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Unit #5 Terrorism Student Verision


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Unit #5 Terrorism Student Verision

  1. 1. International Terrorism<br />And the War Against It<br />Credit to Mr. Price<br />
  2. 2. Intro to Terrorism<br />
  3. 3. What thoughts and emotions do thesephotographs evoke? <br />
  4. 4. What is Terrorism?<br />Terrorism is violence …<br /><ul><li>…that is deliberate </li></ul> and premeditated. <br /> <br />... that is politically <br /> motivated..<br />... that targets civilians <br />(or noncombatants).<br /> <br />
  5. 5. … that’s carried out by <br />subnationalgroups.<br />... that’s aimed at a wide <br /> audience. <br />... that’s meant to create <br /> a state of fear.<br />... that’s usually directed <br /> against some hated <br /> government. <br /><ul><li> one’s own government.
  6. 6. a foreign government.
  7. 7. a foreign supporter of </li></ul> one’s own government.<br />
  8. 8. Definitions of Terrorism :<br />“Premeditated and politically motivated <br /> violence perpetrated against noncom-<br />batant targets by subnational groups <br /> or clandestine agents, usually intended <br /> to influence an audience. -U.S. State Department<br /> <br />“The deliberate use of violence against civilians for political or religious ends.” -Council of Foreign Relations<br /> <br />“Illegal attacks and threats against people or property by a group for the purpose of weakening a hated political authority. - IR text<br />
  9. 9. There is no universally accepted definition of terrorism. Why not?<br />UN tried to draft definition <br /> of terrorism in 2002, but failed <br /> because of disagreements over <br /> which groups should be treated <br /> as terrorists.<br /> Some would exempt “national <br /> liberation movements” or <br />those “resisting occupation.”<br />“One Man’s Terrorist is Another <br /> Man’s Freedom Fighter””<br />
  10. 10. International Terrorism<br />What is it?<br />When the victims, targets, <br /> terrorists, means, or <br /> location of the terrorist <br /> attack involve more than <br /> one country.<br />
  11. 11. Number of International Terrorist Attacks 1990-2006<br />
  12. 12. Locations of Worst Attacks<br />
  13. 13. State-sponsored Terrorism<br />When governments use <br /> or support terrorism as<br /> an instrument of their<br /> foreign policy.<br /> How?<br /><ul><li>Providing funding.
  14. 14. Providing weapons or </li></ul>training.<br /><ul><li>Providing a safe haven.</li></li></ul><li>State-sponsored Terrorism<br />U.S. State Department’s <br /> terrorism blacklist: <br /><ul><li>Iran*
  15. 15. Syria*
  16. 16. Sudan
  17. 17. Cuba</li></ul> * Most active state sponsors today:<br />
  18. 18. Islamic Terrorism<br />
  19. 19. Rise of Islamic Terrorist Groups<br />Since late 1990s more deadly<br /> terrorist attacks.<br />Political goals less clear.<br /><ul><li>Inflicting greatest possible </li></ul> number of casualties seems to<br /> be the primary goal.<br /> <br />Linked to rise of Islamic <br /> terrorist groups.<br /> <br />
  20. 20. Deaths Due to Terrorism / Suicide Bombings 1998-2007<br />
  21. 21. Islamic Terrorism<br />The terrorists we face today <br /> are Islamic extremists.<br /><ul><li>View themselves as fighting </li></ul> jihad (“holy war”)against <br /> the enemies of Islam.<br /> <br />Difficult to deter. Why?<br /> <br />
  22. 22. Islamic Fundamentalism“Islamic Extremism” or “Radical Islam”<br />
  23. 23. Beliefs / Goals of Islamic Fundamentalism<br />1. Wants to return to a strict, conservative, “pure” Islam as practiced in the 7th century by the <br /> Prophet Mohammad.<br />2. Rejects Western ideas and practices. Wants to rid Muslim world of all Western influences. Views Western culture as corrupting, immoral, and materialistic.<br />3. Wants to establish Islamic governments based on Islamic law (Shari’a) throughout the Muslim world. <br />
  24. 24. <ul><li>4. Goal is to overthrow all secular, pro-Western governments and replace them with Islamic dictatorships.
  25. 25. 5. Opposed to democracy because it puts the will of the people and man-made law ahead of God’s commandments.
