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Medicine in antiquity

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Medicine in antiquity

  1. 1. MEDICINE IN ANTIQUITY
  2. 2. MEDICINE IN ANTIQUITY • Medicine was dominated by magical and religious beliefs • In ancient times, health and illness were interpreted in a cosmological and anthropological perspective • Medicine was conceived out of sympathy, born out of necessity, the first man was the first doctor and the first woman, the first nurse
  3. 3. • cave paintings predict that caves were used for ritual gatherings and SHAMANS headed the rituals • Used stone and flint instruments to do circumcision ,amputations and trephining
  4. 4. • Medicine was practiced to please god through sacrifices rituals prayers driving out evil spirits witch crafts • Trying to heal snake bites through mantras and leprosy is a punishment for ones past sins
  5. 5. Witch craft in Zimbabwe
  6. 6. • This was followed by • Ayurveda • Siddha • Unani • Chinese medicine- yin and yang • Egyptian medicine-Imhotep • Mesopotamian,Greek,Roman
  7. 7. INDIAN MEDICINE • Ayurveda-knowledge of life • Dhanvanthari-Hindu deity of medicine,conceived out of a tug of war between gods and demons • Atreya-First indian physician and teacher • Ayurveda developed in buddist times.King Ashoka helped a lot by building schools of medicine and hospitals • Reserpine was extracted from indian snake root and used in treatment of hypertension for a long time
  8. 8. • Susrutha-Father of indian surgery • Tridosha theory of disease Vata[wind] Pitta[gall] Kapha[mucus] • Disease was a disturbance of these 3 • Unani- Muslim rule, traced from Greek medicine • Homoeopathy-Treatment of diseases by use of small amount of drugs that in healthy person produces symptoms similar to those of the disease being treated
  9. 9. CHINESE MEDICINE • Yang and Yin • Yang-Active masculine • Yin-Negative feminine • Balance of these two leads to good health • Bare Foot doctors
  10. 10. • Egyptian-Imhotep • Pulse-speech of the heart • Believed-Disease was due to absorbtion from the intestine of harmful substances,that gave rise to putrefaction of blood. • Treatment-Cathartics,enema,blood letting
  11. 11. GREEK MEDICINE • Rejected supernatural theory and looked on disease as a natural process • Aesculapius was a god of medicine. • The rod of Asclepius, a snake-entwined staff, remains a symbol of medicine today
  12. 12. DAWN OF SCIENTIFIC MEDICINE • REVIVAL OF MEDICINE • SANITARY AWAKENING • RISE OF PUBLIC HEALTH • GERM THEORY • BIRTH OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
  13. 13. REVIVAL OF MEDICINE • Paracelsus attacked the idea of superstition • Fracastorious –founder of epidemiology • Spoke about spread of disease through minute invisible particles • Recognised syphylis spread through sexual contact • Vasalius[anatomy]-first man of mordern science
  14. 14. • Ambrose paire-Father of surgery • Establishment of United company of barber surgeons,later called as Royal college of Surgeons • Sydenham-first distinguished epidemiologist[ diff diagnosis of scarlet fever,dysentry,malaria and cholera]
  15. 15. SANITARY AWAKENING • Industrial revolution-18th century • Led to creation of slum, over crowding, accumulation of filth, higher sickness and death rates • Great cholera epidemic-1832 • Edwin Chadwick-investigated ,reported • Led to improved housing and working conditions • GREAT SANITARY AWAKENING-Mid 19th century
  16. 16. RISE OF PUBLIC HEALTH • CHOLERA-Father of public health • John Snow-Role of polluted drinking water • William Budd-Typhoid spread by water not sewer gas • Beginning of 20th century,broad foundations of public health • Clean water,surroundings • Improved housing • Control of offensive trade were laid
  17. 17. GERM THEORY • Louis Pasteur-Disproved theory of spontaneous generation • Proved presence of bacteria in air • Robert Koch-Anthrax caused by bacteria • Confirmed Germ Theory • Medicine finally turned towards scientic knowledge and stopped blaming religious beliefs and spontaneous occurences
  18. 18. BIRTH OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE • 17th century-role of fruits –scurvy • John hunter-small pox vaccination • Discovery of causative organisms ,germ theory –foundation of preventive medicine • Knowledge of bacteriology-control of diseases[quarantine,water purification,proper waste disposal,insect control]

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