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Israeli Palestinian Conflict Student Version

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Israeli Palestinian Conflict Student Version

  1. 1. Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
  2. 2. BACKGROUND OF THE CONFLICT
  3. 3. What is the focus of this conflict? <ul><li>LAND! </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Zionist Movement <ul><li>Movement to establish Jewish </li></ul><ul><li>state in Palestine , the biblical </li></ul><ul><li>homeland of the Jews. </li></ul><ul><li>European Jews emigrated to </li></ul><ul><li>Palestine in large numbers </li></ul><ul><li>following World War I, with </li></ul><ul><li>support of League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>and the British government. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Palestinians <ul><li>Palestinians were and still are the Arab </li></ul><ul><li>inhabitants of Palestine . </li></ul><ul><li>Opposed the creation of Jewish </li></ul><ul><li>state in their homeland. </li></ul><ul><li>Violent conflicts broke out </li></ul><ul><li>in Palestine between Arabs </li></ul><ul><li>and Jews during Zionist Movement. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Post- WWII, Britain sends the issue to the United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>U.N. partitioned British-controlled Palestine into Arab and Jewish states. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews accepted partition plan & were happy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Received 55% of land even though they had only 34% of the population </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All Islamic countries voted against it and Palestinians rejected it outright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World supported it because they felt bad about the holocaust </li></ul></ul>1947 U.N. Partition Plan
  7. 7. 1948 First Arab-Israeli War <ul><li>May 15, 1948 – Israel declared itself </li></ul><ul><li>an independent state. </li></ul><ul><li>Led to first Arab-Israeli War. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Israel immediately attacked </li></ul><ul><li>by five Arab countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Syria </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan </li></ul><ul><li>Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Lebanon </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel defeated the combined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arab countries – and seized </li></ul><ul><li>territory UN had designated </li></ul><ul><li>for the Palestinians. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cease-fire agreement ended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>fighting, but Arabs refused to </li></ul><ul><li>sign peace treaty. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Arab country recognized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Israel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>750,000 Palestinian refugees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>fled to Arab states. </li></ul>Victorious Israeli soldiers 1948 Palestinian refugees 1948
  10. 10. Israeli territory before and after the 1948 war:
  11. 11. CONFLICTS / PEACE AGREEMENTS BETWEEN ISRAEL AND PALESTINE
  12. 13. 1956 The Suez War <ul><li>Egypt nationalized Suez Canal. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel, Britain and France. </li></ul><ul><li>attacked Egypt and captured </li></ul><ul><li>the canal and Sinai peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. opposed attack and U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>and U.N. imposed a cease-fire </li></ul><ul><li>and a withdraw from Sinai. </li></ul>Egyptian President Gamel Abdel Nasser
  13. 15. 1967 The Six Day War <ul><li>Israel preemptively attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt after Egypt mobilized </li></ul><ul><li>its army. </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan and Syria attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>War ended with decisive </li></ul><ul><li>victory for Israel and Israel </li></ul><ul><li>tripled amount of territory </li></ul><ul><li>it controlled. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Results of Six Day War <ul><li>Israel captured this </li></ul><ul><li>territory in 1967: </li></ul><ul><li>Golan Heights </li></ul><ul><li>from Syria. </li></ul><ul><li>West Bank and </li></ul><ul><li>East Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>from Jordan. </li></ul><ul><li>Sinai Peninsula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and Gaza Strip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from Egypt. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Results of the Six Day War <ul><li>Israel now governed 1 million </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinians in Gaza and the </li></ul><ul><li>West Bank. </li></ul><ul><li>UN Security Council passed </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution 242 calling for </li></ul><ul><li>Israel to withdraw from the </li></ul><ul><li>occupied territories. Israel </li></ul><ul><li>refused. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called for Arab states to </li></ul><ul><li>recognize Israel and guarantee </li></ul><ul><li>security of Israel’s borders. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Results of the Six Day War <ul><li>Arab’s suffered humiliating </li></ul><ul><li>defeat, but Arab leaders </li></ul><ul><li>remained committed to </li></ul><ul><li>Israel’s destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Palestinians became </li></ul><ul><li>radicalized and turned to </li></ul><ul><li>guerilla groups like the </li></ul><ul><li>PLO . </li></ul>
  17. 19. Rise of The PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) <ul><li>Yasser Arafat’s group, Fatah , </li></ul><ul><li>took control of the PLO (1969). </li></ul><ul><li>Actions - Under Arafat, PLO fought a </li></ul><ul><li>decades-long guerilla war </li></ul><ul><li>against Israel to “liberate </li></ul><ul><li>Palestine.” </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: Destruction of Israel </li></ul><ul><li>and establishment of secular </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinian state. </li></ul>PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat
  18. 20. PLO Map
  19. 21. Yasser Arafat: Terrorist or Freedom Fighter? Israel and U.S. branded Arafat as a terrorist, but he was admired as a freedom fighter by Palestinians and their allies throughout the world.
