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Faculty development why and how

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All about need for faculty development

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Faculty development why and how

  1. 1. Faculty development- What, Why and How ? Namrata Chhabra Professor and Head, Department of Biochemistry 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 1
  2. 2. Objectives To know about What is faculty development The roles and competencies of a medical teacher Need for faculty development How to proceed for faculty development Outcomes of faculty development Road blocks and Recommendations 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 2
  3. 3. Teacher- The Guru • “Gurur-Brahmaa Gurur- Vissnnur-Gururdevo Maheshvarah-” • A teacher is compared to God and treated as a combination of the Trimurty (Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwar) as well as the supreme one. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 3
  4. 4. A Medical teacher • "Vaidyo narayano harihi" (the doctor is Lord Narayana and Lord Hari), • An aphorism from ancient Indian culture that places a doctor at par with God. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 4
  5. 5. Medical Profession Medicine is about: •compassion, •service, •altruism, and •trustworthiness, •values that have always and will continue to guide the profession. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 5
  6. 6. Role of a medical teacher •Carries the responsibility of conveying and decoding the language of medical science into the minds of learners • The ones who paves the way in the making of our future physicians and surgeons. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 6
  7. 7. Key competencies of a medical teacher 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 7
  8. 8. An ideal medical teacher •The role of a medical teacher is phenomenal; •A friend, advocate, guide and educator; all rolled into one. •An ideal medical teacher is one who creates a learning environment to promote effective learning. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 8
  9. 9. “I never try to teach my students anything I only try to create an environment where they can learn” Albert Einstein 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 9
  10. 10. Changing trends of Medical education •The trends of medical education in the “classroom” as well as “the bed side” are greatly changing with the incorporation of new learning technologies and advocacy of novel educational approaches. •Today, we are not just satisfied with “what we deliver”, we want to know “how well we deliver” it. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 10
  11. 11. Modern Medical Guru •Today, the teacher of medicine is expected not only to be well versed in the theoretical concepts of books or appropriate clinical skills; •But also ….. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 11
  12. 12. • ----is expected to be a technological multimedia expert as well; owho can effectively operate the modern pedagogic tools of computer assisted learning, o digital imaging and o e-learning. Modern Medical Guru 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 12
  13. 13. Role of a teacher Learning style Teaching approaches Medical practice Assessment methods Advanced technology Changes in medical education principles 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 13
  14. 14. Changed role of a medical teacher • From “sage on stage” to “guide by the side” • Manager of learning needs and assessor of students learning 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 14
  15. 15. •12 roles of a teacher have been described in the literature, based on 6 activities Multiple roles of a teacher 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 15
  16. 16. • Lecturer in classroom setting • Teacher in clinical or practical class setting 1) Information provider 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 16
  17. 17. • Mentor, personal advisor or tutor • Learning facilitator 2) Facilitator 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 17
  18. 18. • Planning or participating in formal examination • Curriculum evaluator 3) Examiner/Assessor 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 18
  19. 19. 4) Planner  Course organizer  Curriculum planner 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 19
  20. 20. • Production of study guides • Developing resource materials 5) Resource developer 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 20
  21. 21. • On the job role model • Role model in teaching 6) Role model 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 21
  22. 22. Other roles •Clinician/Consultant •Researcher •Administrator •Office assistant •Manager of extracurricular activities of students 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 22
  23. 23. Is it essential to be competent in all the roles ? •Different roles require different skills and abilities in the teacher. •A good teacher need not be competent in all twelve roles and •It would be unusual to find, and unreasonable to expect one individual to have all the required competencies. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 23
  24. 24. Changes in the learning style S.N O. Traditional conventional learning Modern learning 1) Passive spoon feeding, Teacher centered Active, student directed, with increasing emphasis on Self-directed learning 2) Rote learning Curiosity learning 3) Regurgitates facts Demonstrates competence “Education is not the filling of a pail but the lighting of a fire”.07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 24
  25. 25. Changes in the learning style •Application of adult learning principles, •Student autonomy, •Self- directed learning, •Experiential learning, •Reflective learning, 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 25
  26. 26. Changes in the learning style •Computer assisted learning, •Distance learning, •e- learning, •Use of skill learning laboratories are some of the areas requiring expertise, which are not readily available with most teachers. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 26
  27. 27. Changes in teaching approaches • From strictly discipline based teaching to Integrated, problem based and community oriented teaching • Systematic curriculum planning 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 27
  28. 28. Current (SPICES) Model of Medical education • Student- Centered • Problem- based • Integrated • Community- based • Elective • Systematic 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 28
  29. 29. Changes in medical practice S.No Traditional Modern 1) Individual Community 2) Acute disease Chronic diseases 3) Episodic care Continuous care 4) Cure of disease Preservation of health 5) Physician provider Team of providers 6) Trust assured Trust must be earned 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 29
