Security Precautions for the Hospitality Industry


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Security Precautions for the Hospitality Industry

  1. 1. Security Precautions for the Hospitality Industry<br />Joel Bartimmo<br />Lawrence Nagazina<br />Juan Manuel Ospina<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Topics<br /><ul><li>Overview of Terrorism
  4. 4. Impact that Terrorism Has On the Hospitality and Tourism Industry
  5. 5. Common Vulnerabilities
  6. 6. Potential Indicators of Terrorist Activity
  7. 7. Protective Measures
  8. 8. Legal Framework and Government
  9. 9. Post 9/11 Tourism Related Attacks
  10. 10. Management Plan</li></li></ul><li>Overview of Terrorism<br /><ul><li>According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), terrorism is defined as “…the use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal laws of the United States for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom.”
  11. 11. Individuals, groups, or states with primary objective to:
  12. 12. Create fear among the public.
  13. 13. Try to convince citizens that their government is powerless to prevent terrorism.
  14. 14. Get immediate publicity for their causes.
  15. 15. Inflict casualties (fatalities, injuries, illnesses).
  16. 16. Damage or destroy facilities and disrupt facility operations.
  17. 17. Theft of materials, equipment, products, and information.</li></li></ul><li>Overview of Terrorism (cont.)<br />Acts of Terrorism Include:<br /><ul><li>Threats of Terrorism
  18. 18. Assassinations
  19. 19. Kidnappings/Hostage Taking
  20. 20. Hijackings
  21. 21. Arson
  22. 22. Bomb Scares and Bombings
  23. 23. Automatic Weapons or Grenade Attacks
  24. 24. Cyber Attacks (Computer-Based)
  25. 25. The use of Chemical, Biological, Nuclear and Radiological Weapons</li></li></ul><li>Why Hospitality & Tourism?<br /><ul><li>Size and volume
  26. 26. Easy to infiltrate
  27. 27. Provide guaranteed international attention
  28. 28. Impact can be massive
  29. 29. Cost effective means of getting point across
  30. 30. Represent ideologies and values terrorist are against
  31. 31. Symbol of western consumption and corruption
  32. 32. Toppling country’s economic viability, will effect the political structure
  33. 33. Way of protecting their values, religious beliefs and societal norms</li></li></ul><li>Common Vulnerabilities<br />Facilities associated within the Commercial Facilities Sector of the DHS operate on the principle of open public access, meaning general public can move freely throughout these facilities without the deterrent of highly visible security barriers. The majority of the facilities in this sector are privately owned and operated, with minimal interaction with the Federal Government and other regulatory entities. The Commercial Facilities Sector consists of the following eight subsectors:<br />
  34. 34. Common Vulnerabilities (cont.)<br />There is no universal list of vulnerabilities that applies to all assets of a particular type within an infrastructure category. “Common” vulnerabilities should be interpreted as having a high likelihood of occurrence, but not as applying to each and every individual facility or asset. Some common vulnerabilities for hotels include:<br />Guest drop-off and pick-up points that may not provide a safe distance in order to mitigate blasts from explosives in vehicles<br />Parking garages that may have open access to the public with little to no screening<br />A limited security force<br />
  35. 35. Potential Indicators<br />Potential indicators of surveillance may include:<br /><ul><li>Persons discovered with a suspicious collection of casino/hotel maps, photos, or diagrams with facilities highlighted
  36. 36. Personnel being questioned off-site about practices pertaining to the facility or the facility’s supporting infrastructure (e.g., electricity and natural gas lines)
  37. 37. Theft of employee or contractor ID cards or uniforms
  38. 38. A noted pattern or series of false alarms requiring a response by law enforcement or emergency services</li></ul>Observable anomalies or incidents that may be indicators of an imminent attack include:<br /><ul><li>Persons in crowded areas wearing unusually bulky clothing
  39. 39. Unattended vehicles illegally parked near entrance, exit areas, or places where large numbers of patrons gather
  40. 40. Unattended packages (e.g., backpacks, briefcases, boxes or luggage)
