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Part one

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Part OneA frame for teaching and learning Supervised by : Prof. Fatin Khairi Alrifai PhD. Presented by: 2 Nahdha A.zaid
  3. 3. Chapter OneLearners and Learning,Classroom and Contexts 3
  4. 4. Introduction‘Another language is another soul’ Charles VIt means that to know two languages is to possess a second soul. There is another German proverb that means (the more languages you know, the more you are a human being) 4
  5. 5. A second language teacher should know :• How languages are learned?• How do differences among learners affect learning processes and teaching procedures?• What motivations do learners have for learning English?• What roles can learners and teachers play in the language and learning processes?• What roles can learning materials play in the classroom? 5
  6. 6. Issues for the language teacher• Issues about the learning conditions in terms of language input and language practice on which students study are :-• 1. Variety of learners motivations and needs. 2. Insufficient authentic English language materials.• 3.The balance between commercial materials and teacher –made materials in fulfilling curriculum objectives. 6
  7. 7. • 4. A sense of awareness that language teaching is a complex endeavour, requiring a professional approach which involves decision-making at a variety of levels .5.Principles of classroom practices which are set as a teacher’s credo involve : using English for purposes that are as real as possible. responding to the different needs of students. offering more opportunities to students to take on more responsibility for their own learning. 7
  8. 8. What do we know about how languages are learned ?• Attention from English language teachers should be placed on the following four areas:- The nature of the input provided to learners. How learners process that input. The role of the classroom interaction. The role of error in language learning. 8
  9. 9. The nature of input• It deals with the significant and recent idea of ‘comprehensible input’• Krashen (1985) hypothesizes that language picked up or acquired, when learners receive input from ‘messages’ which contain language of a little above their existing understanding and from which they can infer meaning. 9
  10. 10. Krashen’s Input Hypothesismakes a distinction between 10
  11. 11. The process of intake• Intake refers to the ways in which learners process input and assimilate language to their interlanguage system. The concept of intake has given to us some insights into why teachers cannot control the learning process to the extent we might previously have believed. Some kinds of input is needed if language acquisition is to occur, but many questions remain about the kind of input which is most useful in facilitating the process. 11
  12. 12. Kinds of InputIf learners attend to items of input, there are implications for the presentation of grammatical forms.If input receives more attention when it comes from the teacher, there are implications for classroom management. 12
  13. 13. Why is the notion of comprehensible input being enthusiastic It confirms the need for meaningful input which will engage learners in working with language at a level which is slightly above their competence. It suggests the value of providing input through out-of- class recourses such as readers and listening cassettes for self- access learning. It seems to confirm the usefulness of teachers adjusting their own classroom language, in line with students’ proficiency, to simpler vocabulary and slower speech while retaining natural rhythm and intonation. 13
  14. 14. The role of interaction in the classroom• Swain (1985) argues that Learners need practice in producing comprehensible input using all the language resources they have already acquired.• Getting feedback from the teacher and from other students in the class enables to test hypotheses and refine their developing knowledge of the language system.• To produce output, obliges learners to cope with their lack of language knowledge by struggling to make themselves understood, for example :by speaking slowly, or by repeating or clarifying their ideas through rephrasing.• When a group of students do this while talking together, it is called negotiation of meaning and its aim is to make output more comprehensible. 14
  15. 15. The role of error Attitudes have moved from those of the behaviourists in the 1950s and 1960s who saw error to be prevented as far as possible through intensive modelling and eradicated through intensive drilling. Errors are now seen as reflections of a learner’s stage of interlanguage development. Krashen’s interest in the possible parallels between children’s acquisition of their first language and adult second language acquisition led him to suggest that error correction had dubious value in the classroom. 15
  16. 16. How do differences among learners affect learning process and teaching procedures?• Learners differ in ways that need careful thought when making decisions about course content and methodology.• Language aptitude has been measured by tests, but other dimensions of individual differences among learners have been investigated largely by introspective methods:• 1-Self-repot: responding to interview questions and questionnaires.• 2- Self-observation: using diaries or immediate retrospective verbal reports.• 3-Self-revelution: using think-aloud reports recorded on to cassette as learners usually perform tasks. 16