  26. 26. 6. Views all Jews and Christians as infidels (“non-believers”) and as enemies of Islam. Calls for the destruction of Israel. </li></li></ul><li>The Rise of al Qaeda<br />
  27. 27. Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, 1979<br /><ul><li>Soviet Union invaded</li></ul> Afghanistan in 1979.<br /><ul><li>Mujahedeen (“Holy</li></ul> warriors”) from all over<br /> Islamic world fought <br /> jihad against Soviets.<br /><ul><li>CIA funded, trained, and</li></ul> armed the mujahedeen.<br />Soviets defeated in 1989.<br />
  28. 28. Osama bin Laden <br />Wealthy Saudi who raised <br /> money to train and arm <br /> mujahedeen.<br /><ul><li>Led Arab fighters in battles </li></ul> against Soviets.<br />These Arabs were the start <br /> of al Qaeda (“The Base”)<br />
  29. 29. Bin Laden’s Path From Afghanistan to 9-11<br />1989 - Returns to Saudi Arabia after Soviets are defeated. <br />1990 - Turns against Saudi government and U.S. when U.S. troops are based in Saudi Arabia during Persian Gulf War.<br />1991 - Expelled from Saudi Arabia. Flees to Sudan.<br />1996 - Expelled from Sudan. Offered sanctuary in<br /> Afghanistan by the Taliban. Sets up terrorist training camps for al Qaeda. <br /><ul><li>1998 - Proclaims jihad against Americans and Jews. Issues fatwa saying it was the duty of every Muslim “to kill Americans.”</li></li></ul><li>Why Did bin Laden Target the U.S. ?<br /><ul><li>1. Believes U.S. wants to control</li></ul> Muslim lands. <br /><ul><li>2. U.S. support of Israel, which</li></ul> murders Palestinians and<br /> robs them of their lands.<br /><ul><li>3. U.S. support for corrupt and</li></ul> repressive governments in<br /> in Muslim countries like Egypt,<br /> Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan.<br /><ul><li>4. America’s military presence</li></ul> in Saudi Arab defiles Muslim’s<br /> holy land.<br />
  30. 30. Wanted: Dead or Alive<br />
  31. 31. Where is bin Laden?<br />
  32. 32. Al Qaeda: Targeting the U.S.<br />1998 U.S. embassies <br /> bombed in Kenya <br /> and Tanzania.<br />2000 Bombing of U.S.S. <br /> Cole in Yemen<br /> killed 17 sailors.<br /> <br />
  33. 33. Al Qaeda: A Global Terrorist Network<br />
  34. 34. Major Terrorist Attacks Since 9-11<br />London<br />2005<br />Madrid 2004<br />Mumbai<br />2008<br />Bali <br />2002<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36. September 11, 2001<br />
  37. 37. The Headlines<br />
  38. 38. The Hijackers<br />
  39. 39. The Significance of 9-11<br /><ul><li>Changed the focus of U.S. </li></ul> foreign policy overnight.<br /><ul><li>The “war on terrorism” </li></ul> became the central concern of the Bush administration.<br /><ul><li>There was no “war on terror-</li></ul> ism before 9-11.<br />
  40. 40. The War on Terrorism<br />
  41. 41. Bush’s Response<br />Characterized attacks as <br /> “more than acts of terror, <br /> they were acts of war”.<br />“We will make no distinction <br /> between the terrorists who <br /> committed these acts and <br /> those who harbor them.”<br />Viewed war on terrorism <br /> with “moral clarity” - as a <br /> war between good and evil.<br />Bush's speech to nation on 9-11<br />Bush speech to Congress on 9-20<br />
  42. 42. Bush’s Response<br />“Every nation, in every region, <br /> now has a decision to make: <br /> Either you are with us, or you <br /> are with the terrorists.”<br />Recruited worldwide coalition<br /> to fight a “war on terrorism.”<br />
  43. 43. Worldwide Support for U.S.<br />Strong support from U.S. <br /> allies.<br /><ul><li>NATO invoked Article 5 </li></ul> of its charter for the first <br /> and only time! <br />
  44. 44. National Security Strategy 2002<br /><ul><li>The Bush Doctrine, a new </li></ul> strategy for fighting terrorism, <br /> was first spelled out in this <br /> document.<br />Identified greatest threat facing <br /> the U.S. and the world today: <br /> Terrorist networks with global <br /> reach coexisting with rogue <br /> states possessing WMD.<br />Warned that terrorists might <br /> soon acquire these WMD and <br /> use them against the U.S.<br />
  45. 45. The Bush Doctrine <br />Doctrine asserted that U.S. <br /> must defend itself by acting<br />preemptivelyagainst these <br /> terrorists and rogue states – <br /> before they can use WMD <br /> against us.<br /><ul><li>Asserted right to act against </li></ul> “emerging” threats “before <br /> they are fully formed” -- not <br /> just immediate threats<br />Controversial interpretation<br /> of the tradition right to self-<br /> defense. Why?<br />
  46. 46. Preemption vs. Prevention<br />Sounded more like preventive <br /> war, not preemption. What’s <br /> the difference?<br />Preemption involves the use <br /> of force to stop an imminent <br />threat.<br />Prevention involves the use <br /> of force to stop potential or <br /> future threats.<br />