  41. 41. Indications of unusual substances near air intakes</li></li></ul><li>Crisis Recognition<br />Stage 2: The Acute Crisis Stage – Whether the crisis appears suddenly or a symptom morphs into an urgent matter, immediate action is required. How long it continues is a matter of how much additional damage occurs. The key, of course, is to minimize the amount of that subsequent damage, however that's not always possible. Due to the nature of the situation, funds will need to be allocated directly to the problem area. By diverting funds from one area to another, a natural imbalance is created and only those companies that plan and set up strategic fund accounts will be able to survive.<br />Stage 1: The Prodromal Stage – This is the "early warning" period. Sometimes referred to as the "pre-crisis" stage, it's when you get first glimpse of the potential of the crisis-to-come. The time frame in which the problem is dealt as well as how it is handled that will influence the repercussions faced. The reason why the Prodromal Stage is so important is that it's much easier to manage a crisis before it begins.<br />Stage 3: The Chronic Stage – The "post-mortem" phase or make it or break it point. The attacks have subsided, clean-up has begun, and now it's time to investigate what happened and what did not, and make a decisive management decision based on the outcome. This could be the beginning of recovery for some firms or a death knell for others (Darling &Kash, 1998). Companies and managers can get accustomed to quick fixes, thus never truly addressing the crisis. They perceive issues as tolerable and have an attitude of we’ll deal with it as it comes instead of preparing for the future.<br />Stage 4: The Crisis Resolution Stage – Problems that pertain to crises are often misinterpreted, causing management to think that everything has been resolved. In reality the problem or crisis has been neglected. Companies today are becoming more pro-active when sorting out symptoms, but the problem still remains in the area of implementation. If you don’t know how to resolve a crisis, it won’t matter how good your company is at detecting the symptoms. <br />
  42. 42. Strategic Implementation<br />
  43. 43. Preventative Measures<br /><ul><li>Strategic Forecasting -Based on prediction. Managers today have several forecasting techniques at their disposal (i.e. qualitative, opinion quantification, extrapolation, simulation and cause and effect methods). It assumes the organization can adapt to major or broad changes.
  44. 44. Contingency Planning -Alternative moves taken when events don’t play out as expected. Safeguard companies and better prepare them to handle crisis situations.
  45. 45. Issue Analysis -Alert the decision makers of trends that are occurring in the external environment. This information should be used to maneuver companies into more advantageous waters.
  46. 46. Scenario Analysis -Involves thinking about favorable and unfavorable situations that might arise, and the company’s alternatives for preventing, facilitating or thwarting the processes that caused the situations.</li></li></ul><li>Protective Measures<br /><ul><li>Planning and Preparedness
  47. 47. Designate a security director
  48. 48. Conduct threat analyses, vulnerability assessments, consequence analysis, risk assessments and security audits on a regular basis
  49. 49. Cyber Security
  50. 50. Develop and implement a security plan for computer hardware and software
  51. 51. Personnel
  52. 52. Conduct background checks on employees
  53. 53. Incorporate security awareness into employee training programs</li></li></ul><li>Protective Measures (cont.)<br /><ul><li>Access Control
  54. 54. Photo identification badges for employees
  55. 55. Barriers
  56. 56. Install building perimeter barriers (sculptures, flower pots, fences, bollards, shallow ditches, high curbs)
  57. 57. Monitoring & Surveillance
  58. 58. Install and monitor CCTV systems
  59. 59. Communications
  60. 60. Install systems that provide communication with all people at the facility, and can work in concert with law enforcement and emergency responders
  61. 61. Incident Response
  62. 62. Identify alternate rallying points for coordinated evacuations</li></li></ul><li>DHS Protective Programs<br /><ul><li>Site Assistance Visits (SAVs)
  63. 63. Surveillance Detection Training for Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource Operators and Security Staff
  64. 64. Protective Security Advisor (PSA) Program
  65. 65. Homeland Security Information Network (HSIN)
  66. 66. “Protect Your Workplace” Campaign
  67. 67. Protective Measures Course
  68. 68. Surveillance Detection Course
  69. 69. Active Shooter Awareness Materials
  70. 70. Bomb-making Materials Awareness Program (BMAP)
  71. 71. Protective Measures Guide for U.S. Sports Leagues
  72. 72. Mass Evacuation Planning Guide and Template</li></li></ul><li>Terrorist Attacks in Hotels<br /><ul><li>Most militant attacks happen in American chains in foreign countries, mostly Middle East and Asia
  73. 73. They target western businessman, officials and well-off locals
  74. 74. Luxury hotels are target of choice
  75. 75. Small bombs are preferred weapons as they “will cause more carnage if placed in the lobby of a hotel”</li></li></ul><li>Jakarta Bombings – July 17, 2009<br /><ul><li>2 bombs exploded, in J.W. Marriott and Ritz Carlton Hotels
