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Teaching Learning Strategy

               Teaching Grammar




                       Lecturer:

                Yudhi Arifani, M. Pd.

                         By :

  Erina Rusdyan Sari                (09431019)

  Purnama Ratna Sari Dewi           (09431023)

  Nur Indah Sucahyani               (09431029)




           ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING EDUCATION
 MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF GRESIK
                        2012
Introduction

       Grammar is the system of a language. People sometimes describe grammar as the "rules"

of a language, but in fact no language has rules. If we use the word "rules", we suggest that

somebody created the rules first and then spoke the language, like a new game. But languages

did not start like that. Languages started by people making sounds which evolved into words,

phrases and sentences. No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time.

What we call "grammar" is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time. There are those

who argue that there is no place for a formal focus on grammar in the communicative classroom

of today. We do not share this view. In this paper, we will argue that grammar has a central and

fundamental place in the curriculum. However, this does not mean we are arguing for a return to

"traditional" ways of teaching grammar. In our first material, we will explain what it means to

look at grammar as a tool for communication rather than as a body of content to be memorized.

We will then give practical examples of how teachers can implement these ideas in their

classrooms.


       Actually, grammatical structures not only have FORM, they are also used to express

MEANING in context-approriate USE. So, a sentence has correct meaning by using the

grammatical. By the grammatical we can know when the the event happen, in the past, future, or

present.
Discussion

We can see the grammatical From principles to pedagogy

      Teach grammar as an extremely flexible resource for making meaning.
      As far as possible, integrate the teaching of grammar with the teaching of pronunciation
        and vocabulary.
      Help learners see relationships between form and meaning.
      Teach students how to use grammar to make appropriate choices and express their own
        personal meanings.

A.      Approaches and procedures for teaching grammar

     1. Deductive Approach

A deductive approach is derived from the notion that deductive reasoning works from the general
to the specific. In this case, rules, principles, concepts, or theories are presented first, and
then their applications are treated. In conclusion, when we use deduction, we reason from
general to specific principles. The deductive approach maintains that a teacher teaches
grammar by presenting grammatical rules, and then examples of sentences are presented.
Once learners understand rules, they are told to apply the rules given to various examples of
sentences. Giving the grammatical rules means no more than directing learners’ attention to the
problem discussed. learners be in control during practice and have less fear of drawing an
incorrect conclusion related to how the target language is functioning. To sum up, the
deductive approach commences with the presentation of a rule taught and then is followed by
examples in which the rule is applied. In this regard, learners are expected to engage with it
through the study and manipulation of examples.
2. Inductive Approach
An inductive approach comes from inductive reasoning stating that a reasoning
Progression proceeds from particulars (that is, observations, measurements, or data) to
generalities (for example, rules, laws, concepts or theories). In short, when we use
induction, we observe a number of specific instances and from them infer a general
principle or concept. In the case of pedagogical grammar, most experts argue that the
inductive approach can also be called rule-discovery learning. It suggests that a
teacher teach grammar starting with presenting some examples of sentences. In this
sense, learners understand grammatical rules from the examples.       The presentation of
grammatical rules can be spoken or written. that the inductive approach tries to utilize
the very strong reward value of bringing order, clarity and meaning to experiences.
This   approach   involves   learners’ participating actively in their own instruction. In
addition, the approach encourages a learner to develop her/his own mental set of strategies
for dealing with tasks. In other words, this approach attempts to highlight grammatical
rules implicitly in which the learners are encouraged to conclude the rules given by the
     teacher. Similar to the deductive approach, the inductive approach offers advantages
     and disadvantages as seen in the Table 2 below.




B.    Goals and Techniques for Teaching Grammar

     The goal of grammar instruction is to enable students to carry out their communication
     purposes. This goal has three implications:

     1. Students need overt instruction that connects grammar points with larger communication
        contexts.
     2. Students do not need to master every aspect of each grammar point, only those that
        relevant to the immediate communication task.
     3. Error correction is not always the instructor's first responsibility.
1). Overt Grammar Instruction
    Teach the grammar point in the target language or the students' first language or both.
       The goal is to facilitate understanding.
    Limit the time you devote to grammar explanations to 10 minutes, especially for lower
       level students whose ability to sustain attention can be limited.
       Present grammar points in written and oral ways to address the needs of students with
       different learning styles.
    Be sure the examples are accurate and appropriate. They must present the language
       appropriately, be culturally appropriate for the setting in which they are used, and be to
       the point of the lesson.
    Use the examples as teaching tools. Focus examples on a particular theme or topic so that
       students have more contact with specific information and vocabulary.


       2). Relevance of Grammar Instruction

     In the communicative competence model, the purpose of learning grammar is to learn the
language of which the grammar is a part. Instructors therefore teach grammar forms and
structures in relation to meaning and use for the specific communication tasks that students need
to complete.

