A computer is a programmable machine designed to network and embody the Sun Microsystems slogan: "Thesequentially and automatically carry out a sequence of network is the computer."arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of Operating systemoperations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediasolve more than one kind of problem.Conventionally a computer consists of some form Operating systemsof memory for data storage, at least one element that carriesout arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing andcontrol element that can change the order of operations basedon the information that is stored. Peripheral devices allowinformation to be entered from an external source, and allowthe results of operations to be sent out.A computers processing unit executes series of instructionsthat make it read, manipulate and then store data. Conditionalinstructions change the sequence of instructions as a functionof the current state of the machine or its environment.The first electronic computers were developed in the mid-20thcentury (1940–1945). Originally, they were the size of a largeroom, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions tobillions of times more capable than the early machines, and Common features occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are smallenough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can Process managementbe powered by small batteries. Personal computers in their Interruptsvarious forms are icons of the Information Age and are what Memory managementmost people think of as "computers". However, the embedded File systemcomputers found in many devices from mp3 players to fighter Device driversaircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most Networking (TCP/IP, UDP)numerous. Security (Process/Memory protection)A computer is a device that accepts information (in the form I/Oof digitalized data) and manipulates it for some result basedon a program or sequence of instructions on how the data isto be processed. Complex computers also include the meansfor storing data (including the program, which is also a form of An operating system (OS) is a set of programs thatdata) for some necessary duration. A program may be manages computer hardware resources, and providesinvariable and built into the computer (and called logic common services for application software. The operatingcircuitry as it is onmicroprocessors) or different programs may system is the most important type of system software in abe provided to the computer (loaded into its storage and then computer system. Without an operating system, a user cannotstarted by an administrator or user). Todays computers have run an application program on their computer, unless theboth kinds of programming. application program is self booting.Most histories of the modern computer begin with Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks fortheAnalytical Engine envisioned by Charles Babbage following efficient use of the system and may also includethe mathematical ideas of George Boole, the mathematician accounting for cost allocation of processor time, masswho first stated the principles of logic inherent in todays digital storage, printing, and other resources. For hardwarecomputer. Babbages assistant and collaborator, Ada functions such as input and output and memoryLovelace, is said to have introduced the ideas of program allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediaryloops and subroutines and is sometimes considered the first between application programs and the computer programmer. Apart from mechanical calculators, the first really hardware, although the application code is usuallyuseable computers began with the vacuum tube, accelerated executed directly by the hardware and will frequently callwith the invention of thetransistor, which then became the OS or be interrupted by it. Operating systems areembedded in large numbers in integrated circuits, ultimately found on almost any device that contains a computer—making possible the relatively low-cost personal computer. from cellular phones and video gameModern computers inherently follow the ideas of the stored consoles to supercomputers and web servers. Examplesprogram laid out by John von Neumann in 1945. Essentially, of popular modern operating systemsthe program is read by the computer one instruction at a time, include Linux, Android, iOS, Mac OS X, and Microsoftan operation is performed, and the computer then reads in the Windows. Operating System Functionsnext instruction, and so on. Recently, computers andprograms have been devised that allow multiple programs(and computers) to work on the same problem at the sametime in parallel. With the advent of the Internet andhigher bandwidth data transmission, programs and data thatare part of the same overall project can be distributed over a
What is an Operating System Operating System ConcernsThe operating system is the core software component of As mentioned previously, an operating system is a computeryour computer. It performs many functions and is, in program. Operating systems are written by humanvery basic terms, an interface between your computer programmers who make mistakes. Therefore there can beand the outside world. In the section about hardware, a errors in the code even though there may be some testingcomputer is described as consisting of several before the product is released. Some companies have bettercomponent parts including your monitor, keyboard, software quality control and testing than others so you maymouse, and other parts. The operating system provides notice varying levels of quality from operating system toan interface to these parts using what is referred to as operating system. Errors in operating systems cause three"drivers". This is why sometimes when you install a new main types of problems:printer or other piece of hardware, your system will ask System crashes and instabilities - These can happenyou to install more software called a driver. due to a software bug typically in the operatingWhat does a driver do? system, although computer programs being run on theA driver is a specially written program which operating system can make the system more unstableunderstands the operation of the device it interfaces to, or may even crash the system by themselves. Thissuch as a printer, video card, sound card or CD ROM varies depending on the type of operating system. Adrive. It translates commands from the operating