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Improving Visibility and Reducing Resistance of Writers to Fusion of Handwritten and Type Characters

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The 10th International Conference on Collaboration Technologies 発表資料(佐々木美香子)

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Improving Visibility and Reducing Resistance of Writers to Fusion of Handwritten and Type Characters

  1. 1. Improving Visibility and Reducing Resistance of Writers to Fusion of Handwritten and Type Characters Mikako Sasaki (Meiji University) Junki Saito, Satoshi Nakamura (Meiji University)
  2. 2. How do you communicate with others? Face-to-face Video Calling Chat Message Card
  3. 3. One of the communication in Japan Japan is caught on the culture of “New Year’s card”
  4. 4. Survey on handwriting 2014, Zebra Corporation Q. Have you feel the goodness of handwriting? Q. Which are you happy to receive New Year’s card written by hand or typeface? 2011, Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs Typeface 5% By Hand 88% Neither 6% Strongly agree 55% Agree 35% Agree a little 10%
  5. 5. Strongly agree 55% Agree 35% Agree a little 10% Survey on handwriting 2014, Zebra Corporation Q. Have you feel the goodness of handwriting? Q. Which are you happy to receive New Year’s card written by hand or printed? 2011, Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs Printed 5% By Hand 88% Neither 6% Handwriting can feel the trouble of writing and the unique characteristics.
  6. 6. Resistance to handwriting But, most Japanese have resistance to handwriting a message themselves. 2014, Survey on handwriting (Zebra Corporation) More than 80% of Japanese people feel their own’s handwriting are bad. → Ashamed of showing handwritten text to others!
  7. 7. Resistance to handwriting But, most Japanese have resistance to handwriting a message themselves. 2014, Survey on handwriting (Zebra Corporation) More than 80% of Japanese people are bad at handwriting. → Ashamed of showing handwritten text to others! Many Japanese actually want to write by hand, but use typeface from bad conscious!
  8. 8. Typeface Easily type, and create a beautiful text message. The type of typeface is a wide variety. We had more opportunity to see in daily life!
  9. 9. Typeface Easily type, and create a beautiful text message. The type of typeface is a wide variety. We had more opportunity to see in daily life! But… Shape is off-the-shelf, so it is possible to give a mechanical impression.
  10. 10. Problems as communication Writers are ashamed of showing own’s handwriting to others. Handwriting Readers receive a mechanical impression to typeface. Typeface We want to solve these problems!
  11. 11. Fusion of handwriting and typeface “A Method to Increase Reader’s Empathy by Merging Their Handwritten Characters and Text in Speech Balloon in Digital Comics” [Saito ’17] Handwriting Typeface Fusion character
  12. 12. Fusion of handwriting and typeface “A Method to Increase Reader’s Empathy by Merging Their Handwritten Characters and Text in Speech Balloon in Digital Comics” [Saito ’17] Handwriting Typeface Fusion character The reader has a favorable impression?
  13. 13. Fusion of handwriting and typeface “A Method to Increase Reader’s Empathy by Merging Their Handwritten Characters and Text in Speech Balloon in Digital Comics” [Saito ’17] Handwriting Typeface Fusion character However, not clarify the reason that people had a favorable impression to the fusion character.
  14. 14. Goal of this study 1. People have positive feeling to fusion character? 2. What a positive feeling to fusion character comes from? Fusion characterHandwriting Typeface
  15. 15. Hypothesis Fusion character has both characteristics of handwriting and typeface? Hypothesis Characteristics of handwriting People feel a personal touch and appreciate the trouble of writing by hand. Characteristics of typeface High visibility and readability ➡︎ People reduce resistance to own’s handwriting.
  16. 16. To test a hypothesis… We perform an experiment to evaluate the impression to the fusion character.
  17. 17. In this study… 3 factors of “visibility”, ”readability” and “legibility” decide whether a character is easy to read We focus on “Universal design font (UD Font)” that was made in consideration of these factors, and perform experiments.