  17. 17. Aptitude• Two well-known language aptitude tests :• 1- The Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT).• 2-The Pimsleur Language Aptitude Battery (LAB). Both of them put forward a multi-componential view of aptitude as comprising four components : auditory ability, grammatical sensitivity, inductive language learning ability. memory. 17
  18. 18. Learning style and learning strategies• This subject deals around the question of what are the ways in which the individual style affects language learning?• Whether it is an aspect of: cognitive style or learning style.• 18
  19. 19. Motivation for learning English• Adult learners returning to study may regard language learning as a hobby or cultural pursuit worthy of the educated person, or may have pressing reasons for wishing to communicate in English.• Any individual may be influenced by a variety of motivations which will affect such things as anxiety, or attitude, or willingness to try new language learning strategies. 19
  20. 20. Major reasons of motivation to learn English• 1- To be able to communicate with people in an international language• 2- To be able to read a wide range of English language resources for study purposes• 3- To have a better chance of employment, status, and financial reward in the job market• 4- To be able to read and listen to English language media for information and pleasure• 5- To find more about people, places, politics etc. of English speaking cultures• 6- To take up a particular career, e.g. English language teaching work in an international company.• 7-To read English-language literature• 8- Because of parental pressure. 20
  21. 21. Kinds of motivation• Two kinds of motivation are suggested according to the previous list of reasons for motivation. Instrumental Integrative motivation motivation needing a language wishing to as an instrument to achieve other integrate into the purposes such as activities or doing a job culture of another effectively or group of people studying 21
  22. 22. Gardner and Smythe’s (1980)AMTB shows thecomplex of areas under investigation by thattime. It reveals that motivation is a highlycomplex phenomenon consisting a number ofvariables. 22
  23. 23. What factors of context should teachers take into accounts? 23
  24. 24. What roles can teachers and learners play in the learning process• In the social setting of classroom, teachers and learners’ exceptions about what are appropriate functions in various learning tasks will determine the roles that each performs, and these will be culturally influenced. 24
  25. 25. The teacher’s roles and activities• The teacher’s roles suggested by Harmer (1991):• 1-As controller: in eliciting a learner’s answer.• 2-As assessor: in helping learners to pronounce words accuracy.• 3-As organizer: in giving instructions for conducting pair and group activities.• 4-As prompter: while learners are working together.• As resource: when learners need help with words and structures during the classroom activities. 25
  26. 26. The role categories listed by a multicultural group of experienced teachers ( Karavas-Dukas 1995)• 1- Source of Expertise:(instructor , actor ,informant, input provider,……etc)• 2- Management roles:( manager, organizer, director arranger,..etc.)• 3-Sourse of device: (councellor, advisor, ..etc. )• 4- Facilitator of learning: (helper, guide, mediator,..etc.)• 5- Sharing roles:( negotiator, participant, cooperator ..etc. )• 6-Caring roles: ( friend, sister/mother, supporter ..etc.)• 7-Creator of classroom atmosphere:( entertainer, motivator,..etc.)• 8-Evaluator.//9-Example of behavior and hard work. 26
  27. 27. The learner’s roles and responsibilities• There are four perspectives on learner-centered teaching suggest a far wider range of roles for the learner than those performed in a traditional, teacher dominated classroom. 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. What roles can learning materials play?• Any textbook is based on the assumptions about learning and the design of its activities implies certain roles for teachers and learners and assumes certain dispositions towards learning styles.• Allwright suggests that the use of textbook materials places emphasis on the teaching process perhaps at the expense of emphasis on the learning process, and that this may lead to ‘teacher overload’ and learner underinvironment’• The logical outcomes of an emphasis on learning will be learning guides for students. 29
  30. 30. Continue…. A number of writers have reviewed the complex relationship between language learning ,language teaching and culture. Others have focused on using the target language culture as a vehicle for presenting the language in textbook materials. It is commonplace for materials published in a particular English-speaking culture to use that culture as a setting for stories and dialogues. 30
