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  1. 1. Key Principles of Management & Leadership Introduction 1.1 The NCC level 3 Management series has been designed to provide those working or aspiring to work in management with an understanding of the key principles of management and leadership. 1.2 1.3 Management can be defined as the process of dealing with or controlling things or people. This is a very broad definition and consequently the responsibilities of managers will be varied. For example, a manager may have key responsibility of maintaining and improving customer services or for maintaining financial control of the business. However, all managers will have control over staff and will need to be able to develop working relationships with their team and develop the individuals. In an ever changing world managers need to manage change within their organisations and be aware of the ethical issues that confront business in today’s world. 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Leadership and management must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing. However, they are linked, and complementary. The manager administers and maintains and the leader innovates and develops. This interaction is considered throughout this series. 1.8 1.9 Management involves getting things done through or by other people. This can only be undertaken successfully by planning the use of people and resources and developing the skills necessary to control any businesses’ main resource, its employees. Next 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PREV NEXT
  2. 2. Key Principles of Management & Leadership 1.1 This series of books consists of 10 titles: 1.2 • • • • • • • • • • 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Each book provides detailed under pinning knowledge of the topic covered and concludes with an activities section. The activities require learners to demonstrate their understanding of the subjects covered by undertaking a range of practical activities. 1.7 1.8 In this book, we consider the key principles of management and leadership. 1.9 Leadership and management must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing. However, they are linked, and complementary Next 1 2 Key principles of management and leadership Improving your own management and leadership skills Managing the delivery of customer services Supporting organisational change initiatives Principles of budgeting and financial information Principles of project management Developing working relationships with team members Coaching skills in team leading and management Ethical issues in management Managing physical resources 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PREV NEXT
  3. 3. Key Principles of Management & Leadership The manager’s job is to: • Plan • Organise, and • Coordinate. 1.1 1.2 1.3 The leader’s job is to: • Inspire, and • Motivate. 1.4 1.5 On completion of this book, you will: 1.6 1. Know differences between leadership and management Be able to: 1.1 Outline the functions of management 1.2 Describe the skills associated with leadership 1.3 Describe the differences between leadership and management 1.7 1.8 2. Understand key issues of leadership Be able to: 2.1 Describe methods of allocating work to others 2.2 Compare ways of managing conflict 2.3 Analyse the links between leadership skills and motivation 1.9 Next 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PREV NEXT
  4. 4. Key Principles of Management & Leadership 1.1 3. Understand the implications of delegating work to others Be able to: 3.1 Describe the purpose of delegation 3.2 Describe ways of co-ordinating delegated work 3.3 Analyse possible psychological barriers to delegation 1.2 1.3 4. Understand the purpose of setting work objectives with team members Be able to: 4.1 Describe the value of setting agreed work objectives with team members 4.2 Compare ways of providing support to meet work objectives with team members 1.4 1.5 1.6 5. Know the importance of promoting quality in the workplace Be able to: 5.1 Outline ways of developing a quality culture in the workplace 5.2 Describe possible barriers to promoting quality in the workplace 1.7 1.8 1.9 Next 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PREV NEXT
  5. 5. Key Principles of Management & Leadership Leadership and management 1.1 Warren Bennis, an American scholar, organisational consultant and author and has described the difference between management and leadership as: 1.2 • • • • • • • 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 The manager administers; the leader innovates The manager maintains; the leader develops The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leader’s eye is on the horizon The manager imitates; the leader originates The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing. • • • • 1.7 1.8 1.9 Next 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PREV NEXT
  6. 6. Key Principles of Management & Leadership Management 1.1 Management involves getting things done through or by other people. This is often where managers make their first mistake. ‘It’s quicker to do it myself’ is sometimes said or ‘The only way to make sure something is done correctly is to do it myself’. This is not what management is about. If you insist on doing things yourself, this is what happens: • You fill your days doing activities which should be done by someone else • You waste your organisation’s money. Work out the rate per hour you are being paid and the rate for your employee who should be doing the job. Subtract the difference. This is how much your company is losing! • You have less time to do the job you are paid to do. This may be deliberate – you may be too unsure of your ability to operate at the higher level and therefore prefer to spend time on jobs you know you can do. • Your staff does not have enough work to do and have to find other things to occupy them, e.g. office politics. • Your staff do not have the opportunity to develop new skills • Morale and motivation drop • Your stress levels rise 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 The answer, of course, is management through people: achieving your targets through their contribution, their work. Next 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PREV NEXT
  7. 7. Key Principles of Management & Leadership Functions of management 1.1 Management encompasses: 1.2 Planning: generating plans of action for immediate, short term, medium term and long term periods. For example, that the goal may be to improve company production. The manager first needs to decide which steps are necessary to accomplish that goal. These steps may include reallocating work or changing methods of working. These necessary steps are developed into a plan. When the plan is in place, the manager can follow it to accomplish the goal of improving production. 1.3 1.4 1.5 Organising: organising resources, particularly human resources, in the best possible manner. After a plan is in place, a manager needs to organise their team and materials according to the plan. Assigning work and granting authority are two important elements of organising. 1.6 1.7 Staffing: positioning the right people, in the right jobs at the right time. After a manager decides on their staffing needs, they may decide they need to recruit, train or develop staff. A manager in a large organisation often works with the company's human resources department to accomplish this goal. 1.8 1.9 Next 1 2 . 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PREV NEXT