  30. 30. Changes in assessment methods • OSCE & OSPE • OSLER (Objective Structured Long Examination Record) • Mini CEX (Mini Case Evaluation Exercise) • CbD (Case based Discussion) • DOPs (Direct Observation of Procedures) • Portfolio • Multi Source Feedback or 360 degrees evaluation • Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 30
  31. 31. Changes in Technology 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 31
  32. 32. Interactive patient simulator • The ultra sophisticated and highly versatile Human patient simulator (HPS) blinks, speaks and breathes, has a heartbeat and a pulse, and accurately mirrors human responses to such procedures as CPR, intravenous medication, intubation, ventilation, and catheterization. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 32
  33. 33. Screen based simulation 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 33
  34. 34. Audience response system and Procedural simulation 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 34
  35. 35. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 35
  36. 36. Changes in technology 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 36
  37. 37. Major challenges •Prepare the students life-long learners •Provide the scientific foundation necessary for: o the practice of evidence-based medicine, and othe understanding of new discoveries 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 37
  38. 38. Major challenges • Equip students with the basic knowledge and clinical skills necessary to enter residency training • Prepare students for the new paradigms of health care • Adapt the curriculum to the new paradigms of medical education • Strengthen the character traits that define professionalism and that sustain medicine as an ethical enterprise 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 38
  39. 39. The biggest challenge? • Increased scrutiny and regulation not only as a result of greater accountability for public services and public spending but also due to a number of high profile cases involving “failing doctors”. • The need of the hour to prepare doctors not only who are safe to practice, knowledgeable and competent, but who also have the appropriate professional attitudes and are willing to work towards improving health systems. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 39
  40. 40. What about us? 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 40
  41. 41. Are we teaching the right content to our future doctors ? “The physicians of tomorrow are taught by teachers of today using the curriculum of yesterday” 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 41
  42. 42. Are we ready to face the challenges ? 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 42
  43. 43. Perhaps our students need directions from us….. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 43
  44. 44. We need to develop to be a part of Advanced medical world 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 44
  45. 45. Faculty developmentFaculty development 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 45
  46. 46. “It goes without saying that no man can teach successfully who is not at the same time a student” Sir William Osler 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 46
  47. 47. What is faculty development ? • Faculty development (FD) deals with development of faculty via planned workshops or programmes for facilitation of faculty performance • It is a dynamic process with the objective of developing ,and refining teaching, research and administrative skills 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 47
  48. 48. Academic development • The term ‘academic development’ has been used recently to refer to the development activities and programs that more fully address the multiple roles of faculty. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 48
  49. 49. Faculty Training Or Faculty Development ? Faculty Training Steps of Training oSet the objectives oSelect appropriate teaching methods and resources oAssess for attainment of learning objectives Outcome- Trained teacher oNo Efforts to follow –up oNo efforts to ensure the application of learnt concepts back-home 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 49
  50. 50. Development Paradigm Steps of Development oSet the objectives oSelect appropriate teaching methods and resources oAssess for attainment of learning objectives oFollow-up for reflective practice oAllow teachers to experiment with new knowledge and skills oAllow to explore the hidden truths o Need more time, efforts and resources Outcome- Developed faculty 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 50
  51. 51. How to approach the facultyHow to approach the faculty development programs ?development programs ? 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 51
  52. 52. Levels of faculty development 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 52
  53. 53. Seven-tier hierarchy of faculty development strategies (1) Individual, self-directed activities-  reading,  reflection, and self-assessment,  observation of “exemplary practice” videotapes (e.g., watching other teachers “in action” and noting techniques),  evaluations of teaching effectiveness provided by students 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 53
  54. 54. Seven-tier hierarchy of faculty development strategies (2) Shadowing experienced or exemplary teachers; (3) being videotaped and/or observed while teaching and receiving feedback in order to “see oneself from the students’ perspective”; 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 54
  55. 55. Seven-tier hierarchy of faculty development strategies (4) participating in brief duration (one-hour) lectures, journal clubs, or lunch-and-learn discussion groups that expose faculty members to theoretical literature or research reports that address educational issues; (5) participating in workshops and seminars of brief duration (three to six hours) focusing on specific instructor competencies such as providing feedback, asking questions to promote critical thinking, or constructing case-based examinations; 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 55
  56. 56. Seven-tier hierarchy of faculty development strategies (6) participating in pedagogical skills fellowships or teaching enhancement courses of several weeks’ to months’ duration (7) various organizational strategies to promote, assess, and reward teaching effectiveness including formalized mentoring programs for new and junior faculty and sabbaticals (often intended to allow faculty to experience alternative curriculum models at other schools) and providing mechanisms, including tuition support, for faculty to participate in graduate programs in education or academic leadership. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 56
