Tqm ch 06


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Tqm ch 06

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Management Of Process QualityTHE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF QUALITY, 5e, © 2002 South-Western/Thomson LearningTM 1
  2. 2. Management Of Process QualityThe Management of Process Quality Categoryexamines the systematic process the companyuses to pursue ever-higher quality and companyoperation performance. The key elements ofprocess management are examined, includingresearch and development, design, managementof process quality for all work units and suppliers,systematic quality improvement and qualityassessment.a 2
  3. 3. ManagementSystem Control Quality Assurance Continuous Improvement Input Process output Customer People Cross Product External Materials functional Energy Equipment Or and Methods service internal Money Continuous Improvement 3
  4. 4. History of Quality Control (1 of 2)• Skilled craftsmanship during Middle Ages• Industrial Revolution: rise of inspection and separate quality departments• Statistical methods at Bell System• Quality control during World War II• Quality management in Japan 4
  5. 5. History of Quality Control (2 of 2)• Quality awareness in U.S. manufacturing industry during 1980s: “Total Quality Management”• Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (1987)• Quality in service industries, government, health care, and education• Current and future challenge: keep progress in quality management alive 5
  6. 6. Product Inspection/Testing Points• Receiving inspection – Spot check procedures – 100 percent inspection – Acceptance sampling• In-process inspection (1) Lot received for inspection, (2) Sample selected and analyzed (3)Results compared with acceptance criteria (4) Accept the lot or Reject the lot (5) Send to production or to customer or Decide on disposition• Final inspection • What to inspect? – Key quality characteristics that are related to cost or quality (customer requirements) • Where to inspect? – Key processes, especially high-cost and value-added • How much to inspect? – All, nothing, or a sample 6
  7. 7. Process Control• Control – the activity of ensuring conformance to requirements and taking corrective action when necessary to correct problems• Importance – Daily management of processes – Prerequisite to longer-term improvements• Quality Policy and Quality Manual – Contract management, design control and purchasing – Process control, inspection and testing – Corrective action and continual improvement – Controlling inspection, measuring and test equipment (metrology, measurement system analysis and calibration) – Records, documentation and audits 7
  8. 8. Moving From Inspection To Process Control Process control now become problem solving for continuous improvement, moving from inspection to process control take place in step or phases:• Process characterization (definition, requirement and identification)• Develop standard and measures of out put• Monitor compliance to standards and review control• Identify and remove causes of defects or variations• Achievement of process control with improved stability and reduced variation 8
  9. 9. Statistical Process Control (SPC)• A methodology for monitoring a process to identify special causes of variation and signal the need to take corrective action when appropriate• SPC relies on control charts 9
  10. 10. Basic Approach To Statistical Quality Control Identifying any deviation between what “should be” and what “is” that is important enough to need correcting. The activity associated with changing the state of what “is” to what “should be” contains the following steps:• Awareness that a problem exists.• Determine the specific problem to be solved• Diagnose the causes of the problem• Determine and implement remedies to solve problem• Implement control to hold the gains achieved by solution 10
  11. 11. Tools for statistical Quality ControlThe basic techniques are(1) Data Collection Establish Metric of statistical control, Monitor a process and signal when it goes out of control, Determine process capability(2) Data Display : (After data are collected, they can be converted intoa variety of form for display and analysis)(3) Problem analysis: (The cause-and-effect diagram, sometime know as the“fishbone”or Ishikawa diagram, it is an excellent tool for organizingand documenting potential causes of problem in all area and at alllevel in the organization. As a brainstorming device, it is a good wayto stimulate ideas during problem solving meeting.) 11
  12. 12. Pareto AnalysisAny cause that result from a multiplicity ofeffects is primarily the result of the impactof minor percentage of all causes. thistechnique is similar to the “80-20” rule. 12
  13. 13. Manufacturing To Specification vs. Manufacturing To Reduce Variations Common causes of variation include:1. Material balance disturbances2. Energy balance changes3. Process instabilities4. Equipment failure and wear5. Poor control loop performance 13
  14. 14. Process Control In Service Industries The service process is more difficult to control because quality is typically measured at the customer interface, final inspection will always be a part of the process; the customer serves as the inspector. SPC can be used to measure consistency of service and determine causes of deterioration the from prescribed standards and the causes of variation. 14
  15. 15. Process Control For Internal Services• The general manager was committed to internal as well as external quality. In support of this commitment, the following policy was adopted, widely disseminated, and implemented through excellent plus groups: excellence Plus Commitment 15
  16. 16. Quality Function Deploymentmarketing Design Production UsageMarketing Design Planning ShippingR&D Trial Production Purchase UsagePlanning Inspection Production Service Inspection 16
  17. 17. House of QualityInterrelationships Customer 6 requirement priorities 7. Technical requirements 1.Voice of 3 5.Relationship the matrix customer 4 2. Prioritize 8.Technical requirement and Competitive priorities weight evaluation 17
  18. 18. Quality Function Deployment technicalrequirements component characteristics process operations quality plan 18
  19. 19. Market ResearchMarket Research Customer characteristics Customer characteristics Quality Competitive Evaluation Competitive Evaluation Function Engineering characteristics Customer match Deployment Design process Design process Parts characteristics Parts characteristics Process operation Process operation Process Flows Process Flows Production planning Production planning Production Production Product Product team Feedback 19
  20. 20. Benefits of Just-In-Time• Reduction of direct and indirect labor by eliminating extraneous activities• Reduction of floor space and warehouse space per unit of output• Reduction of setup time and schedule delays as the factory becomes a continuous production process• Reduction of waste, rejects, and rework by detecting errors at the source• Reduction of lead time due to small lot sizes, so that downstream work centers provide feedback on quality problems• Better utilization of machines and facilities• Better relations with suppliers• Better plant layout• Better integration of and communication between functions such as marketing, purchasing, design, and 20 production
  21. 21. The Human Side Of Process Control Attention to the human resource dimension provides a basis for signification improvement in job development, job satisfaction, training, and morale. Suggested actions to improve the change include:• Like all major change, top management support is essential.• Change the focus from production volume to quality, from speed to flow, from execution to task design, from performing to learning.• Invest in training, a necessary prerequisite. 21