system system crash is the act of a system freezing andor user into commands understood by the the becoming unresponsive which would cause the usercomponent computer part it interfaces with. It also to need to reboot.translates responses from the component computer part Security flaws - Some software errors leave a doorback to responses that can be understood by the open for the system to be broken into by unauthorizedoperating system, application program, or user. The intruders. As these flaws are discovered, unauthorizedbelow diagram gives a graphical depiction of the intruders may try to use these to gain illegal access tointerfaces between the operating system and the your system. Patching these flaws often will help keepcomputer component. your computer system secure. How this is done will be explained later. Sometimes errors in the operating system will cause the computer not to work correctly with some peripheral devices such as printers. Operating System Types There are many types of operating systems. The most common is the Microsoft suite of operating systems. They include from most recent to the oldest: Windows XP Professional Edition - A version used by many businesses on workstations. It has the ability to become a member of a corporate domain. Windows XP Home Edition - A lower cost version of Windows XP which is for home use only and should not be used at a business. Windows 2000 - A better version of the Windows NT operating system which works well both at home and as a workstation at a business. It includes technologies which allow hardware to be automatically detected and other enhancements over Windows NT. Windows ME - A upgraded version from windows 98 but it has been historically plagued with programming errors which may be frustrating for home users. Windows 98 - This was produced in two main versions. The first Windows 98 version was plagued with programming errors but the Windows 98 Second Edition which came out later was much better withOther Operating System Functions many errors resolved.The operating system provides for several other functions Windows NT - A version of Windows made specificallyincluding: for businesses offering better control over workstation System tools (programs) used to monitor computer capabilities to help network administrators. performance, debug problems, or maintain parts of Windows 95 - The first version of Windows after the the system. older Windows 3.x versions offering a better interface A set of libraries or functions which programs may use and better library functions for programs. to perform specific tasks especially relating to There are other worthwhile types of operating systems not interfacing with computer system components. made by Microsoft. The greatest problem with these operatingThe operating system makes these interfacing functions along systems lies in the fact that not as many application programswith its other functions operate smoothly and these functions are written for them. However if you can get the type ofare mostly transparent to the user. application programs you are looking for, one of the systems listed below may be a good choice.
Unix - A system that has been around for many years A distributed operating system manages a group of and it is very stable. It is primary used to be a server independent computers and makes them appear to be rather than a workstation and should not be used by a single computer. The development of networked anyone who does not understand the system. It can computers that could be linked and communicate with be difficult to learn. Unix must normally run an a each other, gave rise to distributed computing. computer made by the same company that produces Distributed computations are carried out on more than the software. one machine. When computers in a group work in Linux - Linux is similar to Unix in operation but it is cooperation, they make a distributed system. free. It also should not be used by anyone who does Embedded not understand the system and can be difficult to Embedded operating systems are designed to be learn. used in embedded computer systems. They are Apple MacIntosh - Most recent versions are based on designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with Unix but it has a good graphical interface so it is both less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited stable (does not crash often or have as many software number of resources. They are very compact and problems as other systems may have) and easy to extremely efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix learn. One drawback to this system is that it can only 3 are some examples of embedded operating be run on Apple produced hardware. systems.Types if Operating SystemsReal-time Application software A real-time operating system is a multitasking From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia operating system that aims at executing real-time applications. Real-time operating systems often use specialized scheduling algorithms so that they can achieve a deterministic nature of behavior. The main objective of real-time operating systems is their quick and predictable response to events. They have an event-driven or time-sharing design and often aspects of both. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts. OpenOffice.org Writer word processor.OpenOffice.org is a Multi-user vs. Single-user popular example of open sourceapplication software A multi-user operating system allows multiple users to access a computer system concurrently. Time-sharing system can be classified as multi-user systems as they enable a multiple user access to a computer through the sharing of time. Single-user operating systems, as opposed to a multi-user operating system, are usable by a single user at a time. Being able to have multiple accounts on a Windows operating system does not make it a multi-user system. Rather, only the network administrator is the real user. But for a Unix-like operating system, it is possible for two users to login at a time and this capability of the OS makes it a multi-user operating system. The GNU Image Manipulation Program (GIMP), version 2.4.3. Multi-tasking vs. Single-tasking GIMP is freely distributed software. When only a single program is allowed to run at a Application software, also known as an application or an time, the system is grouped under a single-tasking "app", is computer software designed to help the user to system. However, when the operating system allows