  31. 31. Meanings of ‘culture’• In terms of making decisions about the cultural content of materials, Adaskou et al.(1990) distinguish four meanings of the word culture:• 1-The aesthetic sense: means the art, literature, music, media, etc.• 2-The sociological sense: life and institutions’, the nature of family life , work, customs ,etc.• 3- The semantic sense: about the conceptual system embodied in the language.• 4- The sociolinguistic sense: things such as politeness conversation, the ways in which language is governed by issues of status or age in relationships , etc. 31
  32. 32. Conclusion• Good teachers have always taken a positively critical approach to appraising and developing their work, using what insights are available from their own and others’ experience, and from the possible implications of research, especially from studies which are based in the language classroom.• It is one of the ways in which we create our own continuing professional development. 32
  34. 34. The Concept of Communicative Language Ability• To be able to: Operate effectively in the real world, Develop an ever improving capability to use English, Communicate with others, acquire , develop and apply language, think and solve problems, respond and give expression to experience . 34
  35. 35. Narrow and Wide Focus of Language A narrow focus of Chomsky (1965): He refers to the term of competence to describe the knowledge on language when he distinguishs between (competence and performance) A wide focus of Hymes (1972): He asserts that to add the ‘communicative’ element to ‘competence’ means adding rules of use without which the rules of grammar would be useless. 35
  36. 36. The key Components of communicative competence lingustic competence, pragmatic competence, discourse competence, strategic competence, and fluency.•   36
  37. 37. lingusticcompetence• It is concerned with knowledge of the language itself, its form and meaning. It involves a knowledge of spelling, pronunciation, vocabulary, word formation, grammatical structure, sentence structure, and linguistic semantics.• Hedge observes that teachers have to take into consideration the fact that linguistic competence is an integral part of communicative competence. 37
  38. 38. Pragmatic Competence• It means knowing how to use language in order to achieve certain communicative goals or intentions. For example the statement ‘It’s so hot today’ can have a number of different functions. It might be a statement about the physical atmosphere, a request to open the window, or an attempt to elicit the offer of a cold drink .The sociolingustic competence, This competence enables a speaker to be ‘contextually appropriate’ , to know ‘when to speak, when not, what to talk about with whom, when, where and in what manner’. 38
  39. 39. Discourse Competence• competence is concerned with the abilities needed to create coherent written texts or conversation and understand them. More specifically, discourse competence in conversational use of the language involves the abilities, inter alia, to perform turns in discourse, to mantain the conversation, and to develop the topic.•   39
  40. 40. Strategic Competence• Canale and Swain (1980) defined it as ‘how to cope in an authentic communicative situation and how to keep the communicative channel open’ .• Strategic competence consists of using communication strategies. These strategies are used by learners to compensate for their limited linguistic competence in expressing what they want to say. 40
  41. 41. fluency•  The term fluency relates to language production, and it is normally associated with speech. It is the ability to link units of speech together with facility and without inappropriate slowness, or undue hesitation.•   41
  42. 42. Types of Fluency• 1- Semantic fluency: Linking together propositions and speech acts.• 2- Lexical-syntactic fluency: Linking together syntactic constituents and words.• 3- Articulatory fluency: Linking together speech segments. 42
  43. 43. Issues for the Communicative Curriculum• In relation to the previous components and aspects of communicative language, the question then arises of how the ELT profession has responded to the significant implications of the mentioned components. 43
  44. 44. Examples of Implications Linguistics Pragmatic Discourse Strategic fluency competence competence competence competenceTo achieve To learn the To take To be able to To dealaccuracy in relationship longer turns, take risks in withthe between use using both informatiogrammatical grammatical discourse spoken and n gap of forms of forms and markers, and written realthe language functions. open and language discourse closeTo To use conversation To be able to To use a To be ablepronounce stress and use cohesive range of to respondthe forms intonation to devices in communicati withaccurately express reading and on strategies reasonable attitude and writing texts speed in emotion. ‘real time’ 44
  45. 45. What are the implication for the communicative classroom?• To understand what is meant by this question, we should answer the following questions: What are communicative tasks and what are their roles in teaching and learning? How can we manage a communicative classroom? What does communicative language teaching imply for authenticity in the classroom? 45
  46. 46. What are communicative tasks and whatare their roles in teaching and learning?• In the communicative classroom and their roles in teaching and learning: Brumfit (1984) argues for ‘natural language use’ and suggests the need for ‘fluency activities’• Fluency activities ‘ develop a pattern of language interaction within the classroom which is as close as possible to that used by competent performers in the mother tongue in real life’. 46
