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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice HallSystems, Roles, andDevelopmentMethodologiesSystems Ana...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-2Learning Objectives• Recall the ...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-3Information—A Key Resource• Fuel...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-4Major Topics• Fundamentals of di...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-5Systems Analysts Recommend, Desi...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-6StrategicLevelOperationalLevelKn...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-7Operational Level• Transaction P...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-8Knowledge Level• Office Automati...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-9Higher Level• Management Informa...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-10Strategic Level• Executive Supp...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-11Integrating New Technologies in...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-12Systems Analysts Need to Be Awa...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-13Ecommerce and Web Systems• Bene...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-14Enterprise Resource PlanningSys...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-15Wireless and Mobile Systems• A ...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-16Open Source Software• An altern...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-17Need for Systems Analysis andDe...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-18Roles of the Systems Analyst• T...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-19Qualities of the Systems Analys...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-20Systems Development Life Cycle(...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-21The Seven Phases of the Systems...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-22Incorporating Human-ComputerInt...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-23Identifying Problems,Opportunit...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-24Determining Human InformationRe...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-25Analyzing System Needs• Activit...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-26Designing the RecommendedSystem...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-27Developing and DocumentingSoftw...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-28Testing and Maintaining theSyst...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-29Implementing and Evaluating the...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-30Some Researchers Estimate that ...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-31The Impact of Maintenance• Main...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-32Resource Consumption over theSy...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-33Approaches to Structured Analys...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-34Case Tools• CASE tools are prod...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-35Case Tool Classifications• Uppe...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-36Upper CASE Tools• Create and mo...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-37Lower CASE Tools• Lower CASE to...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-38The Agile Approach• Based on:• ...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-39Agile Values• Communication• Si...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-40Four Agile Resources• Resources...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-41Five Stages of Agile Developmen...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-42Agile Project DevelopmentProces...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-43Object-Oriented (O-O) SystemsAn...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-44Unified Modeling Language(UML) ...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-45Choosing a Method• Choose eithe...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-46When to Use SDLC• Systems have ...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-47When to Use Agile• There is a p...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-48When to Use Object-Oriented• Th...
Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-49Summary• Information is a key r...
1-50All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted, in an...
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  1. 1. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice HallSystems, Roles, andDevelopmentMethodologiesSystems Analysis and Design, 8eKendall & Kendall1
  2. 2. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-2Learning Objectives• Recall the basic types of computer-based systemsthat a systems analyst needs to address.• Understand how users working in context with newtechnologies change the dynamics of a system.• Realize what the many roles of the systems analystare.• Comprehend the fundamentals of three developmentmethodologies: SDLC, the agile approach, andobject-oriented systems analysis and design .• Understand what CASE tools are and how they helpa systems analyst.
  3. 3. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-3Information—A Key Resource• Fuels business and can be the criticalfactor in determining the success orfailure of a business• Needs to be managed correctly• Managing computer-generatedinformation differs from handlingmanually produced data
  4. 4. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-4Major Topics• Fundamentals of different kinds ofinformation systems• Roles of systems analysts• Phases in the systems development lifecycle as they relate to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) factors• Computer-Aided Software Engineering(CASE) tools
  5. 5. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-5Systems Analysts Recommend, Design, andMaintain Many Types of Systems for Users• Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)• Office Automation Systems (OAS)• Knowledge Work Systems (KWS)• Management Information Systems (MIS)• Decision Support Systems (DSS)• Expert Systems (ES)• Executive Support Systems (ESS)• Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS)• Computer-Supported Collaborative Work Systems(CSCWS)
  6. 6. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-6StrategicLevelOperationalLevelKnowledgeLevelHigherLevelA systems analystmay be involved withany or all of thesesystems at eachorganization level.