  18. 18. Method to generate fusion character We use Saito et al.’s method. ❶ Mathematization of handwriting ❷ Mathematization of typeface ❸ Fusion of handwriting and typeface Procedure to generate fusion character
  19. 19. ❶ Mathematization of handwriting Method to generate fusion character Obtain coordinate data of the line’s point Spline interpolation Mathematization by Fourier series expansion ❷ Mathematization of typeface ❸ Fusion of handwriting and typeface
  20. 20. Example of mathematization by Fourier series expansion http://satoken.nkmr.io/Char2Fourier X = 272.08cos(0t) + 0sin(0t) +16.62 cos(1t) + -0.09sin(1t) + 29.81cos(2t) + -0.32sin(2t) + -2.91cos(3t) + 0.05sin(3t) + -37.67cos(4t) + 0.8 sin(4t) + … Y = 229.95cos(0t) + 0sin(0t) + 48.82cos(1t) + -0.23sin(1t) + 4.75cos(2t) + -0.05sin(2t) + 44.24cos(3t) + -0.7sin(3t) + 16.89cos(4t) + -0.36sin(4t) + …
  21. 21. Method to generate fusion character ❶ Mathematization of handwriting ❷ Mathematization of typeface の Trace typeface. Calculate thickness and core of typeface Fourier series expansion ❸ Fusion of handwriting and typeface
  22. 22. Method to generate fusion character ❶ Mathematization of handwriting ❷ Mathematization of typeface ❸ Fusion of handwriting and typeface Weighted average on the basis of ❶, ❷ Fusion character = Typeface × α + Handwriting × (1ーα) Handwriting Typeface a=0 a=0.25 a=1.0a=0.75a=0.5
  23. 23. We performed an experiment with message card. Experiment to evaluate the impression Divide into the writer and the reader, and perform the experiment. In this study…
  24. 24. Build the data set of message cards 15 participants write ”Thank you” in Japanese. Synthesize fusion character on message card Generate fusion character
  25. 25. Build the data set of message cards 15 participants write ”Thank you” in Japanese. Synthesize fusion character on message card Generate fusion character
  26. 26. Fonts used experiments We selected two typefaces of “Mincho” and “Gothic”. Mincho Gothic In Japan, these are among the most commonly used typefaces.
  27. 27. Examples of created fusion character Mincho Gothic Handwriting (Fusion ratio 0.0) Fusion character (Fusion ratio 0.5) Typeface (Fusion ratio 1.0) Handwriting (Fusion ratio 0.0) Fusion character (Fusion ratio 0.5) Typeface (Fusion ratio 1.0)
  28. 28. Build the data set of message cards 15 participants write ”Thank you” in Japanese. Synthesize fusion character on message card Generate fusion character
  29. 29. Examples of message card used in experiment Handwriting (Fusion ratio 0.0) Typeface (Fusion ratio 1.0) Fusion character (Fusion ratio 0.5)
  30. 30. Reason that we set 0.5 in the fusion character Handwriting (Fusion ratio 0.0) Typeface (Fusion ratio 1.0) Fusion character (Fusion ratio 0.5) Because it showed that people had most positive feeling in 0.5 of fusion ratio.
  31. 31. Procedure of the experiments Only evaluate card that the writer’s own was written. Evaluate cards that all of the writer were written. A reader ••• All writer’s cards Reader’s side Writer’s side A writer A writer’s own card Evaluate Evaluate
  32. 32. ❶ Which message card… - the writers wanted to send? - the readers wanted to receive? ❷ What impression - the writers had for the message card? - the readers had for the message card? Items of the experiments
  33. 33. ❶ Which message card… - the writers wanted to send? - the readers wanted to receive? ❷ What impression - the writers had for the message card? - the readers had for the message card? First experiments
  34. 34. Experimental procedure:Writer’s side 15 participants of the writer 3 type of cards Present Own’s handwriting typeface Fusion character Rank
  35. 35. Experimental procedure:Writer’s side 15 participants of the writer Present Rank 1st = 3 point 2nd = 1 point 3rd = 0 point
  36. 36. Experimental procedure:Reader’s side 15 participants of the writer 3 type of cards Present writer’s handwriting typeface Fusion character Rank
  37. 37. We presented an image of a Japanese character in variety of typefaces for 3 seconds to participants. Between each trial… ➡︎ Because the ranking was not affected by a comparison with the previous or next card.
  38. 38. Writer’s results:Mean of the degree to which writers wanted to send -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mincho Gothic Handwriting Fusion character Typeface *p < 0.05 * *
  39. 39. -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mincho Gothic Handwriting Fusion character Typeface The writers want to send cards in the fusion character! Writer’s results:Mean of the degree to which writers wanted to send *p < 0.05 **
  40. 40. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Mincho Gothic Handwriting Fusion character Typeface Reader’s results:Mean of the degree to which readers wanted to receive *p < 0.05 **
  41. 41. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Mincho Gothic Handwriting Fusion character Typeface The readers want to receive cards in the fusion character! Reader’s results:Mean of the degree to which readers wanted to receive * *p < 0.05 *
  42. 42. Summary:First experimental results From first experiments… The writers The readers The reader want to receive a card written with fusion character of writer’s handwriting and typeface. The writers want to send a card written with fusion character of own’s handwriting and typeface.