  47. 47. Criteria necessary for achieving fluency• 1- The language should be a means to an end ,i.e. the focus should be on meaning and not on the form.• 2- The content should be determined by the learners who is speaking or writing.• 3- There must be a negotiation of meaning between the speakers.• 4- There should be an information gap in order to avoid predictability. 47
  48. 48. 5-The normal process of listening, reading,speaking, and writing will be in play. 6-Teacher intervention to correct should beminimal this distract from the message.&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& Brumfit’s views fluency activities as opportunities that will be given to students to produce and understand items which they have gradually acquired during activities focused in linguistic form, which he calls : “ accuracy activities” 48
  49. 49. Prabhu’s typology of activities• In 1987, Prabhu gives a useful typology of activities which formed the basis of much contemporary material:• 1- Information-gap activity: which transfer of given information from one person to another, or from one place to another– generally calling for the decoding or encoding of information from or into language.• 2- Reasoning-gap activity: which involves deriving some new information from given information through process of inference, deduction, practical reasoning, or a perception of relationships or patterns.• 3- Opinion-gap activity: which involves identifying and articulating a personal preference, feeling, or attitude in response to a given situation. 49
  50. 50. How can we manage a communicative classroom? Building cohesive within the group is important role for the teacher. The composition of groups or the kind of teamwork required for projects or for the preparation of complex simulations. The teacher needs to make decisions about whether to allocate roles within the group or whether to let members decide these among themselves. To be effective in completing a task, it needs at least one member who is interested in keeping the group on task achieving a useful outcome, and one member who will be interested in maintaining good relationships within the group. 50
  51. 51. Continue …• A communicative classroom involves the teacher in a wider range of roles beyond that of providing and presenting new language. While monitoring groupwork, the teacher acts as : Guide to performing the task successfully, A language resource providing words and forms at the point of need, corrector of key errors sheared as the students work together, and A diagnoser of the students’ strengths and weaknesses. 51
  52. 52. What does communicative language teaching imply for authenticity in the classroom?• With communicative language teaching has come pressure to use authentic material; the language of the real world. So ,it is essential to give students sufficient activities to cope with authentic language in the classroom.o Communicative methodology tends to use authentic materials in relation to listening and reading skills.o Speaking and writing activities also mirror the real-world purposes and situation in which and for which language is used. 52
  53. 53. Writing tasks which reflect the reasons for writing outside the English language classroom include : A note to a neighbour apologizing for a noisy party. A letter of complaint about a product to the manufacturer a notice to fellow students publicizing a meeting. An invitation to a birthday party with directions for how to get there. 53
  54. 54. Widdowson’ view of Authenticity• He argues that authenticity can only be achieved when the reader can interpret the intentions of the writer and respond appropriately to them. (Widdowson,1981)• His argument has implications not only for the language level of the text but also for the prior knowledge a learner will bring to reading or listening to it, and whether that knowledge will be sufficient for successful interpretation. 54
  55. 55. Issues in applying a Communicative approach in context 55
  56. 56. Conclusions• Communicative language teaching sets out to involve learners in purposeful tasks which are embedded in meaningful contexts and which reflect and rephrase language as it is used authentically in the world outside the classroom. 56
  57. 57. Learner Autonomy & Learner Training
  58. 58. The Self- Directed Learner• Self- directed learning means letting students choose their own topics and activities for homework.• To the passionate, it means students’ emancipation from the hands of teachers.• To the reflective, a self- directed learner is one who is self- motivated takes the initiative has a clear idea of what he wants to learn has his own plan for pursuing and achieving his goal
  59. 59. • Self- directed learners: Learn inside and Know their needs outside the class Learn with active thinking take classroom use recourses Based material independently Don’t think the teacher is a godAdjust their strategiesManage the time
  60. 60. • Good language learner has characteristic which are provided by the teachers: An ability to define one’s own objectives areness of how to use language materials effectiveCareful organization of time for learning, and active development of learning strategies.