  76. 76. 12 deaths and more than 50 injuries
  77. 77. Preventing measures while and prior attack:
  78. 78. Intense checks for guests and staff
  79. 79. Luggage inspected with explosive detector
  80. 80. Sniffer dogs
  81. 81. Metal detector
  82. 82. Police found undetonated explosives in a guest room
  83. 83. Suspects: JemaahIslamiah network</li></ul><br />
  84. 84. Counter-terrorism Policies<br /><ul><li>Governments should act in hand with security forces, intelligence groups and the police
  85. 85. Aim: uncover terrorist plots, the trafficking of weapons, money and personnel in and out of countries
  86. 86. Objectives: protection of the middle to lower economy, anti-corruption policies, a healthy investment environment for foreign countries, and create resilience toward terrorist attacks</li></li></ul><li>The U.S. National Counter-Terrorism Center (NCTC)<br /><ul><li>“Nation’s primary organization for analyzing and integrating all foreign and domestic terrorism related intelligence possessed or acquired by the United States”
  87. 87. Mission: to leverage all elements of national power to ensure terrorists do not strike the US again
  88. 88. Alliances: NCTC partners with Intelligence and law enforcement communities, allies overseas and the American society. As well as with entities, agencies or organizations to underline causes that turn young boys into terrorists</li></li></ul><li>U.S. Government Requirements<br /><ul><li>Sound policies
  89. 89. Concerted U.S. government effort
  90. 90. International cooperation – Form partnerships with non-state actors, multilateral organizations, and foreign governments to enhance counterterrorism objectives and national security of theU.S.</li></li></ul><li>Choosing a Lawsuit Location<br /><ul><li>To decide on a location both the plaintiffs and the defendant must be or have any relation to the lawsuit location
  91. 91. Interests in deciding a forum: an adequate access to evidence and relevant sites, to witnesses, adequate enforcement of judgments, and the practicalities and expenses associated with the litigation
  92. 92. Case #1: Egypt inadequate forum because of place of attack and strong anti-Americans and anti-Israelis sentiments in the country, and plaintiffs would be unable to testify under Egyptian legal system
  93. 93. Case #2: Similar situation with case #1. However, defendants moved for dismissal on the ground of forum claiming information critical to its defense could be obtained only in Egypt and Egyptian court would better apply Egyptian tort law
  94. 94. Difference in cases: In case #2, court concluded Egypt had a greater interest in the litigation than New York because it is committed to protecting its tourist industry, Egyptian court would be more familiar with Egyptian law and because of the relation of 2 pending cases in Egypt</li></li></ul><li>The Fourth Amendment<br /><ul><li>A person paying for a guest room has legitimate expectation of privacy in his/her hotel room
  95. 95. Case #1: Police identified suspected drug dealer entering a motel room. They entered the room with managers consent, found cocaine and arrested criminals. Defendants appealed claiming Fourth Amendment right, refused as they were past c/o time and there was no legitimate expectation of privacy after c/o
  96. 96. Case #2: Sheriff conducted random warrant check of the motel via guest registry list and found guest with an arrest warrant
  97. 97. “the random check of the motel registry revealing his whereabouts constitutes a violation of his privacy rights under article I, section 7 of the Washington State Constitution”
  98. 98. Nevertheless, “unwanted random checks discourage the business of lawful patrons at motels, interfere with business operations, and compromise the duty and responsibility of a hotel operator to protect its guests against privacy violations”</li></li></ul><li>Management Plan<br /><ul><li>Security measures to implement in hotels:
  99. 99. Change perspective
  100. 100. Create a culture shift
  101. 101. Utilize credible resources to reduce liability
  102. 102. Go beyond the basics (background checks, screening measures)
  103. 103. Plan ahead</li></li></ul><li>Prevention Methods in At-Risk Areas<br /><ul><li>Enhance security – do background checks before checking in guests
  104. 104. Employ further checks to employees
  105. 105. Have 1 or 2 securities constantly walking around the hotel
  106. 106. Reinforce security protocols through additional training
  107. 107. Place X-ray scanners
  108. 108. Inspect each room at least once a day
  109. 109. Pressure governments of trouble zones for further security
  110. 110. React within the society, participate in prevention programs, protection and vigilance
  111. 111. Invest in security!!</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br />Be Proactive, Not Reactive!<br />