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Pengantar Metode Penelitian Kualitatif (Qualitative Research-An Introduction)

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Pengantar Metode Penelitian Kualitatif (Qualitative Research-An Introduction)

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Belajar apa itu metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif

Mengenal istilah-istilah Ontologi, Epistomologi, Methodologi, Metode dll

Happy Learning

Video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TaPugvOnCRQ

Belajar apa itu metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif

Mengenal istilah-istilah Ontologi, Epistomologi, Methodologi, Metode dll

Happy Learning

Video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TaPugvOnCRQ

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Pengantar Metode Penelitian Kualitatif (Qualitative Research-An Introduction)

  1. 1. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: AN INTRODUCTION Najmah, SKM, MPH, PhD najmah@fkm.unsri.ac.id Ig: najmah.usman.7
  2. 2. I kept trying to persuade my supervisors that I should use a mixed methodology. Sharyn said it was possible, but Sari said to focus on one approach only as we had a limited time. She said to focus on a qualitative approach. Honestly, at the first stage of my PhD, I was a bit disappointed, but I started to reflect on the benefits of my own journey using a qualitative approach under their intensive supervision. I learned the importance of ownership of the research process for my participants and me. It was challenging, but this process was eye opening for me as a public health researcher working in a positivism paradigm. I am Najmah–a positivist researcher (an epidemiologist and statistician) and now a novice practitioner of feminist and participatory action research. (Najmah, Research Journal, 2017)
  3. 3. Today’s Topic • The Foundation of Social Research • The Landscape of Qualitative Research • Research Onion
  4. 4. Philosopy of Empek-empek Kapal Selam (‘Submarine’ Fish cake)
  5. 5. Qualitative research is unique “Speaking in this vein sounds as if we create a methodology for ourselves—as if the focus of our research leads us to devise our own ways of proceeding that allow us to achieve our purposes. That, as it happens, is precisely the case. In a very real sense, every piece of research is unique and calls for a unique methodology. We, as the researcher, have to developed it” (Crotty, 1998, p. 14)
  6. 6. quantitative qualitative
  7. 7. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PARADIGM QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PARADIGM Cause and effect intuitive generalizable subjective masculine interviews measurement inductive Statistics Observable phenomena Generating theory deduction surveys participant observation systematic Soft heuristic Mechanistic deterministic Hermeneutics pluralism Causal relationships hard particular operational definitions diaries phenomenology hypothesis testing Interpretive naturalistic Experiment universal laws Grounded theory journals numerical testing humanistic narratives theory Social sciences Positivism reductionist critical theory ethnography Scientific natural sciences Randomized control trial (RCT) Critical social theory feminine Bassett, Chris, 2004. Qualitative research in Health care
  8. 8. Quantitative research • It feature a high level of reliability • It can be used to gather very large amounts of information into understandable forms that can then be used to enhance treatment and practice • Its finding can be tested using statistical means, helping one be sure of its reliability Bassett, Chris, 2004. Qualitative research in Health care
  9. 9. Qualitative research • Their origins in the field of social anthropology and sociology and are associated with the social sciences • It is adopted when little is known on a given topic and is associated with inductive forms of reasoning in an attempt to generate theory • It stressed the socially constructed nature of reality, the intimate relationship between the researcher and what is studied, and the situational constraints that shape inquire • This research is usually undertaken in a naturalistic setting where events are normally allowed to take their course unaffected by the research Bassett, Chris, 2004. Qualitative research in Health care
  10. 10. Qualitative research methods Picture: https://www.questionpro.com/blog/qualitative-research-methods/ Other methods: Visual methods Participatory methods Photovoice
  11. 11. One-on-one interview A personal interview that is carried out with one respondent at a time Focus groups A focus group usually included a limited number of respondent (6-10) from within your target informants Ethnographic research The most in-depth observational method that studies people in their naturally occurring environment Case study research It is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event. Case studies may be descriptive or explanatory Record keeping This method make use the already existing reliable documents and similar Process of observation Qualitative observation deals with the 5 major sensory organs and their functioning-sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing
  12. 12. The foundation of social research Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process. Sage
