FAMILY IN HEALTH & DISEASE by RAM NAIK

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FAMILY IN HEALTH & DISEASE by RAM NAIK

  1. 1. -RAM NAIK.M 4 th Semester THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE ROLE OF FAMILY IN HEALTH & DISEASE
  2. 2. CONTENTS <ul><li>What is “Health” ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “Disease” ?? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “Family Life Cycle” ??? </li></ul><ul><li>Family cycle and Stress?? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the “Roles of Family in Health And Disease” ? </li></ul>
  3. 3. State of complete physical, mental and social well being of the individual and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity. HEALTH
  4. 4. DISEASE In simple terms, disease is the opposite of health Deviation from a complete social, mental and physical well being.
  5. 5. THE FAMILY <ul><li>The family-primary unit in all societies. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Group of person united by ties of blood, marriage or adoption interacting & communicating with each other in their respective social roles ”- Burgess & Locke. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The family differs from household in that all the members in household may not be of blood relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Family of origin- into which one is born </li></ul><ul><li>Family of procreation- which one sets up after marriage . </li></ul>
  6. 6. FAMILY Physical well-being Mental well-being
  7. 7. THE FAMILY SOCIETY OF THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL UNIT BASIC PRIMARY UNIT SOCIAL UNIT BIOLOGICAL UNIT CULTURAL UNIT
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF HEALTHY FAMILY <ul><li>Open to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional defenses. </li></ul><ul><li>People take risk to express feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Can deal with stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Welcomes life stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Affect is open. </li></ul>
  9. 9. FAMILY LIFE CYCLE <ul><li>Families are not constant and they are ever changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic model of nuclear family life cycle . </li></ul>Phases of family life cycle Events characterizing Description Beginning of a phase Ending of the phase FORMATION Marriage Birth of 1 st child EXTENSION Birth of 1 st child Birth of last child COMPLETE EXTENSION Birth of last child 1 st child leaves home CONTRACTION 1 st child leaves home Last child leaves home/parents COMPLETE CONTRACTION Last child leaves home/parents Spouse dies DISSOLUTION Spouse dies Death of survivor
  10. 10. FAMILY CYCLE & STRESS <ul><li>Structure of the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>Parenthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Aging. </li></ul>
  11. 11. ROLE OF FAMILY IN HEALTH AND ILLNESS <ul><li>Somatic symptoms increases tension among the family members. </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic illness and complicated illness is related to the family functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Family prestige is affected by mentally retarded child. </li></ul><ul><li>The family will offer remedies and advice. </li></ul><ul><li>To take over the roll of the ill person when he/she is no longer capable of performing. </li></ul><ul><li>It will provide care until recovery and long term support. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Secret Of Health Lies In The Homes Of The People -- Florence Nightingale
  13. 13. SOME EVIDENCES <ul><li>Women with few or no family support have 2 to 3 times the mortality rate compared to other women who are recovering from MI. </li></ul><ul><li>Divorced and unhappily married men and women have poorer immune function than those in healthier marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict and criticism between family members can have negative influences on blood pressure, diabetes and immune function. </li></ul><ul><li>Family psychoeducation is an effective intervention for health problems . </li></ul>
  14. 14. PREMISE OF UNDERSTANDING FAMILIES IN HEALTH CARE <ul><li>Family is a primary source of many health beliefs and behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Family is an important source of stress and social support </li></ul><ul><li>Physical symptoms may have an adaptive function within the family and be maintained by family patterns. </li></ul>Family has an influence on physical and “ psychological health and well-being” .
  15. 15. <ul><li>Marital and family relationships have powerful impact on health outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Family members, not health professionals, provide most of health care of for patients. </li></ul>Family is a “ primary social context” in which health issues are addressed. PREMISE OF UNDERSTANDING FAMILIES IN HEALTH CARE
  16. 16. ROLE OF FAMILY IN HEALTH & DISEASE <ul><li>Child rearing </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Personality formation </li></ul><ul><li>Care of dependent adults </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizing the adult personality </li></ul><ul><li>Family susceptibility to disease </li></ul><ul><li>Broken family </li></ul><ul><li>Problem families </li></ul>
  17. 17. CHILD REARING <ul><li>Physical care of the dependent young in order that they may survive up to adulthood and perpetuate the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Differs enormously from society to society. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital resources, level of knowledge, state of technology and state of values. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socially determined by the tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions act as obstacles. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Child Rearing <ul><li>Physical care of the dependent young. </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of child care : </li></ul><ul><li>feeding ,nutrition, hygiene, sleep, clothing. </li></ul>
  19. 20. S OCIALIZATIO N
  20. 21. <ul><li>Socialize the “stream of new born barbarians” </li></ul><ul><li>Process thereby individuals develop qualities essential for functional affectivity in the society. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and religious places play an important role in introducing the child to adult childhood. </li></ul>SOCIALIZATION
  21. 22. PERSONALITY FORMATION <ul><li>In this sociology comes in contact with psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity of an individual to withstand stress and strain are determined by the early experiences in the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Family acts as a “PLACENTA’’ excluding various influences, modifying others that pass through it in laying foundation of physical, mental and social health of the child. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Role of family in stress <ul><li>When there is a common problem creating stress , the whole family is stuck in a vicious cycle of negativity aggravating health related issues.  </li></ul><ul><li>When there is an increasing demand in the ability to cope stress becomes a threat to the physical and emotional well-being of the others as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Anything that forces one to adjust is a stressor( divorce, a child leaving home, a planned pregnancy, move to a new town, career change, graduating process………… </li></ul><ul><li>The way in which the family perceives the stressor explains the values and previous experiences of the family in meeting the crisis. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Shock absorber role STRESS Injury Illness Worry Anxiety
  24. 25. ULCER DIABETES HIGH BP RHEUMATISM STRESS DISEASES
  25. 26. CARE OF DEPENDENT ADULTS <ul><li>Care of the sick and injured . </li></ul><ul><li>Care of women during pregnancy and childhood . </li></ul><ul><li>Care of the aged </li></ul><ul><li>Care of the handicapped. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Care of the Sick, Pregnant <ul><li>Family does more nursing than hospital even in highly developed countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude of society to pregnant & child-bearing may have an important bearing on the infant deaths, maternal morbidity & mortality. </li></ul>
  27. 28. S TABILIZATION OF ADULT PERSONALITY <ul><li>Family is like a “shock absorber” to the stress and strains. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress- injury, illness, deaths, emotional upsets, economic insecurity. </li></ul><ul><li>Family provides a basement for relieving the stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Function in stabilization of personality of both adults and children in meeting their emotional needs. </li></ul>
  28. 29. FAMILY SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISEASE . <ul><li>Genes acts as a platform for carrying the disease over generations . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemophilia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color blindness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scabies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measles, mumps, rubella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diphtheria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoneurosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congenital malformations </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. BROKEN FAMILY <ul><li>Parents had separated or one or both the parents had died. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr.John Bowbly- concept of mental deprivance. </li></ul><ul><li>Victims of broken families early in childhood have found to display psycopathic behaviour, immature personality, growth retardation, </li></ul><ul><li>Drift away towards prostitution, crimes, vagrancy. </li></ul>
  30. 31. PROBLEM FAMILIES <ul><li>Those which lag behind the rest of the community . </li></ul><ul><li>Standards of life are generally far below the expected and parents are unable to meet the physical and emotional needs of their children </li></ul><ul><li>Home life is utterly unsatisfactory </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly found in lower social classes </li></ul>
  31. 32. RAM NAIK. M

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