  20. 22. PLO Terrorism Munich Olympics 1972 Palestinian terrorist from “Black September” 11 Israeli athletes and coaches killed at Munich
  21. 23. 1973 Yom Kippur War <ul><li>Egypt and Syria attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Israel on Jewish holy day. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel repelled attack and </li></ul><ul><li>cease-fire declared. </li></ul>
  22. 24. 1979 Camp David Accords <ul><li>Peace treaty signed by Israel </li></ul><ul><li>and Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt became first Arab state </li></ul><ul><li>to recognize Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel returned Sinai Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>to Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Anwar Sadat assassinated by </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic extremists in 1981. </li></ul>President Carter with Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin
  23. 25. 1982 Israel’s Invasion of Lebanon <ul><li>Israel invaded Lebanon to </li></ul><ul><li>destroy PLO bases. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated settlement </li></ul><ul><li>allowed Arafat and PLO </li></ul><ul><li>fighters to go to Tunisia. </li></ul><ul><li>Israeli army occupied </li></ul><ul><li>southern Lebanon for </li></ul><ul><li>almost 20 years (until </li></ul><ul><li>2000) </li></ul>
  24. 26. Rise of Hezbollah (“Party of God”) <ul><li>Lebanese resistance group </li></ul><ul><li>formed in in response to </li></ul><ul><li>Israel’s occupation. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic extremists who </li></ul><ul><li>oppose Israel’s existence. </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by Iran and </li></ul><ul><li>Syria. </li></ul><ul><li>Considered to be terrorist </li></ul><ul><li>group by the U.S. </li></ul>Hezbollah leader Hassen Nasrallah and Hezbollah fighters
  25. 27. 1987-1990 First Intifada <ul><li>Palestinian uprising against </li></ul><ul><li>Israeli occupation of West </li></ul><ul><li>Bank and Gaza. </li></ul><ul><li>First suicide attacks in Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>1,500 Palestinians and 400 </li></ul><ul><li>Israeli’s died over six years. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Rise of Hamas <ul><li>Islamic militant group </li></ul><ul><li>founded in 1987 with vow </li></ul><ul><li>to “liberate Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>through violent jihad.” </li></ul><ul><li>Has carried out scores of </li></ul><ul><li>suicide bombings against </li></ul><ul><li>Israel during past decade. </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by Iran and </li></ul><ul><li>Syria. </li></ul>
  27. 29. 1993 Oslo Accords <ul><li>President Clinton brokered </li></ul><ul><li>peace agreement between </li></ul><ul><li>Israel and the PLO. </li></ul><ul><li>PLO recognized Israel’s </li></ul><ul><li>right to exist and renounced </li></ul><ul><li>use of violence. </li></ul><ul><li>PLO goal now a Palestinian </li></ul><ul><li>state next to Israel. </li></ul>Clinton with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat
  28. 30. Oslo Accords: “Land for Peace” <ul><li>Israel agreed to gradual Palestinian </li></ul><ul><li>self-rule in Gaza and West Bank as </li></ul><ul><li>first steps towards establishment of </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinian state. </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinian Authority (PA) created </li></ul><ul><li>to govern Palestinian territories. </li></ul><ul><li>Arafat became first leader of the PA. </li></ul>
  29. 31. 1994 Jordanian-Israeli Peace Agreement <ul><li>Jordan became only </li></ul><ul><li>the second Arab state </li></ul><ul><li>to sign a peace treaty </li></ul><ul><li>with Israel. </li></ul>
  30. 32. 2000 - 2005 Second Intifada <ul><li>Clinton’s attempt to reach </li></ul><ul><li>final settlement between </li></ul><ul><li>Israel and Palestinians in </li></ul><ul><li>2000 failed. </li></ul><ul><li>Led to second, more violent, </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinian uprising. </li></ul><ul><li>Dozens of suicide bombings </li></ul><ul><li>in Israel and Israeli crack- </li></ul><ul><li>down in Gaza / West Bank </li></ul><ul><li>left thousands dead. </li></ul>
  31. 34. New Palestinian Leadership 2004 <ul><li>Yasser Arafat died </li></ul><ul><li>in 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Mahmoud Abbas </li></ul><ul><li>elected as Arafat’s </li></ul><ul><li>successor. </li></ul>
  32. 35. 2005 Israeli Disengagement <ul><li>Israel acted to “disengage” from </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinians by evacuating all </li></ul><ul><li>Gaza settlements and withdraw- </li></ul><ul><li>ing all troops from Gaza. </li></ul><ul><li>Also began construction of a </li></ul><ul><li>controversial security barrier </li></ul><ul><li>separating Israel from the West </li></ul><ul><li>Bank. </li></ul>
  33. 36. 2006 Lebanon War <ul><li>Hezbollah attacked Israeli </li></ul><ul><li>civilian areas with rockets </li></ul><ul><li>and killed eight Israeli </li></ul><ul><li>soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel responded by bombing </li></ul><ul><li>and invading Lebanon again </li></ul><ul><li>to destroy Hezbollah. </li></ul><ul><li>Month-long war leaves 1,500 </li></ul><ul><li>dead before U.N. brokered </li></ul><ul><li>cease-fire agreement. </li></ul>
  34. 37. 2006 Hamas Election Victory <ul><li>Hamas won surprise victory </li></ul><ul><li>over Fatah in Palestinian </li></ul><ul><li>elections and takes control </li></ul><ul><li>of Palestinian parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates bitter division b/ </li></ul><ul><li>Fatah and Hamas. </li></ul><ul><li>Western nations cut off aid </li></ul><ul><li>to Palestinian Authority. </li></ul>