  61. 61. Strategies of the good language learner 1. Types of learner strategy:  Encouraging greater independence in language learners comes from research studies into the characteristics of the good learner. These involve: Deal directly with the second language ( what Cognitive strategies do to learn).Metacognitive strategies Manage the learning ( what learners do to r their learning)
  62. 62. Cognitive Strategies• They are used directly in learning which enable learners to deal with the information presented in tasks and materials by working on different ways.e.g. 1. Learners use analogy to distinguish the meaning of verbs. 2. Memorization ( the learner finds that both auditory and visual memory are important).3. Repetition ( imitating and guessing)
  63. 63. Metacognitive Strategies• They involve:1. Planning for learning.2. Thinking about learning and how to make it effective.3. Self monitoring during learning.4. Evaluation of how to successful learning has been after working on language in some way.
  64. 64. Communication Strategies• They keep learners involved in conversations through which they practice the language. Learners are using these strategies when:1. They use gesture, mime synonyms, paraphrase.2. Cognate words from their first language to make themselves understood and to maintain a conversation.
  65. 65. Socio-Affective Strategies• They provide learners with opportunities for practice.• Examples include:o Initiating conversations with native speakers.o Using other people as informants about the language.o Collaborating on tasks, listening to the radio or watching TV programmes in the language. Oro Spending extra time in the language laboratory.
  66. 66. 2. Research into learner strategies: Researchers claim that observation of learners yielded insufficient information and they used interviewing techniques to try to elicit retrospective descriptions of language learning experiences. There has been a proliferation of labels for strategies such as language processing, tactics, plans and techniques. Research made an important contribution to ELT by highlighting the possibility of learners becoming more self- reliant in learning and by generating discussion of how learners can be trained to take responsibility for learning.
  67. 67. Educational Thinking & autonomous Learning• The focus here is on the concept of self-determination.• Self- determination suggest that the learner can Reflect , make choices and arrive at personally constructed decisions.• Barrow and Woods describe self- determinations as involving the notion of thinking in the sense of reflecting, calculating, memorizing, predicting, judging and deciding.
  68. 68. • Learners should not be passive recipient of knowledge but should use their abilities for judging and deciding.• In a classroom there is a powerful hidden curriculum at work.• In a teacher- directed classroom an easy perception to shape is that learners are expected to be passive.• It is difficult, then, how directed, regulated, and passive students can convert suddenly to self- determining and responsible adults who can continue learning effectively throughout their lives.
  69. 69. • In self- directed learning or what is called by Holec• ( autonomizaztion), there are two preconditions:1. The learner must be capable of making decisions about learning.2. There must be a structure for learning within which a learner can take responsibility for those decisions.Holec regarded learning as a management process which includes:
  70. 70. Implication for Learner Training in the Classroom• ELT methodology views that adult and adolescent learners are capable of self- direction and able to organize and undertake language learning with kind of self- reliance.• Dickinson and Holec make a distinction between two kinds of preparation which can be called ( learner training ): Change in perception about what learning involves and change in expectation that language can be learned through the careful control of teacher. Acquiring a range of techniques with which learners can enhance their learning.
  71. 71. • What are the aims of learner training? learning training classroom learning self- access independent learning learning at home
  72. 72. Types of Learner training activities1- Activities which help learners to reflect on learning.• 2- Activities which train strategies and equip learners to be active.• 3- Activities which encourage learner to monitor and check their own progress.
