Intro to classification


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Chapter 7, lesson 1

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Intro to classification

  1. 1. Why Do We NeedClassification? Free Powerpoint Templates Page 1
  2. 2. Vocabulary Preview p. 276• Vertebrate: an animal • Invertebrate that has a backbone • The prefix –in means• Examples – snakes, “not” so an fish, apes, and invertebrate is an humans. animal that does not have a backbone • Examples – worms, lobster, coral, etc… Free Powerpoint Templates Page 2
  3. 3. VocabularyAmphibian: an animal thattypically begins its life inwater, then moves to land.Examples – frogs,salamanders and toads.newts Free Powerpoint Templates Page 3
  4. 4. VocabularySymmetry: a matching pattern of body shape. . Bilateralsymmetry - when each half of a living thing mirrors the other half Radial symmetry – animals with radial symmetry have body parts arranged around a middle point. Starfish and sea urchin are examples. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 4
  5. 5. VocabularyAngiosperm: a vascular plant thatreproduces by making flowers, fruits,and seeds.Examples: apple trees, corn, andtulips. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 5
  6. 6. What is classification?Classification is sorting things into groupsbased on common characteristics.How do you use classification everyday?Ex. Different places in the kitchen for plates,cups, silverware, etc…Everyone uses classification all the time, notjust biologists.Living things are grouped based on similaritiesand differences. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 6
  7. 7. How have classification systemschanged? Which scientist invented our system of taxonomy we use today? Carl Linnaeus! It is called hierarchical classification He used Latin to describe species, which is what we still use today (that is why we italicize scientific names!) Carl Linnaeus 1707-1778 Swedish Botanist Free Powerpoint Templates Page 7
  8. 8. How have classification systems changed? •Linnaeus grouped plants based on reproductive characteristics •Now we group plants based on phylogeny •Phylogeny=Evolutionary history, or how the plants are related. •We use genetics to figure out how plants are related. •In Linnaeus’s day, scientists did not know what evolution was or what DNA and genetics was. This is how science works! Free Powerpoint Templates Page 8
  9. 9. Hierarchical Classification • It starts very broad and gets more specific • 7 hierarchies in our system: • Kingdom Very broad • Phylum (Division) • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species Very specific Free Powerpoint Templates Page 9
  10. 10. The Classification of a Lion • Kingdom: Animalia (animal kingdom) • Phylum: Chordata (Vertebrates) • Class: Mammalia (mammals) • Order: Carnivora (carnivores) • Family: Felidae (cats) • Genus: Panthera • Species: Panthera leo Free Powerpoint Templates Page 10
  11. 11. Kids Playing Chicken On Freeways Get Smooshed Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Free Powerpoint Templates Page 11
  12. 12. The 6 Kingdoms • Kingdoms are the largest division-all organisms are in one of the 6 kingdoms • Animals • Plants • Fungi • Protists • Eubacteria • Archaebacteria Free Powerpoint Templates Page 12
  13. 13. How do scientists classify?Scientists look at • Internal and external structures • Examples: spines, fur, gills, reproductive organs • Individual cells • Chemical processes within cells • Example: photosynthesis Free Powerpoint Templates Page 13
  14. 14. Dichotomous Key• Tool used to identify organisms based on contrasting pairs of characteristics• A step-by-step guide to identify an organism – Each step gives a choice of two descriptions. – The descriptions have to be opposites •Free Powerpoint round vs. leaves not round Ex. Leaves Templates Page 14
  15. 15. Your turn to try it!• iving_things/variation/play/ Free Powerpoint Templates Page 15
  16. 16. Bacteria- Two Kingdoms!• Bacteria are small single-celled organisms• Cells do not contain a nucleus• Earth’s most common and numerous form of life• Live almost everywhere• Microscopic• Some is useful- bacteria in your stomach• Some can cause disease- streptococcal bacteria cause strep throat Free Powerpoint Templates Page 16
  17. 17. Two Kingdoms of Bacteria • Archaebacteria • Means “ancient bacteria” • Live under extreme conditions • Eubacteria • Cannot survive in extreme conditionsHow are archaebacteria and eubacteria similar? Free Powerpoint Templates Page 17
  18. 18. Protists Kingdom• Single-celled or multicellular organisms• Share characteristics with fungi, plants, or animals• Cells have nucleus & complex cell structures Free Powerpoint Templates Page 18
  19. 19. Animal Like Protozoa• Animal like protists are called protozoa – means “first animals”• Live wherever there is water• Can move Free Powerpoint Templates Page 19
  20. 20. Plant Like Protists• Use energy from sun to create food through photosynthesis – Produce oxygen as a by-product• Can be microscopic or very large – Ocean seaweed can be tall as trees Free Powerpoint Templates Page 20
  21. 21. Fungi Like Protists• Get food from surroundings• Some reproduce through spores• Can move• Attack fruits, vegetables, & animals such as fish Free Powerpoint Templates Page 21
  22. 22. Fungi Kingdom• Cells have nucleus & complex cell structure• Absorb their food- decomposers• Grow quickly• Reproduce through spores Free Powerpoint Templates Page 22
  23. 23. Plant Kingdom• Many celled• Have tissues and organs• Have cell walls and chloroplasts• Make their own food• Divided into Vascular and Nonvascular Free Powerpoint Templates Page 23
  24. 24. Animal Kingdom• Many-celled• Require Oxygen• Eat food• Most move from place to place• Reproduce Sexually Scientists divide animals into two groups. Vertebrates (animals with backbones) and invertebrates (animals without backbones). Let’s try this together. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 24
  25. 25. Let’s Review The 6 Kingdoms! Video • Two for bacteria- archaebacteria & eubacteria • Protists • Fungi • Plant • Animal Free Powerpoint Templates Page 25