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The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: Uncovering the Hidden Text by Means of Technology, Codicology and Philology

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Conference
John Rylands Research Institute Forum
6 déc. 2016
Dr Naima Afif
Dr Natalia Smelova

Published in: Science
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The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: Uncovering the Hidden Text by Means of Technology, Codicology and Philology

  1. 1. The Syriac Galen Palimpsest: Uncovering the Hidden Text by Means of Technology, Codicology and Philology The John Rylands Research Institute Forum 6th December 2016 Dr. Naima Afif
  2. 2. Decipher and identify the undertext of SGP - results - methodology (philology, computational tools)
  3. 3. Kühn’s edition BL Add. 14,661
  4. 4. Evaluation Books 6-8 in SGP BL case 1 case 2
  5. 5. Case 1 : Greek and Syriac SGP f. 6r, col. A Book VI : « On ‘abrotonon’ and absinthe » ‫#"ܒ‬ $%&‫ܐ‬ ‫ܕ*)ܬ‬ ,-‫ܬ‬ $.* [, ̇0*] $1‫3)ܕܪ‬ [$%&‫]ܐ‬ $%43 [‫ܢ‬‫ܕ#87ܘ‬ ‫]ܬܘܒ‬ ‫ܘ:7ܝ‬ ‫&7ܒ‬ [;<83 $1̈>-‫]ܐ‬ ‫)ܗܝ‬ ̈:<# [‫ܢ‬])1[ ܿ‫ܗ‬ .$%AB)C‫]ܘܕ‬ $.D-[‫]ܕܬܘ‬ E* [;< ̈F4GH: 7%I] ‫ܘ‬JI‫ܕܐܬܐ‬ $:[<K:] $.*‫ܕ‬ [E48&‫ܐ‬ E&‫]ܕ‬ ‫ܢ‬‫#87ܘ‬ $.I [‫ܘ‬ ̇‫ܗ‬ L3] )3‫)ܕ‬A $1J-‫ܐ‬ ‫ܢ‬‫%7ܘ‬I [JI‫ܐܬܐ‬ ;<‫ـ]ـ‬F4GH ̈:‫ܕ‬ ‫ܬܘܒ‬ [$.*‫]ܕ‬ $1J-‫ܐ‬ $#‫ܘ‬N:[‫]ܕ‬ <&"K&‫ܐܪ‬ OJ4I‫ܕܐ‬ ;‫<:%)ܬ‬KI $.*‫ܐ‬ ‫ܘ‬NP3 ;‫4"ܬ‬Q ̈R ;<&) ̈-<: ;‫%)ܬ‬H8D: [)DR] $%#‫ܗ‬ 7&<&‫ܕܐ‬ )D4G&J4C‫ܕܐ‬ ‫:80)ܕ‬ N-‫ܕ‬ ‫ܐܘ‬ ;<F̈4GH: E4*‫ܗ‬ $3‫)ܕ‬SI ;‫4"ܬ‬QR EI