  13. 13. Epistemology Theoretical Perspective Methodology Methods Objectivism Constructionis m Subjectivism (and their variants) Positivism (and post-positivism) Interpretivism *Symbolic interactionism *Phenomenology *Hermeneutics Critical inquiry Feminism Postmodernism etc Experimental research Survey research Ethnologhraphy Phenomenological research Grounded theory Heuristic inquiry Action research Discourse analysis Feminist standpoint research etc Sampling Measurement and scaling Questionnaire Observation *participant *non-participant Interview Focus group Case study Life history Narrative Visual ethnographic (Crotty, 2008)
  14. 14. Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2008). The landscape of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, Calif. : Sage Publications, [2008].
  15. 15. Phase 1: The researcher as a multicultural subject History and research traditions Conceptions of self and the Others The ethics and politics of research Phase 2: Theoretical Paradigms and Perspectives Positivism, postpositivism Interpretivism, constructivism, hermeneutics Feminism (s) Racialized discourses Critical theory and Marxist models Cultural studies models Queer theory (Denzin, 2009)
  16. 16. Phase 3: Research strategies Design Case study Ethnography, participant observation, performance Ethnography Phenomenology, ethnomethodology Grounded theory Life history, testimoni Historical method Action and applied research Clinical research Phase 4: Methods of collection and analysis Interviewing Observing Artifacts, documents, and records Visual methods Authoethnography Data management methods Computer-assisted analysis Textual analysis Focus groups Applied ethnography (Denzin, 2009)
  17. 17. Paradigm/Theory • We defined a paradigm as a basic set of beliefs that guide action. • A paradigm encompassed four terms: ethics (axiology), epistemology, ontology, and methodology • The net that contains the researcher’s epistemological, ontological, and methodological premises may be termed a paradigm, or an interpretive framework, a “basic set of beliefs that guides action” (Guba, 1990, p.17). • All research is interpretive; it is guided by the researcher’s beliefs and feelings about the world and how it should be understood and studied.
  18. 18. Ontology • the nature of reality and the nature of the human being in the world social reality • “how things really are” and “how things really work” (Denzin and Lincoln, 2008, pp 245).
  19. 19. Epistemology What epistemology informs this theoretical framework? P.2 • Epistemology •  “The theory of knowledge embedded in the theoretical perspective and thereby in the methodology (Crotty 1998, p. 3)” •  How do I know the world?” What is the relationship between the inquirer and the known?” (Denzin, 2009)
  20. 20. Theoretical Perspective What theoretical perspective lies behind the methodology in question? • The philosophical stance informing the methodology and thus providing a context for the process and grounding its logic and criteria (Crotty, p.3)
  21. 21. Methodology What methodology governs our choice and use of methods? • The strategy, plan of action, process or design lying behind the choice and use of particular methods and linking the choice and use of methods to the desired outcomes (Crotty, p.3) • An artefact or overall guiding principle on how the researcher gains knowledge of the world and (Crotty, 1998; Sauders et al, 2009, Guba and Lincoln, 1998)
  22. 22. Methods What methods do we propose to use? • The techniques or procedures used to gather and analyze data related to some research question or hypothesis (Crotty, p.3) • The method includes tools and techniques used to accomplish this (Crotty, 1998; Sauders et al, 2009, Guba and Lincoln, 1998)
  23. 23. Research Onion
  24. 24. Research Onion https://thesismind.com/analysis-of-saunders-research-onion/ Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2012). Research methods for business students (6th ed.). Harlow, London, UK: Pearson.
  25. 25. Research Onion • The stages involved in the development of a research work • When viewed from the outside, each layer of the onion describes a more detailed stage of the research process
  26. 26. • The Saunders research onion stages include: – Research philosophy  Ontology, Epistemologi, Axiology Objectivism, Constructivism, Positivism – Research Approach: Deductive vs Inductive – Research strategies  Experimental, Survey, Case Study, Action Research – Research Choice  Mono, Mixed, Multi-method – Research time horizon  Cross sectional, Longitudinal – Analysis and Data collection https://thesismind.com/analysis-of-saunders-research-onion/
  27. 27. Research design by Hely Stenly Sajow, 2019 Better preparedness for better responses: Integrating maternal and reproductive health into disaster risk management: A qualitative case study from Indonesia https://openrepository.aut.ac.nz/handle/10292/13407
  28. 28. Research Onion *Feminist Participatory Action Research: Najmah, 2019: My baby deserve love, not HIV: Research design by Najmah, 2019
  29. 29. More videos • Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology - Research Methodology Course (Self-Study) • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kf8wGvu nyG8&feature=emb_logo
  30. 30. To understand today’s lecture, let’s we read example from some papers related to qualitative research Group Discussion Be Resilient student
  31. 31. Exercise • Read one journal with qualitative approach • Which approach they use • Please explain it to your friend

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