  57. 57. Seven-tier hierarchy of faculty development strategies 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 57
  58. 58. Faculty Development movement 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 58
  59. 59. WHO Initiative 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 59
  60. 60. Progress in India 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 61
  61. 61. Benefits of Faculty development 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 62
  62. 62. • Interpersonal skills • Career development 1) Personal 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 63
  63. 63. • Curriculum design and development • Instructional technology 2) Instructional 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 64
  64. 64. • Improved professional skills to fulfill multiple roles 3) Professional 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 65
  65. 65. • Improved institutional environment to support better teaching and learning 4) Organizational 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 66
  66. 66. Ultimate Outcome of Faculty development 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 67
  67. 67. Road blocks for Faculty Development • Lack of motivation amongst teachers as well amongst educational administrators, • Poor recognition and • Lack of reward for the work done. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 68
  68. 68. No formal policy on faculty development • Whereas, elementary, primary and secondary school teachers have to undergo training in formal schools or colleges of education to be eligible for appointment as well as promotion, • there is no such requirement for appointment of teachers in medical colleges 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 69
  69. 69. No formal policy on faculty development • George Miller observed, “It is curious that so many of our most important responsibilities are undertaken without significant preparation. • Marriage, parenthood and teaching (in medical schools) are probably most ubiquitous illustrations” 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 70
  70. 70. Recommendations Faculty development is an important component in medical education. It is necessary to organize faculty development in a systematic manner. 1. Health Profession Education Policy: Serious efforts should be made to develop a National Health Profession Education Policy. 2. Support for Faculty Development: Teachers should be encouraged to attend faculty development programmes by offering leave of absence travel grants or such other facilities for attending workshops and conferences. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 71
  71. 71. Recommendations • Revival of NTTCs: The NTTCs should be revived with support from the Ministry of Health and International agencies. Few more should be established in view of large number of teachers requiring training. • Functional Medical Education Units (MEU): MEUs, particularly those in recently established colleges should become functional and engaged in activities like faculty development, curricular innovations, student assessment and educational research. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 72
  72. 72. Recommendations • Revival of Fellowships and Travel grants: • National agencies as well international agencies like World Health Organization should revive fellowships for study tours to reputed medical education centers within and outside country and encourage specialization in education. • Recognition and Encouragement: Teachers who have introduced innovations or contributed to improvement in medical education should be duly recognized and rewarded. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 73
  73. 73. Recommendations • Incorporation of Medical Education Technology in Postgraduate training: • Postgraduate training lays a foundation for the development of future teachers and trainers. It is therefore necessary to ''catch them young'' and incorporate the elements of educational science and technology. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 74
  74. 74. Recommendations • Enlarging the scope of Medical Education Units to Centres of Health Professional Education: • A movement is desirable to extend the scope of medical education units to include other professionals especially, nursing, dental, physiotherapy and allied systems. • This step marks the beginning of Centres of Health Professional Education, which can adopt a holistic approach to the training of all health professionals. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 75
  75. 75. Recommendations 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 76
  76. 76. Conclusion The goals of faculty development are to •Improve practice in teaching, •Research, and •Institutional service and also to •Manage change by enhancing individual strengths and abilities 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 77
  77. 77. •It is therefore a need to develop and match to the rising educational needs to enable our students to become skilled, knowledgeable and compassionate physicians capable of providing best health services to the communities that they will serve. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 78
  78. 78. “To become stagnant is to begin to die” 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 79
  79. 79. “Growth, evolution and reinvention sustain life” 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 80
  80. 80. “There is no safety in being the same person today that you were yesterday”. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 81
  81. 81. “Confront your limitations, Refuse to be average, and Stand for what’s best” 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 82
  82. 82. Thank youThank you 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 83
  83. 83. References 1)Tejinder S., Piyush G, Daljit S. Faculty development: Principles of Medical Education (page 183- 188).2013 2) C. Amundsen, P. Abrami, L. McAlpine, C. Weston, M. Krbavac, A. Mundy, M. Wilson. The What and Why of Faculty Development in Higher Education: An In-depth Review of the Literature, AERA 2005 - Montreal. 3) Centra, J. A. (1989). Faculty evaluation and faculty development in higher education. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research (pp. 155-179). New York: Agathon Press. 4) Sequeira P.R. and Usha Nayar, Faculty Development in Medical Education : International Perspectives, National Conference on Medical Education –2007, AIIMS, New Delhi. 5) D.K. Srinivas and B.V.Adkoli. Faculty Development in Medical Education in India: The Need of The Day, Al Ame en J Med S c i (2 00 9 )2 (1 ) :6 -13. 6) Harden R M and Crosby J R (2000).AMEE Education Guide No 20: The good teacher is more than a lecturer – the twelve roles of the teacher. Medical Teacher 22(4): 334-347. 07/24/17 Faculty development- Namrata chhabra 84

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