  35. 38. 2007 Palestinian Civil War <ul><li>In 2007 fighting broke out </li></ul><ul><li>in Gaza between Hamas and </li></ul><ul><li>Fatah forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Hamas defeated Fatah and </li></ul><ul><li>took control of Gaza. </li></ul><ul><li>Fatah now controls only the </li></ul><ul><li>parts of the West Bank not </li></ul><ul><li>under Israeli occupation. </li></ul>Hamas fighters Fatah fighters
  36. 39. Palestinian Power Struggle Today
  37. 40. <ul><li>Hamas </li></ul><ul><li>Fatah </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic extremists. </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by Iran and </li></ul><ul><li>Syria. </li></ul><ul><li>No recognition of Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls all of Gaza. </li></ul><ul><li>Secular moderates. </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by U.S., E.U. </li></ul><ul><li>and most Arab states. </li></ul><ul><li>Wants peace with Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls parts of West Bank not under Israel control. </li></ul>Hamas vs. Fatah: How They Compare
  38. 41. 2008-2009 War in Gaza <ul><li>Almost daily rocket attacks against </li></ul><ul><li>Israeli towns provoked Israeli </li></ul><ul><li>air strikes and ground assault </li></ul><ul><li>against Hamas in Gaza. </li></ul><ul><li>Three week long war killed 1,400 </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinians and 13 Israelis. </li></ul><ul><li>Both sides accused of war crimes </li></ul><ul><li>(deliberately targeting civilians) </li></ul><ul><li>and Israel widely criticized for </li></ul><ul><li>using excessive force. </li></ul>
  39. 42. UNRESOLVED ISSUES
  40. 43. Unresolved Issues <ul><li>What are the </li></ul><ul><li>unresolved </li></ul><ul><li>issues </li></ul><ul><li>preventing a </li></ul><ul><li>final peace </li></ul><ul><li>agreement </li></ul><ul><li>between </li></ul><ul><li>Israel and </li></ul><ul><li>the </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinians? </li></ul>President Obama with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian President Malmond Abbas.
  41. 45. Unresolved Issue # 1 Permanent Borders of Palestinian State <ul><li>Palestinians want Israeli withdraw </li></ul><ul><li>to pre-1967 borders and establish- </li></ul><ul><li>ment of independent Palestinian </li></ul><ul><li>state in the West Bank and Gaza. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel still occupies and controls </li></ul><ul><li>parts of the West Bank. </li></ul><ul><li>300,000 Jewish settlers now live in </li></ul><ul><li>West Bank and Israel has annexed </li></ul><ul><li>some West Bank territory. </li></ul>
  42. 46. Israeli West Bank Settlements
  43. 47. Peace Process Stalled Over Settlements <ul><li>Palestinians insist that Israel halt </li></ul><ul><li>expansion of all settlements before </li></ul><ul><li>they’ll return to peace talks. </li></ul><ul><li>Current Israeli government has so </li></ul><ul><li>far refused. </li></ul><ul><li>Obama has backed off demands for </li></ul><ul><li>complete halt to construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinians have accused U.S. of </li></ul><ul><li>“ backpedaling” on settlement issue. </li></ul>Obama and Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu Obama and Palestinian President Abbas
  44. 49. Unresolved Issue # 2 Palestinian Refugees and Right of Return <ul><li>Four million displaced Palestinians </li></ul><ul><li>today living in refugee camps in </li></ul><ul><li>occupied territories and neighboring </li></ul><ul><li>Arab states. </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinians want refugees or their </li></ul><ul><li>descendants to be able to return to </li></ul><ul><li>homes they lost in 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel has rejected idea of refugees </li></ul><ul><li>returning to Israel. Would threaten </li></ul><ul><li>existence of Israel as a Jewish state. </li></ul>
  45. 51. Unresolved Issue # 3 Control of East Jerusalem <ul><li>Palestinians want East Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>as the capital of their future state. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel has annexed East Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>and has vowed it will never give it </li></ul><ul><li>up. </li></ul><ul><li>Residents of East Jerusalem mostly </li></ul><ul><li>Palestinians, but 250,000 Israelis </li></ul><ul><li>now live there as well. </li></ul>
  46. 52. Unresolved Issue # 4 Secure Borders for Israel <ul><li>How to guarantee </li></ul><ul><li>security of Israel’s </li></ul><ul><li>borders if radicals </li></ul><ul><li>refuse to recognize </li></ul><ul><li>Israel’s right to </li></ul><ul><li>exist and continue </li></ul><ul><li>to launch cross- </li></ul><ul><li>border attacks? </li></ul>
  47. 53. West Bank Wall <ul><li>It is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A barrier being constructed by Israel separating Israeli settlements from Palestinians in the West Bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly a concrete & steel wall but has some electric, barbed wire, and ditch barriers </li></ul></ul>
  48. 56. Why Create the West Bank Wall? <ul><li>It was created to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect Israelis from Palestinian terrorist attacks (especially suicide bombings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a temporary (according to Israel) measure until country’s security can be guaranteed </li></ul></ul>