  73. 73. Activities which help learners to reflect on learning• In learner training, it is a difficult task for teachers to encourage the belief that adult learners accustomed to teacher-directed classrooms can assume more responsibility.• So, it is necessary for ‘shedding baggage’; a process of being accompanied by the development of awareness of how to exploit a range of resources and use methods of learning other than a whole-class, teacher-directed one. (Holec 1985) 73
  74. 74. Kinds of Activities 74
  75. 75. The advantages of an Inventory Activity• 1- It engages and involves the students and makes them think as they start the process of improving a particular language skill.• 2- It raises their awareness of what they come with to the course, their preconceptions and expectations of the teacher and of themselves.• 3-It suggests by implication that there are ways of being more responsible for their own learning.• 4- It suggests that the course is about learning as well as about writing in English and that they need to be actively involved in learning.• 5- It allows the teacher to raise expectations about the methodology of the class and to justify it in a preliminary discussion. 75
  76. 76. Activities which train strategies and equip learners to be active 76
  77. 77. Training Cognitive Strategies They are introduced progressivelyby the teacher into a programmethat aim to increase student’sknowledge of useful ways to learn anddevelop the strategies they need. 77
  78. 78. Training a Metagonitive Strategy• It can be productive , at the beginning of the course, to ask students to share ideas about possible metagonitive strategies or self-help strategies. 78
  79. 79. Activities which encourage learner to monitor and check their own progress• These activities involve students in two steps:-• 1- They measure the extent to which they have mastered something in the programme.• 2- They work with another students and have a chance to assess how intelligible they are. 79
  80. 80. Meaning and purpose: Self-assessment is an attractive alternative or addition to traditional forms of assessment for the classroom teacher. It is a particular type of metacognitive strategy which deserves special attention. It aims to help students develop those characteristics of the ‘good language learner’ which involve the ability to assess their own per=rformance and the ability to be self-critical. 80
  81. 81. The role of self-access facilities play in language learning Self access resources can vary substantially from one institution to another; (difficult and simple funding). Where funding is available, decisions need to be taken about : the kind of recourses to be developed, The skills that learners will need to use the resources effectively, the kinds of preparation and practice to be done in the classroom. For example, the facility ‘Using written texts’ could contain teacher-made tasks, magazines, authentic, books, graded readers, reading cards with texts, questions and answers for checking, information books for project work, and dictionaries. 81
  82. 82. The ‘ Core Skills’• This term refers the way in which teachers will need to ensure that they can use the cataloguing system, locate items in alphabetical order, use an index, a dictionary and so no, in the case that learners are to use the materials successfully. 82
  83. 83. The Ultimate Aim• The Ultimate Aim of self-access facility is that eventually learners will be able to use it in their own way, according to self-formulated goals, with strategies for monitoring their own progress. 83
  84. 84. and learner training: The issue centers around the question of how such concepts are universally applicable? There are a number of distinctive goals can bemade, the first, a distinction can be made between : perceptions of learner training for self-directed learning in contexts other than the language classroom such as in an open 84
  85. 85. Two Distinct Goals The previous distinction leads to gain the following goals:- Some teachers are interested in strategy training because they want to improve their students’ capacity to work effectively with classroom methods and materials. The role of teachers in self –directed learning ,which is originated in western cultures, is to mediate between cultures to find a way forward . As with Asian teachers who employ what the Chinese proverbs say: “ Tell me and I’ll forget; show me and I’ll remember; involve me and I’ll learn “. “ If you give a man a fish, you feed him for a day, if you teach a man to fish you feed him for a lifetime “ 85
  86. 86. Conclusions• This chapter tries to deal with the uncertainty that exists in interpretations of the term learner autonomy: Some teachers interpret it in a procedural way and associate it with resource-based learning in situation. Other teachers relates this term to a capacity that needs gradual building and development through practice in self- directed learning. Others relates it more narrowly to practice in self-directed learning. 86
  87. 87. Continue….• Learner training is perceived as having a number of possible Goals: To prepare students to work with the systems and pathways of self-access facilities. To encourage learners to take cognizance of the ways in which they can find and use language learning opportunities in the community outside the classroom. To develop learners who can use the learning opportunities of the classroom effectively through applying a range of strategies to the work they do with teachers and peers. 87
  88. 88. 88