  7. 7. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-7Operational Level• Transaction Processing System (TPS)• Process large amounts of data for routinebusiness transactions• Boundary-spanning• Support the day-to-day operations of the company• Examples: Payroll Processing, InventoryManagement
  8. 8. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-8Knowledge Level• Office Automation System (OAS)• Supports data workers who share information, but do notusually create new knowledge• Examples: word processing, spreadsheets, desktoppublishing, electronic scheduling, communication throughvoice mail, email, teleconferencing• Knowledge Work System (KWS)• Supports professional workers such as scientists, engineers,and doctors• Examples: computer-aided design systems, virtual realitysystems, investment workstations
  9. 9. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-9Higher Level• Management Information System (MIS)• Supports a broad spectrum of organizational tasks includingdecision analysis and decision making• Examples: profit margin by sales region, expenses vs. budgets• Decision Support System (DSS)• Aids decision makers in the making of decisions• Examples: financial planning with what-if analysis, budgeting withmodeling• Expert System (ES) and Artificial Intelligence• Captures and uses the knowledge of an expert for solving aparticular problem which leads to a conclusion or recommendation• Researching understanding natural language and the ability toreason through a problem to its logical conclusion
  10. 10. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-10Strategic Level• Executive Support System (ESS)• Helps executives to make unstructured strategic decisions inan informed way• Examples: drill-down analysis, status access• Group Decision Support System (GDSS)• Permit group members to interact with electronic support.• Examples: email, Lotus Notes• Computer-Supported Collaborative Work System(CSCWS)• CSCWS is a more general term of GDSS.• May include software support called groupware for teamcollaboration via network computers• Example: video conferencing, Web survey system
  11. 11. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-11Integrating New Technologies intoTraditional Systems• Ecommerce and Web Systems• Enterprise Resource Planning Systems• Wireless and Mobile Systems• Open Source Software• Need for Systems Analysis and Design
  12. 12. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-12Systems Analysts Need to Be Aware thatIntegrating Technologies Affects all Types ofSystems (Figure 1.2)
  13. 13. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-13Ecommerce and Web Systems• Benefits• Increasing user awareness of the availability of aservice, product, industry, person, or group• The possibility of 24-hour access for users• Improving the usefulness and usability of interfacedesign• Creating a system that can extend globally ratherthan remain local, thus reaching people in remotelocations without worry of the time zone in whichthey are located
  14. 14. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-14Enterprise Resource PlanningSystems (ERP)• Performs integration of manyinformation systems existing ondifferent management levels and withindifferent functions• Example: SAP, Oracle
  15. 15. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-15Wireless and Mobile Systems• A system analyst may be asked to designstandard or wireless and mobilecommunication networks that integrate voice,video, and email into organizational intranetsor industry extranets.• A system analyst may also be asked todevelop intelligent agents.• Example: iPhone, iPod, BlackBerry• Wireless communication is referred to as m-commerce (mobile commerce).
  16. 16. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-16Open Source Software• An alternative of traditional softwaredevelopment where proprietary code ishidden from the users• Open source software is free to distribute,share, and modify.• Characterized as a philosophy rather thansimply the process of creating new software• Example: Linux Operating System, ApacheWeb Server, Mozilla Firefox Web Browser
  17. 17. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-17Need for Systems Analysis andDesign• Installing a system without proper planningleads to great user dissatisfaction andfrequently causes the system to fall intodisuse.• Lends structure to the analysis and design ofinformation systems• A series of processes systematicallyundertaken to improve a business through theuse of computerized information systems
  18. 18. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-18Roles of the Systems Analyst• The analyst must be able to work withpeople of all descriptions and beexperienced in working with computers.• Three primary roles:• Consultant• Supporting expert• Agent of change
  19. 19. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-19Qualities of the Systems Analyst• Problem solver• Communicator• Strong personal and professional ethics• Self-disciplined and self-motivated
  20. 20. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-20Systems Development Life Cycle(SDLC)• The systems development life cycle is aphased approach to solving businessproblems.• Developed through the use of a specificcycle of analyst and user activities• Each phase has unique user activities.
  21. 21. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-21The Seven Phases of the SystemsDevelopment Life Cycle (Figure 1.3)
  22. 22. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-22Incorporating Human-ComputerInteraction (HCI) Considerations• The demand for analysts who arecapable of incorporating HCI into thesystems development process keepsincreasing, as companies begin torealize that the quality of systems andthe quality of work life can be improvedby taking a human-centered approachat the outset of a project.
  23. 23. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-23Identifying Problems,Opportunities, and Objectives• Activity:• Interviewing user management• Summarizing the knowledge obtained• Estimating the scope of the project• Documenting the results• Output:• Feasibility report containing problem definition andobjective summaries from which management canmake a decision on whether to proceed with theproposed project
  24. 24. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-24Determining Human InformationRequirements• Activity:• Interviewing• Sampling and investing hard data• Questionnaires• Observe the decision maker’s behavior and environment.• Prototyping• Learn the who, what, where, when, how, and why of thecurrent system.• Output:• The analyst understands how users accomplish their workwhen interacting with a computer; and begin to know how tomake the new system more useful and usable. The analystshould also know the business functions and have completeinformation on the people, goals, data, and procedureinvolved.