  49. 57. Reaction of Building the West Bank Wall <ul><li>Israel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claims attacks originating from West Bank have dropped 90% due to wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israeli Supreme Court said barrier was legal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palestinians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrier cuts off 17% of West Bank area that was theirs! They think they won’t get their land back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents Palestinians from traveling to work, school, or to see families at times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestinians farmers have been separated from their land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed resolution in 2004 demanding Israel tear down wall (150-6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U..S., Israel, & Australia voted against (Canada abstained) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 58. Key Player - ISRAEL <ul><li>Origins – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balfour Declaration spurs Jewish immigration to Palestine in beginning of 20 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Nations declares partition of Palestine into both a Palestinian & Jewish state in 1947 </li></ul></ul>
  51. 59. Major Goals <ul><ul><li>Have every country in world recognize it as a legitimate state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop terrorism in their country & surrounding areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep most of holy land </li></ul></ul>
  52. 60. Actions to Obtain Goals <ul><ul><li>Differences of opinion on how to do things… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diplomatic Negotiations : Many ready to end violence and support giving up some territory for security guarantees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military Force : Others want to forcefully rid area of terrorist or militant groups and Palestinians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples - Build walls, build up army, develop nukes, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel & Palestine have been involved in many peace negotiations but major agreements never came about </li></ul></ul>
  53. 61. What should we do with the land? <ul><ul><li>Israel should retain most of territory but recognize Palestine as its own state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestine can control parts of West Bank and Gaza strip if they prevent terrorism to Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel must keep Jerusalem (the holiest city of the land) </li></ul></ul>
  54. 62. Key Player - FATAH <ul><li>Origins – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization founded in 1950-1960s led by Yasser Arafat (first called PLO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed to promote armed struggle to liberate Palestine from Israeli control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatah became the backbone of Palestinian authority (PA) </li></ul></ul>
  55. 63. Major Goals <ul><ul><li>Strong critic of using violence against Israeli civilians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue peace talks with Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain land and sovereignty over Palestine </li></ul></ul>
  56. 64. Actions to Obtain Goals <ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1960s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1987 – Intifada (“uprising”) broke out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000 – 2 nd intifada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Much more violence broke out with suicide bombings, attacks on settlers and Israeli soldiers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel & world saw Arafat and his party as a problem so Fatah lost support/recognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed new prime minister Mahmoud Abbas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New direction for party falling apart, divided, corrupt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brought short-lived cease-fire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Losing support of Palestinians to more extremist Hamas group </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 65. What should we do with the land? <ul><ul><li>Set up Palestinian state in West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow Israel to keep rest of land </li></ul></ul>
  58. 66. Key Player – HEZBOLLAH <ul><li>Origins – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started in 1982 after Israel invaded Lebanon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to provide strong armed resistance to Israeli occupation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based in Lebanon </li></ul></ul>
  59. 67. Major Goals <ul><ul><li>Calls for the destruction of the state of Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All land should be owned and governed by a Muslim Palestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release all prisoners (from Lebanon) in Israeli jails </li></ul></ul>
  60. 68. Actions to Obtain Goals <ul><ul><li>Use Military Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have 500-600 full-time, highly trained/motivated fighters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1000s in reserves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begun to win parliamentary seats in Lebanon government </li></ul></ul>
  61. 69. What should we do with the land? <ul><ul><li>Give everything to Palestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel must get out of Lebanon completely! </li></ul></ul>

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