Exploratory To provide insights and understanding.
Information needed is defined only loosely. Research process is flexible and unstructured. Sample is small and non-representative. Analysis of primary data is qualitative.
Generally followed by further exploratory or conclusive research.
To test specific hypotheses and examine relationships.
Information needed is clearly defined. Research process is formal and structured. Sample is large and representative. Data analysis is quantitative.
Consumer Behavior Chap5
Sharq Institute of higher education
Marketing Research has two words, viz.,
marketing and research.
Marketing means creating, communicating
and delivering value to the customers &
managing customer relationships.
Research means a systematic and complete
study of a problem. It is done by experts. It
uses scientific methods.
Thus, we can say, “Marketing Research is
a systematic method of collecting,
recording and analysing of data, which is
used to solve marketing problems.”
What is Marketing Research? Meaning
Marketing research is "the process or
set of processes that links the
consumers, customers, and end users to
the marketer through information —
information used to identify and define
marketing opportunities and problems;
generate, refine, and evaluate
marketing actions; monitor marketing
performance; and improve
understanding of marketing as a
What is Marketing Research? Definition
THE PROBLEM DEFINITION PROCESS
Management Decision Problem
Marketing Research Problem
Environmental Context of the Problem
Step I: Problem Definition
Step II: Approach to the Problem
Step III: Research Design
Factors to be Considered in the Environment
Context of the Problem
• Defining the problem is the most
important step, because only when
a problem has been clearly and
accurately identified can a research
project be conducted properly.
• Defining the marketing research
problem sets the course of the
Importance of Defining the
• Problem definition involves stating the general marketing
research problem and identifying its specific components.
• Only when marketing research problem has been clearly
defined can research be designed and conducted properly.
• Inadequate problem definition is a leading cause of failure
of marketing research project.
• Better communication and more involvement in problem
definition are the most frequently mentioned ways of
improving the usefulness of research.
Tasks Involved in Problem
Discussions with Decision Makers
Interviews with Industry Experts
Secondary Data Analysis
Environmental Context of
• To understand the background to a marketing research
problem, the researcher must understand the client’s firm and
• In particular, the researcher analyze the factors that have an
impact on the definition of the marketing research problem
past information and forecast pertaining to the industry and
resources and constraints of the firm;
objective of the decision maker;
economic environment; and
marketing and technological skills of the firm.
Management Decision Problem and
Marketing Research Problem
• The management decision problem asks what the DM
needs to do, whereas the marketing research problem
ask what information is needed and how it can best be
• Research can provide the necessary information to make
a sound decision.
• The management decision problem is action oriented.
It is concerned with the possible actions the DM could
• How should the loss of market share be arrested?
• Should the market be segmented differently?
• The marketing research problem is information
oriented. It wants to determine what information
is needed to make the best decision.
• It involves determining what information is needed
and how that information can be obtained
effectively and efficiently.
• Whereas the management decision problem
focuses on symptoms, the marketing research
problem focuses on underlying causes.
Management Decision Problem and
Marketing Research Problem cont. …
Management Decision Problem
versus Marketing Research Problem
• Asks what information
is needed and how it
should be obtained
• Information oriented
• Focuses on the
• Asks what the
decision maker needs
• Action oriented
• Focuses on symptoms
Components of the Approach
• In the process of developing an approach, we must
not lose sight of the goal - the outputs.
• The outputs of the approach development process
should include the following components:
• Objective/theoretical framework
• Analytical models
• Research Questions
• Hypotheses, and
• Specification of Information Needed.
• A master plan that specifies the methods and
procedures for collecting and analyzing needed
• A research design encompasses the method and
procedures employed to conduct scientific research.
The design of a study defines the study type
(descriptive, correlational, semi-experimental,
experimental, review) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-
longitudinal case study), research
question, hypotheses, independent and dependent
variables, experimental design, and, if applicable,
data collection methods and a statistical analysis
WHAT IS RESEARCH DESIGN
PROCESS OF RESEARCH DESIGN
• Problem definition
• Research design
• Data collection
• Data analysis
• Interpretation of results
Tasks Involved In a Research
Define the Information Needed
Design the Exploratory, Descriptive, and/or Causal
Phases of the Research
Specify the Measurement and Scaling Procedures
Construct a Questionnaire
Specify the Sampling Process and the Sample Size
Develop a Plan of Data Analysis
Classification of Market
Pilot Studies Case Studies
Classification of Market Research
• Usually conducted during the initial
stage of the research process
– To narrow the scope of the research
– To transform ambiguous problems into
• Provide specific information that aids the
decision maker in evaluating alternative
courses of action
• Sound statistical methods & formal research
methodologies are used to increase the
reliability of the information
• Data sought tends to be specific & decisive
• Also more structured & formal than
• Descriptive Research
– Describes attitudes, perceptions,
characteristics, activities and situations.
– Examines who, what, when, where, why, &
• Causal Research
– Provides evidence that a cause-and-effect
relationship exists or does not exist.
– Premise is that something (and independent
variable) directly influences the behavior of
something else (the dependent variable).
TYPES OF CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH
• Build on previous information
• Show relationships between variables
• Representative samples required
• Structured research plans
• Require substantial resources
• Conclusive findings
Common Characteristics of
• Logical Time Sequence
– For causality to exist, the cause must either
precede or occur simultaneously with the effect
• Concomitant Variation
– Extent to which the cause and effect vary together
• Control for Other Possible Causal
Common Characteristics of
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