Producers use cellular respiration to supply the energy they need to live.
  14. 14. The energy that is not used by producers can be passed on to organisms that cannot make their own energy. Energy transfer from Producer to Consumer
  15. 15. Energy flow in ecosystem
  16. 16. Consumers  Consumers are those who do not make their own food, but get it from eating plants or other animals.
  17. 17. Primary Consumers  The organisms that consume producers are called ‘Primary Consumers’  They are also called Herbivores.
  18. 18. Primary Consumers  Most of the energy the primary consumer gets from the producers is used by the consumer
  19. 19. Secondary or second order consumers  At the third trophic level we have secondary consumers.  Second order consumers are animals that eat other animals.  These animals are called
  20. 20. Herbivores  Consumers that eat producers to get energy  Are the First order or Primary consumers.  They are also called Herbivores. They survive on plants, like: cows, horses, mice etc
  21. 21. Secondary consumers  Secondary consumers are those animals that eat other animals.  These animals are called carnivores
  22. 22. Secondary Consumers Secondary consumer:  May be a ‘carnivore’ or a ‘herbivore’ .  May be a ‘predator’  May be a ‘scavenger’
  23. 23. Top Consumer  Top consumers are not eaten by any other consumer.  They are at the top of the food chain.  They can be primary, secondary or tertiary consumers.
  24. 24. Tertiary Consumers  Many ecosystems contain a fourth trophic level made up of carnivores that consume other carnivores called tertiary consumers.  The hawk that eats a snake is a tertiary consumer unless a larger bird eats the hawk.
  25. 25. Omnivores  Some animals such as bears eat both plants and other animals.  They are both herbivores as well as carnivores.  They are called as ‘Omnivores’. Examples: human being, bear etc.
  26. 26. Detritivores  Detritivores are organisms that obtain energy from organic wastes and dead bodies produced at all the trophic levels.  They are the decomposers of the food chain.
  27. 27. Decomposers  They break down remains of dead organisms.  They play very important role in ecosystem.  These decomposers include worms, bacteria, fungi and some insects.
  28. 28. Decomposers  Decomposition of bodies and wastes releases nutrients back into environment to be recycled by other organisms. This helps release trapped energy (in the form of carbon) in dead organisms back to the earth.
  29. 29. Scavengers  Consumers that eat other consumers that have already died are called ‘Scavengers’
  30. 30. Any Question
  31. 31. Please feel free to send your valuable feedback to: or through face book to nandapalit