  6. 6. Case 2 : Syriac, no Greek SGP, f. 118r-123v, col. B Book VII : list of plants $.D#[‫]#ـ[ـܘ]ܪ‬ [‫ܕܐ&<ܘܗܝ‬ ‫)ܣ‬U‫ܘ‬JU] $.*V: ‫ܕܐ&<ܘܗܝ‬ [‫ܢ‬‫."ܘ‬I‫ܘ‬JU] $.I)W ‫ܕܐ&<ܘܗܝ‬ ‫)ܣ‬I[;)U] ‫4%)[ܣ‬D‫"*ـ]ـ‬U)U $1)D# ‫]ܕ[ܐ&<ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܢ‬[)%4‫ـ]ـ‬I[)U] [‫)ܣ‬X"PR"1)U] [$%&‫ܘ‬JA ‫ܕܐ&<ܘܗܝ‬ ‫)ܣ‬R"&JC)U] [OYZR] E&7‫]ܕܐ&<&ـ[ـ‬ ‫ܢ‬‫"ܪܘ‬C)U ‫ܘܣ‬JC)U ‫ܐܘ‬ ;<C)# ݁7&<&‫ܕܐ‬ ‫4%)ܣ‬X)U $%I[‫]ܕܪܘ‬ $P‫]ܗ:ـ[ـ‬ [‫)1)ܣ‬U‫ܨܗܐܪܘܐ‬ ‫ܕܐ&<ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܢ‬‫ـ]ـ)14"ܘ‬U [$484:‫ܘ‬Y]R‫ܐ‬ 7%I EFH1‫ܕ‬ OJHR‫ܐ‬ ‫]ܕܐ&<ܘܗܝ‬ $P1‫ܕܐܪ‬ $3J# [‫ܕܐ&<ܘܗܝ‬ ‫)ܣ‬C)W".*] ‫ܬܐ‬JI <% ̈: E&7&<‫ܕܐ&ـ[ـ‬ ‫ܐܣ‬N&‫*.$]ܬܘܪ‬
  7. 7. Textual criticism - SGP readings - readings > BL - independant branch of the textual tradition
  8. 8. Variants in SGP ݂‫ܗܘ‬ ‫ܐܦ‬ .‫ܘܪܒ‬ $C‫ܘܪ‬ `DR a&‫ܕܐ‬ [J&V: $%#‫]ܗ‬ a&‫ܕܐ‬ $.*‫ܐ‬ .bP4I [7: <&‫ܕܐ‬ ‫ـ]ܐ‬D# a&‫ܐ‬ ݁‫ܗܘ‬ EI [.$%C‫ܪ‬VI ݁‫]ܗܘ‬ $.84- 7%I J&V: [ ݂‫]ܗܘ‬ LS:<1 L4#‫ܗ‬ N# [a&‫]ܐ‬ `-<S1‫ܘ‬ ‫:80)ܕܘܗܝ‬ ݁‫ܗܘ‬ [$1‫]3)ܕܪ‬ $.Ic8H]U [$%4 ̈:)3] ‫ܢ‬‫87ܘ‬K* dS-‫ܕ‬ $%FHD*‫ܘ‬ .;<UcZ:‫ܕ‬ $ ̈D4D- E&‫ܕ‬ ‫8)ܬܗ‬SPD*‫ܘ‬ .;<:‫)ܬ‬I‫ܕ‬ L48U L3‫ܕ‬ $.I .‫ܙܕܩ‬ $4 ̈D: [E&‫ܕ‬ $.I] .E4F4%R ;‫)ܬ‬C‫ܪ‬VI .OJD0: E%4:‫ܨ‬ J&<& ‫ܪܦ‬V1‫ܕ‬ [<&‫]ܐ‬ ‫ܬܘܒ‬ <&‫ܐ‬J&<&‫ܕ‬ $.I‫ܘ‬ ;‫17ܘ‬ [.;‫)ܬ‬C‫ܪ‬VI] L3 $%F1)R [.$4SU] OJD- ‫ܐܦ‬ ‫ܐ&<ܘܗܝ‬ ‫ܕ:"ܬ]ܪ[ܐ‬ E41‫ܗ‬ E&‫ܕ‬ g&B)F: E&7DSI ON4F4U)1‫.ܐܘ‬E8&‫ܕ‬ $ ̈08C $1‫ܗ‬ ;VC".* 7* ‫ܢ‬‫ܬܪ&7ܘ‬ ‫ܢ‬‫ܘ‬NU"1 E&‫ܕ‬ N# .E&7:‫ܕ‬ [$.84-] .JI‫ܕܐܬܐ‬ $̈C‫ܐ‬ E4*‫ܗ‬ ‫ܗܝ‬ $Z&N&‫ܘ‬ .$.I‫ܕ‬ E48#‫ܕ‬ E4%U $&‫ܗܘ‬ ;‫)ܬ‬D4D-‫ܘ‬ ;‫)ܬ‬H&J-‫ܕ‬ Vat. sir. 647, f. 39v, col. A. Book VII : « On gall-nut »
  9. 9. Results of the comparison with BL 120 bifolia not corresponding to BL = extensive material outside Books 6 to 8 (and another text?)