perform specific tasks. Examples include enterprise the execution of multiple tasks at one time, it is software, accounting software, office suites, graphics classified as a multi-tasking operating system. Multi- software and media players. Many application programs deal tasking can be of two types: pre-emptive or co- principally with documents. Apps may be bundled with the operative. In pre-emptive multitasking, the operating computer and its system software, or may be published system slices the CPU time and dedicates one slot to separately. Some users are satisfied with the bundled apps each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems and need never install one. such as Solaris and Linux support pre-emptive Application software is contrasted with system multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by software and middleware, which manage and integrate a relying on each process to give time to the other computers capabilities, but typically do not directly apply them processes in a defined manner. MS Windows prior to in the performance of tasks that benefit the user. The system Windows 2000 used to support cooperative software serves the application, which in turn serves the user. multitasking. Similar relationships apply in other fields. For example, a Distributed shopping mall does not provide the merchandise a shopper is seeking, but provides space and services for retailers that
serve the shopper. Rail tracks similarly support trains, allowingthe trains to transport passengers. The Credit Facilities and Risk Management module has theApplication software applies the power of a capability to allocate funds between the branch and the headparticular computing platform or system software to a office. Risk Management is maintained on five levels to utilizeparticular purpose. Some apps such as Microsoft Office are and monitor groups and subgroups limits in real time.available in versions for several different platforms; others Whereas, the Credit Facility can include up to four, uniquehave narrower requirements and are thus called, for example, transaction process control groups.a Geography application for Windows or Functionality:an Android application for education or Linux gaming. • Customer facility maintenanceSometimes a new and popular application arises which onlyruns on one platform, increasing the desirability of that • Guarantor and collateral maintenanceplatform. This is called a killer application. • Facility detail maintenanceCore Banking • Dynamic facility systemThe Integrated Core Banking module provides comprehensivefinancial data management of our clients’ customer • Revolving facilitiesinformation. This System manages banking client’s head The application has a powerful workflow layer that automatesoffice and branch financial activities for clients’ customers on the application handling and its follow up.all levels. Our System is a multi-currency, branch, bank andlanguage built on an open architecture fully scalable to any Promissory Notesfinancial institution size.Functionality: The Promissory Note module handles both the front-and-back• Account maintenance (available for all accounts) office functions of a branch, which supports the retail operation of a bank comprised of: Discounted Personal and• Functionality authority and user role Commercial Bills including Personal and Auto Loan systems. Functionality:• Account management • Schedules Bills and alternative accounts• Inter-branch banking • Defines additional debtor guarantors• General, customer and control inquiries • Inquiry and reportsRemittances • Settlement and classification of billsRemittances is a complete straight through processing (STP) • Prepares repayment schedule with various interest andsystem that allows issuing money transfer whether within the repayment methodologycountry or outside the country and receiving inward transfersfor the customer. The System can be implemented to initiate Retail and Corporate Lendingthe booking from the branch or can be compatible with acentralized processing center. The Retail and Corporate Lending modules are designed toFunctionality: operate in dynamic environments, which offer competitive• Provides agile platform for layered data entry flexibility that meets customer and market demands. ICS provides flexible repayment options for private and corporate• Processes transactions to appropriate ledgers users. At the same time, we ensure the bank’s security through full collateral support.• Allows data, authority and activity verification is based on product concept, where our customers can easily define any new product needed by setting the parameters for• Automatically produces SWIFT and TELEX messages this product and automatically the system will check eachThese functions provide facilities for data entry at a basic level product parameters when adding a loan. The product conceptto enable the employee to enter more relevant information, i.e. gives the facility for the bank to put the restrictions needed,amount and type of currency exchanged, agreed i.e. loan amount, interest rate, loan period, loan method; whichbuying/selling price and commission (system provides can also be defined as exception on the customer level.standard values). The function creates necessary transactions The system provides full control over the schedule ofto debit customer account and other accounting entries. repayment, including installment amount, dynamicWhere different currencies are involved, the System affects commission definition, VAT, interest, grace periods and date.the currency position accounts. It also produces the The system offers many interest calculation methods of whichconfirmation. The bank authority can verify the basic data and are: Simple, compounded, flat and discounted. Major areasauthorise the activity. covered, but not limited to, are:Remittance system has several enquiries and producesvarious reports for correspondent bank accounts and foreign • Revolving, reducing and subsidizing loansexchange activities. In addition to producing and receivingrelated SWIFT messages, e.g. MT103, MT202, MT200, etc). • Normal and flat-rate loansCredit Facilities & Risk Management • Equal payments (all types)