       The example
       There are some examples depend on the steps of teaching grammatical
                   TABLE 3. Step One: Noticing Model Sentences
Ad

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Teaching learning strategy

  • 1. Teaching Learning Strategy Teaching Grammar Lecturer: Yudhi Arifani, M. Pd. By : Erina Rusdyan Sari (09431019) Purnama Ratna Sari Dewi (09431023) Nur Indah Sucahyani (09431029) ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING EDUCATION MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF GRESIK 2012
  • 2. Introduction Grammar is the system of a language. People sometimes describe grammar as the "rules" of a language, but in fact no language has rules. If we use the word "rules", we suggest that somebody created the rules first and then spoke the language, like a new game. But languages did not start like that. Languages started by people making sounds which evolved into words, phrases and sentences. No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time. What we call "grammar" is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time. There are those who argue that there is no place for a formal focus on grammar in the communicative classroom of today. We do not share this view. In this paper, we will argue that grammar has a central and fundamental place in the curriculum. However, this does not mean we are arguing for a return to "traditional" ways of teaching grammar. In our first material, we will explain what it means to look at grammar as a tool for communication rather than as a body of content to be memorized. We will then give practical examples of how teachers can implement these ideas in their classrooms. Actually, grammatical structures not only have FORM, they are also used to express MEANING in context-approriate USE. So, a sentence has correct meaning by using the grammatical. By the grammatical we can know when the the event happen, in the past, future, or present.
  • 3. Discussion We can see the grammatical From principles to pedagogy  Teach grammar as an extremely flexible resource for making meaning.  As far as possible, integrate the teaching of grammar with the teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary.  Help learners see relationships between form and meaning.  Teach students how to use grammar to make appropriate choices and express their own personal meanings. A. Approaches and procedures for teaching grammar 1. Deductive Approach A deductive approach is derived from the notion that deductive reasoning works from the general to the specific. In this case, rules, principles, concepts, or theories are presented first, and then their applications are treated. In conclusion, when we use deduction, we reason from general to specific principles. The deductive approach maintains that a teacher teaches grammar by presenting grammatical rules, and then examples of sentences are presented. Once learners understand rules, they are told to apply the rules given to various examples of sentences. Giving the grammatical rules means no more than directing learners’ attention to the problem discussed. learners be in control during practice and have less fear of drawing an incorrect conclusion related to how the target language is functioning. To sum up, the deductive approach commences with the presentation of a rule taught and then is followed by examples in which the rule is applied. In this regard, learners are expected to engage with it through the study and manipulation of examples.
  • 4. 2. Inductive Approach An inductive approach comes from inductive reasoning stating that a reasoning Progression proceeds from particulars (that is, observations, measurements, or data) to generalities (for example, rules, laws, concepts or theories). In short, when we use induction, we observe a number of specific instances and from them infer a general principle or concept. In the case of pedagogical grammar, most experts argue that the inductive approach can also be called rule-discovery learning. It suggests that a teacher teach grammar starting with presenting some examples of sentences. In this sense, learners understand grammatical rules from the examples. The presentation of grammatical rules can be spoken or written. that the inductive approach tries to utilize the very strong reward value of bringing order, clarity and meaning to experiences. This approach involves learners’ participating actively in their own instruction. In addition, the approach encourages a learner to develop her/his own mental set of strategies for dealing with tasks. In other words, this approach attempts to highlight grammatical
  • 5. rules implicitly in which the learners are encouraged to conclude the rules given by the teacher. Similar to the deductive approach, the inductive approach offers advantages and disadvantages as seen in the Table 2 below. B. Goals and Techniques for Teaching Grammar The goal of grammar instruction is to enable students to carry out their communication purposes. This goal has three implications: 1. Students need overt instruction that connects grammar points with larger communication contexts. 2. Students do not need to master every aspect of each grammar point, only those that relevant to the immediate communication task. 3. Error correction is not always the instructor's first responsibility.
  • 6. 1). Overt Grammar Instruction  Teach the grammar point in the target language or the students' first language or both. The goal is to facilitate understanding.  Limit the time you devote to grammar explanations to 10 minutes, especially for lower level students whose ability to sustain attention can be limited.  Present grammar points in written and oral ways to address the needs of students with different learning styles.  Be sure the examples are accurate and appropriate. They must present the language appropriately, be culturally appropriate for the setting in which they are used, and be to the point of the lesson.  Use the examples as teaching tools. Focus examples on a particular theme or topic so that students have more contact with specific information and vocabulary. 2). Relevance of Grammar Instruction In the communicative competence model, the purpose of learning grammar is to learn the language of which the grammar is a part. Instructors therefore teach grammar forms and structures in relation to meaning and use for the specific communication tasks that students need to complete. The example There are some examples depend on the steps of teaching grammatical TABLE 3. Step One: Noticing Model Sentences
  • 7. TABLE 4. Step Two: Functions and Exmples of the present perfect tense TABLE 5. Step Three, Exercise 1: Written Question Input
  • 8. TABLE 6. Step Three, Exercise 2: Correct Verb form completion TABLE 7. Step Three, Exercise 3: Tense-based Sentense Tranformation
  • 9. Conclusion To conclude we can say that we cannot ignore grammar in language. Because it directly influence the effectiveness and meaning. Language and grammar both goes side by side we cannot separate one from another and we should teach grammar combining it with the language in a communicative way. We can teach grammatical in the some ways depend on the step of teaching grammar such as : 1. Noticing model sentence,2. Function and example of tenses of the sentence, 3. Written question input, 4. Correct verb form completion, 5. Tenses based sentences transformation. Teaching grammar can be applied by deductive and inductive strategy.
  • 10. References A 21st century grammar bridge. [original title: Teaching grammar: turning words into deeds.] The Secondary English Magazine, 7(5), 2004, 24-6. William Somerset Maugham,. 1938.The Summing Up. Javed, Iqbal.2012.How to Teach Grammar.online.http://www.slideshare.net/JavedIqbal15/how- to-teach-grammar-12313152,diakses 15 April 2012. Irina,K.2009.Teaching Grammar-The Role of Teaching Grammar. http://www.slideshare.net/Ottamay/teaching-grammar-1279836.diakses 14 April 2012