  10. 10. Case 3 : Greek, no Syriac SGP, ff. 9v-12r, col. A, top ‫ܢ‬)8U<S1 <&‫ܕܙܘܪܐ‬ ‫܁܁܁‬ ...... $.*‫ܕ‬ $1c#‫ܐ‬ ...... L48U $.*‫ܐ‬ $P4X‫ܘܪ‬ $4W‫ܪ‬ $G4U ‫ܐܘ‬ J4W ... 7483 ,4R‫ܬ‬ ... ;‫)ܬ‬D4D- $.*‫ܕ‬ ‫ܐܦ‬ ... $.* ;<%4S3‫ܘ‬ ‫ܐ‬JQ1‫ܕ‬ ... $.* $P8* $.IN3 7* ... ... L]F1‫ܕ‬ ... ... 7* JQ1‫ܕ‬ $.I
  11. 11. σµικρὰ τῷ πλήθει ληφθέντα, καθάπερ οὐδ’ εἰ πολλῇ φλογὶ βραχὺ καταχέεις ὕδωρ, ἢ ξύλον ἓν ἐπιθείης ὑγρόν τε καὶ χλωρόν. ὥσπερ γὰρ εἰ µὴ θερµασίαν ἔχοι δαψιλῆ, καταθραύουσάν τε καὶ ποδηγοῦσαν αὐτὸ µέχρι τῆς καρδίας, ἀδύνατον ἀναιρεῖν ἐστιν, οὕτως εἰ τὸ καταθραῦον αὐτὸ καὶ ποδηγοῦν… Kühn, vol. XI, p. 602 ‫ܢ‬)8U<S1 <&‫ܕܙܘܪܐ‬ ‫܁܁܁‬ ...... $.*‫ܕ‬ $1c#‫ܐ‬ ...... L48U $.*‫ܐ‬ $P4X‫ܘܪ‬ $4W‫ܪ‬ $G4U ‫ܐܘ‬ J4W ... *7483 ,4R‫ܬ‬ ... ;‫)ܬ‬D4D- $.*‫ܕ‬ ‫ܐ‬JQ1‫ܕ‬ ‫ܐܦ‬ ... $.* ;<%4S3‫ܘ‬ ... $.* $P8* $.IN3 7* ... ... L]F1‫ܕ‬ ... ... 7* JQ1‫ܕ‬ $.I Book III, chapter 19 *... or if you put on it fresh and humid wood…
  12. 12. SGP, ff. 9v-12r, col. A, gutter $#‫ܗܪ‬ ;V*‫ܐ‬ E&‫ܕ‬ ‫܁܁܁‬ $%D ̈DG* ‫ܐܦ‬ ‫<37ܕܘ‬D* $4ÏNU EI E&JI‫ܕܐܘ‬ ‫ܢ‬)1 ̇‫ܗ‬ ‫ܢ‬)1 ̣‫ܗ‬ .‫ܢ‬‫:0487ܘ‬ E&J&JU‫ܕ‬ E48F ̇A ... ... J4W ... E48F ̇A‫ܕ‬ a&‫ܐ‬ ;‫ܘܬ‬J&JU ‫)ܬܐ‬D4D- Context of the identification
  13. 13. Book III, chapter 20 µὲν οὖν ἐν τῷδε κᾀκείνου µεµνῆσθαι χρὴ, τοῦ καὶ τὰ ψυχρὰ τῇ φύσει φάρµακα δεόντως ὑπὸ τῶν ἀρχαίων εἰρῆσθαι δυνάµει ψυχρά. λαµβάνει γάρ πως καὶ ταῦτα τὸ ψύχειν ἐξ ἡµῶν, ὥσπερ καὶ τὸ θερµαίνειν τὰ θερµά. Kühn, vol. XI, p. 602 $#‫ܗܪ‬ ;V*‫ܐ‬ E&‫ܕ‬ ‫܁܁܁‬ $%D ̈DG* ‫ܐܦ‬ ‫<ܗܕܘ‬D* $4ÏNU EI E&JI‫ܕܐܘ‬ ‫ܢ‬)1 ̇‫ܗ‬ ‫ܢ‬)1 ̣‫ܗ‬ .*‫ܢ‬‫:0487ܘ‬ E&J&JU‫ܕ‬ E48F ̇A ... ... J4W ... E48F ̇A‫ܕ‬ a&‫ܐ‬ ;‫ܘܬ‬J&JU ‫)ܬܐ‬D4D- * It is also necessary to remind in this place of the medicines that are considered by elders cold by nature…
  14. 14. Content of SGP SGP undertext = Galen’s on Simple Drugs Other text(s) : poor probability
  15. 15. Coverage of SGP 1 single-sided bifolium of SGP = 2 pages of Kühn’s Greek text ff. 206v–212r K., XII, 216–217
  16. 16. Working hypothesis Greek text = 890 pages in Kühn’s edition SGP = 231 folios SGP = 450 pages in Kühn’s edition, i.e. around 50% of the Greek text
  17. 17. Current identifications More than 100 identified bifolia covering Books 3-9 No identifications from Books 1, 10 and 11 No book completely preserved Book 6 : 50% missing Book 7 : 30% missing Book 8 : 50% missing
  18. 18. Computational tool Bilingual Greek-Syriac corpus for books 6 to 8 Sketch Engine query system : - searches of parallel texts (word, phrase…) - concordances Texts used : - Paris transcription of BL - Kühn’s edition in HTML/webarchive format Others Books of the Treatise in Greek
  19. 19. Concordance results for the Syriac word moist, fresh, green $P4X‫ܪ‬ = ὑγρός
  20. 20. Concordance results for the Greek word wood in Books 1-5
  21. 21. Collocation candidates for the Greek word wood
  22. 22. 1 result for wood and moist $P4X‫ܘܪ‬ $4W‫ܪ‬ $G4U ‫ܐܘ‬ 7483 ,4R‫ܬ‬
  23. 23. - further identifications - study of translation techniques
  24. 24. #SGPal

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