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Multiple hazardse feb 20 13


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An awareness on multiple hazards.
Earthquake associates Tsunami

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Multiple hazardse feb 20 13

  1. 1. MULTIPLE DISASTERStsunamiearthquakefloodAN AWARENESS
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  3. 3. pnraoMarina beach after Tsunami 26 December 2004
  4. 4. Tsunami affected countriespnrao
  5. 5. pnraoCoast of Sumatra 2 Jan 2005
  6. 6. TSUNAMI 26 December 2004• Indian Ocean earthquake caused tsunami of magnitude 9.3Richter scale as recorded in seismograph.• Fast rupture of tectonic plates caused fast surface slip tothe extent of 50 meters.• Due to horizontal movement between the tectonic plates,the sea floor estimated to have risen by several metres,displacing an estimated 30 cubic kilometres of watertriggering devastating tsunami waves.• It was ‘under sea mega thrust’ that occurred at 00:58:53on Sunday, 26 December 2004, with an epicenter off thewest coast of Sumatra Indonesia.pnrao
  7. 7. • The earthquake was caused by tectonic platesliding /subduction, Indian plate sliding underoverriding Burma plate.• It triggered a series of devastating tsunamis alongthe coasts of most landmasses bordering theIndian Ocean, killing over 230,000 people infourteen countries, and inundating coastalcommunities .• Tsunami waves were up to 30 meters (98 feet)high.• It was one of the deadliest natural disasters asrecorded.• Indonesia was the hardest-hit country, followed bySri Lanka, India(Andaman, Nicobar) and Thailand.pnrao
  8. 8. • Tsunamis are much more frequent in the Pacific Oceanbecause of earthquakes in the ‘Ring of fire’ and an effectivetsunami warning system is functioning there.• The extreme western edge of the Ring of Fire extends into theIndian Ocean and no warning system existed at the pointwhere this earthquake struck.• The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area where a large number ofearthquakes volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacificocean . In a 40,000 km horseshoe shape is associated withseries of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs ,volcanic belts andtectonic plate movements.• First phase of tsunami involved a rupture about 400kilometres in length and 100 kilometres width, located 30kilometers beneath the sea bed. This was the largest ruptureever known to have been caused by an earthquake.• The rupture proceeded at a speed of about 10,000 km/hr.• Beginning off the coast of Aceh it proceeded north-west over aperiod of about 100 seconds.pnrao
  9. 9. • Second phase of Tsunami occurred after 100 seconds gapbefore the rupture proceeded northwards towards theAndaman and Nicobar islands .• However, the northern rupture occurred more slowly than thesouth, at 7,500 km/h.• further it Proceeded north for span of another five minutes toa plate boundary where the fault type changed fromsubduction to strike slip (the two plates slide past one)• Police officials said that more than 10,000 people have died.• Over 400,000 people have been moved to evacuation centersin schools and public buildings• 100,000 national defense members were dispatched to lead theaid efforts• 120,000 blankets, 120,000 bottles of water and 110,000 litersof gasoline plus food was collected and sent to communitycenters and shelterspnrao
  10. 10. • The energy released on the Earths surfaceonly was estimated at 26 megatons of TNT.• This energy is equivalent to over 1500 timesthat of the Hiroshima atom bomb attack butless than that of Tsar bomb attacks, thelargest nuclear weapon ever detonated.• Energy released by this quake was over360,000 times more than its ME, equivalent to9,600 giga tons of TNT equivalent or 550million times that of Hiroshima or about 370years of energy usage at 2005 level in USA.pnrao
  11. 11. • Relief agencies reported that one-third of the deadappeared to be children because children were theleast abled to resist being overcome by the surgingwaters.• Oxfam reported that as many as four times morewomen than men were killed in some regionsbecause they were waiting on the beach for thefishermen to return and looking after their childrenin the houses.• large number of local residents, about9,000 foreign tourists ,mostly Europeans, enjoyingthe peak holiday season were among the dead ormissing.• Presently Real- time Earthquake Map help inidentifying latest earthquake information.pnrao
  12. 12. JAPAN TSUNAMI 11 March 2011pnrao• Over 200000 homes were destroyed.• Oil Refinery tanks exploded after the earthquake hit japan with 8.9magnitude.• Tsunami came in less than an hour after the tsunami warning wasgiven.• People were not able to evacuate to higher ground due to tsunamithat hit fast. The survey found that delay in passing on informationmeant that awareness of the accident was initially very low amongstresidents.• Whirlpool developed in sea developed seriousness in tsunami• Residents said they had often been assured of the safety of nuclearpower, and thought that an accident could never occur.• It was hard for older people, especially those with medicalconditions to escape , some of whom succumbed.
  13. 13. • The earthquake and tsunami have knocked out the main coolingsystems and backup generators at three units in Daiichi and thethree units at the Fukushima Daini complex.• First explosion was on Saturday at the plant’s Unit 1, injuringfour workers and resulting in mass evacuations.• Second hydrogen explosion was on Monday at Unit 3, injuring11 workers and the blast was felt 40 kilometers away.• Over 180,000 people were evacuated from the area surroundingthe nuclear plant.• 160 people might have exposed to radiation.• ‘Recriminations and proper compensation aside, the focus nowmust be on ensuring that this never happens again, which formany people implied to keep aloof from nuclear power’ ; Thiswas the overwhelming feeling in Japan, and it hasn’t reducedsince the accident.pnrao
  14. 14. Green peace report• Some hospitals in Fukushima Prefecture ‘had to suspendservices because hundreds of doctors and nurses in thearea resigned to avoid radiation.• Patients from one hospital and a nearby home for theelderly were sent to shelters: 45 of 440 patients died afterstaff fled.• In another incident, more than 90 elderly people were leftwithout care- givers.pnrao
  15. 15. Facts about the Japan Earthquake and Tsunami• Magnitude, according to USGS: 9.0 ritcher scale.• Speed at which the Pacific Plate smashed into the Japanese islandarc: 8.9 centimeters per year.• Speed at which the San Andreas Fault in California is slipping: about4 centimeters per year.• Size of the rupture along the boundary between the Pacific andNorth American plates: 290 kilometers in length , and 80 kilometersacross the region.• Approximate length of Honshu island: 1,300 kilometersYears since an earthquake of this magnitude has hit the plateboundary of Japan: 1,200• Duration of strong shaking reported from Japan: three to fiveminutes• Greatest distance from epicenter that visitors to the USGS Web sitereported feeling the quake: About 2,000 kilometers• Distance that the island of Honshu appears to have moved after thequake: 2.4 meters.• Change in length of a day caused by the earthquakes redistributionof Earths mass: 1.8 microseconds shorterpnrao
  16. 16. • Normal seasonal variation in a days length: 1,000microseconds.• Depth of the quake: 24.4 kilometers.• Range of depths at which earthquakes occur in Earths crust:0 – 700 kilometers.• Top speed of a tsunami over the open ocean: About 800kilometers per hour.• Normal cruising speed of a jetliner: 800 kilometers per hour.• Length of warning time Sendai residents received beforetsunami hit: eight to 10 minutes.• Number of confirmed foreshocks to the main shock: four.• Magnitudes of the confirmed foreshocks: 6.0, 6.1, 6.1 and7.2.• Number of confirmed aftershocks: 401.• Worldwide average annual number of earthquakes overmagnitude 6.0: 150 pnrao
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  19. 19. pnraoFire in Nuclear power plant
  20. 20. pnraoCars in debris
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  24. 24. pnraoDebris afterrmath disaster
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  27. 27. AchnowledgementReferences for further reading:••••••
  28. 28. Thank