  25. 25. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-25Analyzing System Needs• Activity:• Create data flow, activity, or sequencediagrams.• Complete the data dictionary.• Analyze the structured decisions made.• Prepare and present the system proposal.• Output:• Recommendation on what, if anything,should be done
  26. 26. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-26Designing the RecommendedSystem• Activity:• Design procedures for data entry.• Design the human-computer interface.• Design system controls.• Design database and/or files.• Design backup procedures.• Output• Model of the actual system
  27. 27. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-27Developing and DocumentingSoftware• Activity:• System analyst works with programmers to develop anyoriginal software.• Works with users to develop effective documentation.• Programmers design, code, and remove syntactical errorsfrom computer programs.• Document software with help files, procedure manuals,and Web sites with Frequently Asked Questions.• Output:• Computer programs• System documentation
  28. 28. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-28Testing and Maintaining theSystem• Activity:• Test the information system.• System maintenance.• Maintenance documentation.• Output:• Problems, if any• Updated programs• Documentation
  29. 29. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-29Implementing and Evaluating theSystem• Activity:• Train users.• Analyst plans smooth conversion from oldsystem to new system.• Review and evaluate system.• Output:• Trained personnel• Installed system
  30. 30. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-30Some Researchers Estimate that the Amount of Time Spenton Systems Maintenance May Be as Much as 60 Percent ofthe Total Time Spent on Systems Projects (Figure 1.4)
  31. 31. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-31The Impact of Maintenance• Maintenance is performed for tworeasons:• Removing software errors• Enhancing existing software• Over time the cost of continuedmaintenance will be greater than that ofcreating an entirely new system. At thatpoint it becomes more feasible to performa new systems study.
  32. 32. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-32Resource Consumption over theSystem Life (Figure 1.5)
  33. 33. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-33Approaches to Structured Analysis and Designand to the Systems Development Life Cycle• Traditional systems developmentlife cycle• CASE systems development lifecycle• Object-oriented systems analysisand design
  34. 34. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-34Case Tools• CASE tools are productivity tools forsystems analysts that have been createdexplicitly to improve their routine workthrough the use of automated support.• Reasons for using CASE tools• Increasing analyst productivity• Improving analyst-user communication• Integrating life cycle activities
  35. 35. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-35Case Tool Classifications• Upper CASE tools perform analysisand design.• Lower CASE tools generateprograms from CASE design.
  36. 36. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-36Upper CASE Tools• Create and modify the systemdesign.• Help in modeling organizationalrequirements and defining systemboundaries.
  37. 37. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-37Lower CASE Tools• Lower CASE tools generatecomputer source code from theCASE design.• Source code is usually generated inseveral languages.• Decreases maintenance time• Generates error-free code
  38. 38. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-38The Agile Approach• Based on:• Values• Principles• Core practices
  39. 39. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-39Agile Values• Communication• Simplicity• Feedback• Courage
  40. 40. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-40Four Agile Resources• Resources are adjusted to ensuresuccessful project completion.• Time• Cost• Quality• Scope
  41. 41. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-41Five Stages of Agile Development• Exploration• Planning• Iterations to the first release• Productionizing• Maintenance
  42. 42. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-42Agile Project DevelopmentProcess (Figure 1.7)
  43. 43. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-43Object-Oriented (O-O) SystemsAnalysis and Design• Alternate approach to the structured approach ofthe SDLC that is intended to facilitate thedevelopment of systems that change rapidly inresponse to dynamic business environments• Analysis is performed on a small part of thesystem followed by design and implementation.• The cycle repeats with analysis, design, andimplementation of the next part and this repeatsuntil the project is complete.• Examines the objects of a system
  44. 44. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-44Unified Modeling Language(UML) Phases• Define the use case model:• Use case diagram• Use case scenarios• Create UML diagrams.• Develop class diagrams.• Draw statechart diagrams.• Modify the UML diagrams.• Develop and document the system.
  45. 45. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-45Choosing a Method• Choose either:• SDLC• Agile• Object-oriented methodologies
  46. 46. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-46When to Use SDLC• Systems have been developed anddocumented using SLDC.• It is important to document each step.• Upper level management feels morecomfortable or safe using SDLC.• There are adequate resources and time tocomplete the full SDLC.• Communication of how new systems work isimportant.
  47. 47. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-47When to Use Agile• There is a project champion of agile methods in theorganization.• Applications need to be developed quickly inresponse to a dynamic environment.• A rescue takes place (the system failed and there isno time to figure out what went wrong).• The customer is satisfied with incrementalimprovements.• Executives and analysts agree with the principles ofagile methodologies.
  48. 48. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-48When to Use Object-Oriented• The problems modeled lend themselves toclasses.• An organization supports the UML learning.• Systems can be added gradually, onesubsystem at a time.• Reuse of previously written software is apossibility.• It is acceptable to tackle the difficult problemsfirst.
  49. 49. Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1-49Summary• Information is a key resource.• Systems analysts deal with many types ofinformation systems.• Integration of traditional systems with newtechnologies• Roles and qualities of the systems analyst• The systems development life cycle• CASE tools• Agile systems development• Object-oriented systems development
  50. 50. 1-50All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior writtenpermission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.  Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice HallPublishing as Prentice Hall

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