  43. 43. Second experiments ❶ Which message card… - the writers wanted to send? - the readers wanted to receive? ❷ What impression - the writers had for the message card? - the readers had for the message card?
  44. 44. Experimental procedure:Writer’s side 15 participants of the writer Card written with own’s handwriting, typeface, or fusion character Present Evaluate using SD method
  45. 45. Experimental procedure:Reader’s side 15 participants of the reader Card written with all writer’s handwriting, typeface, or fusion character Present Evaluate using SD method •••
  46. 46. Adjectives using an evaluation We selected adjectives from related work on impression of typeface and handwriting, and SD method. Adjectives on visibility and readability Adjectives on complexity of handwriting Adjectives on characteristics of handwriting  Hard-to-read ーEasy-to-read  BadーBeautiful  Indistinct ーDistinct  Hesitant ーConfident  Resistant ーAcceptable  Familiar ーUnfamiliar  Simple ーElaborate  GenericーUnique
  47. 47. Adjectives using an evaluation We selected adjectives from related work on impression of typeface and handwriting, and SD method. Adjectives on visibility and readability Adjectives on complexity of handwriting Adjectives on characteristics of handwriting  Hard-to-read ーEasy-to-read  BadーBeautiful  Indistinct ーDistinct  Hesitant ーConfident  Resistant ーAcceptable  Familiar ーUnfamiliar  Simple ーElaborate  GenericーUnique Writer’s side
  48. 48. Adjectives using an evaluation We selected adjectives from related work on impression of typeface and handwriting, and SD method. Adjectives on visibility and readability Adjectives on complexity of handwriting Adjectives on characteristics of handwriting  Hard-to-read ーEasy-to-read  BadーBeautiful  Indistinct ーDistinct  Hesitant ーConfident  Resistant ーAcceptable  Familiar ーUnfamiliar  Simple ーElaborate  GenericーUnique Reader’s side
  49. 49. We presented an image of a Japanese character in variety of typefaces for 3 seconds to participants. Between each trial… ➡︎ Because the evaluation was not affected by a comparison with the previous or next card.
  50. 50. Writer’s results:Mean of impression evaluation Mincho Gothic
  51. 51. Ground of the graphs Mincho Gothic
  52. 52. Ground of the graphs Mincho Gothic
  53. 53. Ground of the graphs Mincho Gothic
  54. 54. Focusing on adjectives of visibility… Mincho Gothic
  55. 55. Focusing on adjectives of visibility… Mincho Gothic Evaluation for the fusion character is higher than for the handwriting
  56. 56. Focusing on adjectives of complexity of handwriting… Mincho Gothic
  57. 57. Focusing on adjectives of complexity of handwriting… Mincho Gothic Evaluation for the fusion character is higher than for the handwriting
  58. 58. Comparing terms of adjective pairs between fonts Mincho Gothic
  59. 59. Comparing terms of adjective pairs between fonts Mincho Gothic Adjectives on visibility and readability Mincho > Gothic
  60. 60. Why? Related to the thickness of character? Mincho Gothic Typeface Fusion character Thickness in fusion character depends on the thickness in typeface. → Gothic is thicker, so the evaluation was affected?
  61. 61. Mincho Gothic We performed one-way analysis of variance to determine whether the type of character was a factor. Writer’s results:one-way analysis of variance
  62. 62. Writer’s results:one-way analysis of variance Mincho Gothic We performed one-way analysis of variance to determine whether the type of character was a factor. Significant statistical differences in all adjective pairs
  63. 63. In the terms of “bad−beautiful”… Mincho Gothic
  64. 64. In the terms of “bad−beautiful”… Mincho Gothic The differences between handwriting and fusion character, typeface have an effect on the change of impression.
