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Epidemiologi Sosial -Pengantar (Social Epidemiology-An Introduction)

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Epidemiologi Sosial -Pengantar (Social Epidemiology-An Introduction)

  1. 1. SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGY NAJMAH, SKM, MPH, PHD NURMALIA ERMI, SST, MKM
  2. 2. Refleksi Bonita’s Story Menurut saya, dari kasus Bu Bonita kita dapat mendapat pelajaran bahwa kasus HIV tidak hanya menyerang orang-orang pekerja seks dan orang yang bersalah ataupun akibat dari perilaku nya sendiri. Tetapi dapat menyerang siapa saja, kita harus lebih berhati-hati dalam melakukan apapun termasuk dalam melakukan hubungan seks dengan pasangan. Dan perlu adanya keterbukaan antara pasangan suami dan istri sehingga tahu latar belakang masing-masing. (FARIDA NUR AZIZA) Dari membaca kisah Ibu Bonita tadi hal yang dapat saya ketahui yaitu bagaimana pentingnya pendidikan tentang hiv/aids kepada seluruh kalangan termasuk ibu rumah tangga, karena selama ini pendidikan tersebut condong berpusat diberikan ke pekerja seks. (DIAN PALUPI )https://www.insideindonesia.org/ibu-rumah-tangga-dan- hiv
  3. 3. Today (1) Definition of Social Epidemiology epidemiologi sosial (2) History of Social Epidemiology (3) Sociostructural factors and determinants in the field of social epidemology
  4. 4. Definition of Social Epidemiology
  5. 5. Social Epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology that focuses particularly on the effects of social-structural factors on states of health. Social epidemiology assumes that the distribution of advantages and disadvantages in a society reflects the distribution of health and disease. The central and initial question of social epidemiology to be answered is what effect do social factors have on individual and population health. Social epidemiology focuses particularly on the effects of socio-structural factors on states of health Sumber: HONJO, Kaori, 2004, Social Epidemiology: Definition, History, and Research Examples
  6. 6. In other words..... The field of social epidemiology, suggesting a multilevel framework within which to think about causation and making it acceptable for social epidemiologists to make their central focus the study of how social factors, such as social ties, poverty, and racial segregation, might shape the health of populations. Pathways: the social, cultural, political and economic context Sumber: Galea, Sandro & Link, Bruce G, 2013, Six Paths for the Future of Social Epidemiology
  7. 7. History of Social Epidemiology
  8. 8. France • Villerme examined differences in mortality between the poor and the affluent Germany • Virchow reported the relationship between poor social conditions and the typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia London • Chadwick reported that unsanitary soil, air and water were major causes of diseases 19th century: Societal conditions affect physical health` The improved schooling and working conditions would reduce disparities in mortality between the poor and the affluent Unequal access to society’s products was the fundamental cause of unequal distribution of diseases in the society promoting sanitation measures to improve the health of the poor
  9. 9. Germ theory • New germs cause diseases The rise of infectious diseases • Exposure to a single individual risk factors to multipe single risk factors Modern epidemiology • Social epidemology— the importance of socio-structural factors on health as well as in a population perspective 20th century: Web of causation
  10. 10. Social epidemiologist argue “how do social conditions produce patterns and diseases”? The central question of social epidemiology “What are the effects of social factors such as social structure, culture and environment on both individual and population health?”
  11. 11. Sociostructural factors in the field of social epidemology SOCIAL EPIDEMIOLOGYSocial class Gender Race/Ethni city Discrimina tion Social network Income distribution Social policy Sumber: HONJO, Kaori, 2004, Social Epidemiology: Definition, History, and Research Examples
  12. 12. Social determinants of health
  13. 13. Example1: Integrated care:asolution forimproving Exchildren's health? Ingrid Wolfe, Claire Lemer, Hilary Cass, 2013, Integrated care: a solution for improving children's health?
  14. 14. How to understand the concept Let’s Reflecting on Bonita’s story What factors that contribute to women’s vulnerability to HIV? Please list them: 1. ......................................................................... 2. ......................................................................... 3. ......................................................................... 4. ......................................................................... 5. ......................................................................... 6.........................................................................etc
  15. 15. Individual factors: Interpersonal/Family factors: Social and community (health services) networks Socio-economic, cultural and environmental conditions Please categorise the factors into social determinants of health (from Bonita’s story)
  16. 16. How to create a health promotion to reduce the women’s vulnerability to HIV in Indonesian context? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G2quVLcJVBk
  17. 17. Let’s do a group discussion Visit E-learning Unsri https://elearning.unsri.ac.id/

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