  8. 8. Key Principles of Management & Leadership Directing: (includes leading, motivating, communicating and coordinating): Communicate and coordinate with people to lead and enthuse them to work effectively together to achieve the plans of the organisation. 1.1 1.2 Controlling: (includes review and monitoring): evaluating the progress against the plans and making corrections either in plans or in execution. After the other elements are in place, a manager's job is not finished. He needs to continuously check results against goals and take any corrective actions necessary to make sure that his area's plans remain on track. 1.3 1.4 1.5 It is with directing and controlling that management and the skills of leadership come together. 1.6 1.8 A manager needs to do more than just plan and organise, and staff their team to achieve their goals. They must also lead. Leading involves motivating, communicating, guiding, and encouraging. It requires the manager to coach, assist, and problem solve with employees. 1.9 A good manager will also need to be a good team leader. 1.7 Next 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PREV NEXT
  9. 9. Key Principles of Management & Leadership Leadership 1.1 In most organisations, work is organised such that it is performed by teams of people. Each team will have its own team leader who will have agreed with his or her manager a set of objectives. 1.2 1.3 Put simply, it is the team leader's role to achieve these objectives. Since the team leader will not be able to achieve these objectives on his or her own, the team leader will be required to lead or manage a team to achieve these objectives using the skills of the team and the resources available to it, in the most effective and efficient manner. 1.4 1.5 The team's objectives will be those of the team leader. These objectives will be broken down into specific objectives for each team member. Each team member's objectives will be agreed with the team leader. They will vary from one team member to another and be based on each individual's particular skills, knowledge and expertise. 1.6 1.7 The team will therefore consist of a number of individuals each working to achieve their own objectives, which in turn will contribute to the overall achievement of the objectives of the team. 1.8 1.9 It is generally agreed that some of the following traits are found in the team leader who has proved to be effective: Next 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PREV NEXT
  10. 10. Key Principles of Management & Leadership • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 They know their staff and their staff know them They communicate well with their staff both individually and through team meetings They involve staff, wherever practical, in their decision making processes They have the respect of their staff because of their consistent approach They consider their staff at all times They deal with conflict situations as they arise and don’t try and ignore them They are consistent in using discipline procedures They are perceived to be fair in distributing work tasks to their staff The staff have a clear picture of what is expected from them They are flexible in their approach They don’t have favourites They treat their staff with respect They thank staff at appropriate times and let them know when they have done well They respond quickly to staff requests and don’t ignore them They feed back to staff members the results of enquiries carried out on their behalf They communicate with other departments to ensure that their own staff are kept informed of company developments They organise training for staff as a need is identified They allow members of their staff to exercise an element of authority when doing their job • • 1.9 Next 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PREV NEXT
  11. 11. Key Principles of Management & Leadership While there is no doubt other items could be added to the above list, it does provide a basis for identifying factors that make a good team leader, who is able to impact effectively on the success of his or her team. 1.1 1.2 A study undertaken a few years ago identified the following key skills of effective leadership. 1.3 1.4 Communication and social skills Being able to explain things clearly, ask questions, listen well, and be aware of what people really think and feel (not what they may say). 1.5 Personal drive, a sense of purpose and motivation Knowing where they are going, and why, and not needing to be supervised and controlled to make sure they do what is needed. 1.6 1.7 Dependability, conscientious and persistence Being trusted to do things and not giving up at the first hurdle. 1.8 1.9 Ability to motivate others Getting people to do things because they want to and not because they are told to. Next 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PREV NEXT
  12. 12. Key Principles of Management & Leadership Innovation and vision Welcoming new tasks and new ways of doing things. 1.1 1.2 Self-confidence, willingness to accept challenges and take risks, emotional maturity Someone people respect and trust, who knows their own capabilities and who is willing to try out new ideas. 1.3 1.4 Ability to inspire trust By doing what they say they will do, a leader will inspire trust. 1.5 Intelligence Being interested in what is going on and why it is happening, being willing to learn and solve problems. 1.6 1.7 Knowledge about the organisation Knowing the aims of the organisation, how it is structured and what happens across the organisation. 1.8 1.9 Genuine interest in others Being interested in what people think and feel and by showing them the respect and trust they want to be shown. Next 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 PREV NEXT
  13. 13. Key Principles of Management & Leadership 1.1 1.2 A team orientation They enjoy working as part of a team. There are always three elements involving leadership in order to get a task done: The leader – qualities of personality and character The situation – partly constant, partly varying The group – the followers: their needs and values. 1.3 1.4 What all these share is needs which are related to the task, group maintenance and the individual. 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Next 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 PREV NEXT
  14. 14. Key Principles of Management & Leadership 1.1 1.2 Task The reason a group of people come together to perform a task is because a range of knowledge and skills are required and these will not all be found in one person. Team maintenance 1.3 Many of the written or unwritten rules of the group are designed to promote unity and to maintain cohesiveness at all costs. Those who rock the boat or infringe group standards may expect reactions varying from friendly indulgence to outright anger. There is instinctively a ‘united we stand, divided we fall’ feeling that good relationships are essential towards a shared goal. This need to create and promote group cohesiveness is called maintenance need. 1.4 1.5 1.6 Individual needs 1.7 Individuals bring their own need to a group and this is where Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs demonstrates the order in which our needs become satisfied so that we can move on to higher level needs. 1.8 1.9 Next 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 PREV NEXT