  65. 65. Mincho Gothic Reader’s results:Mean of impression evaluation Unfamiliar ー Familiar Unfamiliar ー Familiar
  66. 66. Ground of the graphs Mincho Gothic Familiar ー Unfamiliar Familiar ー Unfamiliar Unfamiliar ー Familiar Unfamiliar ー Familiar
  67. 67. Ground of the graphs Mincho Gothic Familiar ー Unfamiliar Familiar ー Unfamiliar Unfamiliar ー Familiar Unfamiliar ー Familiar
  68. 68. Ground of the graphs Mincho Gothic Familiar ー Unfamiliar Familiar ー Unfamiliar Unfamiliar ー Familiar Unfamiliar ー Familiar
  69. 69. Focusing on adjectives of visibility… Mincho Gothic Familiar ー Unfamiliar Familiar ー Unfamiliar Unfamiliar ー Familiar Unfamiliar ー Familiar
  70. 70. Focusing on adjectives of visibility… Mincho Gothic Evaluation for the fusion character is higher than for the handwriting Familiar ー Unfamiliar Familiar ー Unfamiliar Unfamiliar ー Familiar Unfamiliar ー Familiar
  71. 71. Focusing on adjectives of characteristics of handwriting… Mincho Gothic Familiar ー Unfamiliar Familiar ー Unfamiliar Unfamiliar ー Familiar Unfamiliar ー Familiar
  72. 72. Focusing on adjectives of characteristics of handwriting… Mincho Gothic Evaluation for the fusion character is higher than for typeface. Familiar ー Unfamiliar Familiar ー Unfamiliar Unfamiliar ー Familiar Unfamiliar ー Familiar
  73. 73. Characteristics of handwriting in the fusion character There is a difference in the shape of fusion character by the writer.
  74. 74. Focusing on the character Angle of character’s line and gap of character differ by virtue of the writer.
  75. 75. Characteristics of handwriting in the fusion character There is a difference in the shape of fusion character by the writer. Fusion character appears the characteristics of handwriting?
  76. 76. Comparing terms of adjective pairs between typefaces Mincho Gothic Familiar ー Unfamiliar Familiar ー Unfamiliar Unfamiliar ー Familiar Unfamiliar ー Familiar
  77. 77. Comparing terms of adjective pairs between fonts Mincho Gothic Item of “Familiar–Unfamiliar”, Handwriting < Fusion character Familiar ー Unfamiliar Familiar ー Unfamiliar Unfamiliar ー Familiar Unfamiliar ー Familiar
  78. 78. Why? Fusion characterHandwriting Typeface Fusion character isn’t completely typeface, but retains the elements of personal handwriting?
  79. 79. Summary:Second experimental results From second experiments… The writers The readers  Resistance to handwriting → Reduce ↓  Visibility and readability → Improve ↑  Characteristics of handwriting → Retain →  Visibility and readability → Improve ↑
  80. 80. Conclusion of this study The writer of message card Fusion character is… Improve visibility and readability → Reduce resistance to handwriting Want to send the card with fusion character! The reader of message card Fusion character is… Improve visibility and readability & Retain characteristics of handwriting Want to receive the card with fusion character!
  81. 81. Future Work Develop the message card application or service using the fusion character
  82. 82. Prototype system
  83. 83. Future Work Develop the message card application or service using the fusion character The exchange of card is easily possible on smartphones?
  84. 84. Difference between “Typeface” and “Font” In this presentation, I use differently both “Typeface” and “Font”. ABCDE ABCDE ABCDE ABCDE ABCDEABCDE ABCDEABCDE Typeface The mean of broad sense ABCDE Font The mean of particular kind
  85. 85. About the mathematization of typeface Decide new core by using calculation h(t) is distance from Circle of (f(t), g(t)) to tangent point of typeface Stroke calculation x = f(t) y = g(t) r = h(t) Calculation x = f(t), y = g(t) の
  86. 86. Fusion of handwriting and typeface Derivation of handwriting’s thickness Stroke calculation of handwriting x = f(t), y = g(t), r = h(t) Area of typeface / Thickness of character = Area per unit length → Calculate “h(t)” of thickness given handwriting
  87. 87. Previous study We conducted a reputation survey to fusion character. Fusion characterHandwriting Typeface  Fusion character VS Typeface VS Handwriting ➡︎ Positive impression to fusion character.  Own’s handwriting VS Other’s handwriting ➡︎ Not necessarily more positive feeling to fusion character with own’s handwriting.
  88. 88. Previous study We conducted a reputation survey to fusion character. Fusion characterHandwriting Typeface  Fusion character VS Typeface VS Handwriting ➡︎ Positive impression to fusion character.  Own’s handwriting VS Other’s handwriting ➡︎ Not necessarily more positive feeling to fusion character with own’s handwriting. But, can’t be still clear what a positive feeling to fusion character

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