• Loans against deposits market. The online outlet generates journal transactions that record• Moratorium and microfinance lending each debit and credit transaction, which displays relevantThe application has a powerful workflow layer that automates dealing room ledgers. These actions take place to providethe application handling and its follow up. assistance and control in the deal entry, amendment and cancellation of the various accounts.Trade Finance The Treasury system is a complete STP system that generates all SWIFT Messages. The System can covers allThe Trade Finance module manages letters of credit and front, middle and back office operations and has interface toguarantee as well as Documentary Bills for Collection. The 3rd party trading systems such as Reuters®solution efficiently directs transfers, maintenance, preparationand multi-currency entries posts with customer-friendly control Asset Management- all integrated with SWIFT message generation.Trade Finance system is a complete STP system with a The Asset Management module provides a wide range ofpowerful workflow layer that automates the application functionality for high, net-worth customers. This end-to-endhandling. The system can be implemented to initiate the solution can be deployed in several languages globally.booking from the branch or can be compatible with a ICSFS can provide a variety of modules for those involved incentralized processing center. the acquisition, implementation and administration of assets including: purchase support staff, IT engineers, technicalFinance Lease support and consultants. Functionality:The Lease Financing module provides contractual services • Procurementbetween the customer and bank. This particular module lendsto sectors including: Real estate, transportation, industry, • Deploymentmedical, tourism and agriculture.Functionality: • System administration• Settles payments on respective maturity datesautomatically • Analysis• Provides option to buy assets or transfer ownership • Compliance• Creates equal payments schedule or calculates the interest Investment Including E-Brokeragerate with the NPV formula The Investment module package offers essential, STP as wellIslamic Banking as end-to-end event-driven processing for a wide range of financial products including securities, equities, andThe Islamic Banking module is a universal solution that is derivatives. The system provides deal data, limit control,preferred over many international vendors, and is compliant position-keeping, automatic processing for transactions andwith the leading, Islamic finance standards of the Auditing and confirmation, and settlement to maturity, generating allAccounting Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions necessary accounting and reporting with risk management.(AAOIFI). The solution and its Murabahah, Bai Salam, Functionality:Tawarruq, Ijarah, Istisna’a, Musharakah, Mudarabah, Qard • Adds customer/bank orderHassan, Profit Distribution, Sukuk and Investment Accounts’products are Shariah-compliant. • Changes customer/bank order (stop or cancel)Functionality:• Enables full and independent Islamic bank operations • Executes customer/bank order• Adds a single, Islamic banking window to existing • Allows partial order executioninfrastructure • Blocks orders, back-to-back deals• Equips online, banking clients with Islamic products Management Information System• Customer-and-business oriented The Management Information System module has myriad• Parameterized design for maximum value functions spread over the entire system, providing the management information. All systems generate and maintainTreasury operational data and its history. This data is available on the customer account, branch and bank level.The Treasury module manages: Foreign-exchange dealing, Functionality:money market (placement and deposit deals) and margin • Produces financial accounting including: Accounttrading. The system can feature an interface that receives statements, central bank reporting, cost accounting andmarket rates and prices from external sources. The system customer and cash positionsprovides ongoing information about the profitability and risk. Itautomatically matures and settles deals, and is capable ofhandling various types of instruments available in the financial • Manages financial planning including: Budgeting, interest
gap control, performance and profitability and assets liability• Provides planning and control software through reports, maps and graphs for information updatesWorkflow and Business Process ManagementThe Workflow Management STP module with BusinessProcess Management (BPM), powered by W4, optimizes theinternal process, document and ﬂow management amongvarious bank departments as well as enhances customerservice through the internet. BPM integrates the processes,systems and people into one solution to achieve effectivenessand enhance customer service.This system can be extended to achieve the full automationonce implemented with our content management system thathandles physical and cold archives in addition to many readyto use processes such as the daily jacket.Profitability ManagementThe Profitability Management module produces monthlyprofitability reports (MPR), which are prepared and submittedto the bank’s management on a monthly basis to evaluate thebank’s performance. This capability can also be manipulatedto view performance by group, sub-group and business unit aswell as assess annual, fiscal account and customerprofitability.CRMThe Customer Relationship Management module provides asingle view of the customer that can be maintained, presentedand updated across myriad solutions to increase businessperformance. The solution ensures cost savings, curtails riskand increases customer interactions and rate of acquisition.This enables integrated business processes and technologicalinfrastructure to effectively manage relevant client information.Internet BankingThe Internet Banking System (IBS) module brings together asuite of front-office functionality delivered by the same coreplatform and database that has, traditionally, been offered to ®only supporting back-office activity. ICS BANKS onlinesolution uses the latest web programming technologies (J2EE,XML, etc.) and computing concepts in the system’sdevelopment, ensuring an open and portable access forvarious hardware and operating systems platforms.The online banking solution consists of the internet bankingservice provider (IBSP) and IBS, two capabilities that allowbanks’ to provide customers multi-functional services that canbe remotely accessed globally. Our multi-lingual system’sfunctionality supports the needs of retail, corporate anduniversal banking as well as private wealth management -areas of previous success and continued growth.