Blood Banking

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Blood Banking

  1. 1. Blood Grouping Reagents <ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Full name </li></ul><ul><li>Date of birth </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital reference number </li></ul><ul><li>Sample collection date </li></ul><ul><li>Phlebotomist s initials </li></ul>
  2. 2. History of Blood Groups and Blood Transfusions                        <ul><li>Experiments with blood transfusions have been carried out for hundreds of years. Many patients have died and it was not until 1901, when the Austrian Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups, that blood transfusions became safer. </li></ul><ul><li>He found that m ixing blood from two individuals can lead to blood clumping. The clumped RBCs can crack and cause toxic reactions. This can be fatal. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood clumping was an immunological reaction which occurs when the receiver of a blood transfusion has antibodies against the donor blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Landsteiner's work made it possible to determine blood types and thus paved the way for blood transfusions to be carried out safely. For this discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930. </li></ul>History of Blood Groups and Blood Transfusions (Cont.)
  4. 4. Agglutination reactions <ul><li>Agglutination </li></ul><ul><li>4 (++++) </li></ul><ul><li>3 (+++) </li></ul><ul><li>2 (++) </li></ul><ul><li>1 (+) ( >20 RBC) </li></ul><ul><li>Braket (+) ( 12_20 RBC ) </li></ul><ul><li>Weak (w) ( 4_6 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed field ? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Haemolysis <ul><li>4 محلول رویی قرمز و بعد از تکان دادن کاملا شفاف است </li></ul>h <ul><li>3 </li></ul>+ h <ul><li>3 </li></ul>h <ul><li>2 </li></ul>h <ul><li>1 </li></ul>h <ul><li>(+) </li></ul>h <ul><li>W </li></ul>h <ul><li>Negative </li></ul>
  6. 7. H A B
  7. 8. Blood group A If you belong to the blood group A, you have A antigens on the surface of your RBCs and B antibodies in your blood plasma.                               Blood group B If you belong to the blood group B, you have B antigens on the surface of your RBCs and A antibodies in your blood plasma.
  8. 9. Blood group AB If you belong to the blood group AB, you have both A and B antigens on the surface of your RBCs and no A or B antibodies at all in your blood plasma Blood group O If you belong to the blood group O (null), you have neither A or B antigens on the surface of your RBCs but you have both A and B antibodies in your blood plasma.
  9. 11. V 1 × 100 %(5 or 20) = V طرز تهیه سوسپانسیون /4 × 100 5 = 8
  10. 13. <ul><li>Test-tube group </li></ul><ul><li>Test-tube group:immediate spin </li></ul><ul><li>Tile group </li></ul><ul><li>Saline room temperature technique </li></ul>
  11. 14. Test-tube group /3 × 100 3 = 10 Anti-AB Anti-A Anti-B RT=18-22 for one hour A1 A2 B O
  12. 15. Patient 2 Patient 3 Patient 4 Own control + + + + + + + + + + + A 1 A 2 B + O Group + _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A B AB O _ Reagent Patient 1 Anti-A Anti-B Anti-AB
  13. 16. One minute at 200 g Test-tube group : immediate spin Anti-A Anti-B Anti-AB %3 %3 %3 Anti-A Anti-B Anti-AB
  14. 17. <ul><li>10% </li></ul><ul><li>40% </li></ul>
  15. 19. %3 %3 Interpretation Dolichos Biflorus A1 , A1B A2 , A2B + _ آنتی سرمها را با سلولهای شناخته شده A1 و A2 کنترل کنید Anti-A1 Anti-A1 Anti-A1 Anti-A1
  16. 20. Rh D typing <ul><li>Anti-D+C </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-D+C+E </li></ul><ul><li>Saline anti-D </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete anti-D </li></ul>Rh D typing controls <ul><li>D positive cell control </li></ul><ul><li>D negative cell control </li></ul><ul><li>AB serum control with cells under test </li></ul>
  17. 21. 5 4 4 3 Check DAT Anti-D Anti-D AB Interpretation 1 4 4 -------------- Rh D positive 2 ------ --------------- ------------- Rh D negative 3 weak 1 ------------- Repeat tests 4 4 -------- ----------------- Repeat tests

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