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الرقمنة في المكتبات العربية. التقنيات والمتطلبات والمراحل

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نجلاء أحمد يس. الرقمنة في المكتبات العربية. التقنيات والمتطلبات والمراحل. مجلة المكتبات والمعلومات. ع20 (يونيو2018)

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الرقمنة في المكتبات العربية. التقنيات والمتطلبات والمراحل

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  5. 5. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )9( ⁄o‹=áÑ|||||||||||||||||||||||||îª^)1( DOAJ )2( SSRNIË`=á^É=⁄o‹=ÔÎfà≈ÿ^=Ô‹È¡·ª^m_‹ÈŸ≈›Ÿÿ=ÔÍÈf3ÿ^== EduSearch )3( =flÈŸ≈ÿ^Ë==Ô·_||||||||||||||||å‡ˇ^ )4( HumanIndex=IË÷·f=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=Ïfà≈ÿ^=AskZad= F÷||||ã`=É^âE )5( ====‚ƒ=Ôw||||ó^Ë=ÔΛŸƒ=ÔÎÕŸ~=‚ÍÈ’kÿ=÷ÿÖË=IÔƒÈgðª^=m_ÍáËÑÿ^=≥d=ÔÃ_||||óˇ_f =q_ü˚^=≥d=€È||||ìÈÿ^Ë=ÔÂr=‚‹=«È||||óȪ^=m^Ö=IÒà~`=ÔÂr=‚‹=ÔŸ||||îÿ^===≥d=⁄||||ìÈkÿ^=#=Ñ–Ë ‚‹=ԃțß=m_||||||||||||ã^áÑÿ^=ÓáÈ||||||||||||ê·ª^=‚ƒ=ÔÍäΟ™˘^Ë=ÔÎfà≈ÿ^=≤k…Ÿÿ_f=«È||||||||||||óÈ‹===Ô·›–àÿ^ ÿ_‘ã^áÑm_==IçÍ=Ú˙™F=||||||||||||||||||||||||||ÿ=q˙oÿ^2012=I2015==Ω=Ô·›–àÿ^=«ÈóÈ‹=lÿË_·j=;ÿ^=E ≥Ë˚^=l||ê–_‡=pÎv=IÔÕŸk©=_Í^Ëâ=‚‹=ÔÎfà≈ÿ^=m_gk’ª^ )6( =====m_||å||㯋Ë=m_gk’ª^=m^áÉ_g‹ m_|||‹ÈŸ≈ª^=È´=Á_|||°˘^=Ω=Ô|||Îfà≈ÿ^=.=Ï›–àÿ^=⁄|||ÍÈwkÿ^^=‚‹=_|||Âj_|||ƒÈ›=Im_|||ÍáËÑ|||ÿúà…f== =======X_—Η¢=≥d=l≈ã=;ÿ^=œ^щ˚^Ë=X_‰áÈðjË=m˘Ë_-^=Á܉=⁄oª=‚‰^àÿ^=∆óÈÿ^=œ_ê’kã^ =_Âk·gj=;ÿ^=m_|||||å|||||㯪^=Ô≈ÎgùË=I_ÂÎÃ=l∂=;ÿ^=m_ÙÎgÿ^ËI=_ÂÃ^щ`ËI====æÎðÄkÿ^=à|||||ì_·ƒË ==“Î|||||||||å·kÿ^Ë=_›ÎÃ_·ÎfI=_®˙‹=âàf`ËÔ·_oÿ^=_‹`=I )7( =ª=l|||||||||óà≈Ãwkÿ^=m_gŸðk==Ï›–àÿ^=€È j_|||å|||㯪_·=j_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=Ÿƒ=œà≈kÿ^=€˙~=‚‹=÷ÿÖË=IÔÎfà≈ÿ^=ÔÎkÿ^m_η—=F˚^Ë=ÓäÂrÿ^ß2m_Î==E =====_‰á_Îk~^=Ñ·ƒ=m_||å||㯪^=Á܉=Óу_||åª=÷ÿÖË=Ï›–àÿ^=⁄ÍÈwkÿ^=ÔΟ›ƒ=Ω=Ô‹ÑÄk||åª^=Ô·‰^àÿ^ ===Ô|||||å|||||㯪^=⁄~^É=y|||||åª^=á^à—ÿIn- House=ÔÕŸkĪ^=m˘Ë_-^=Ñ|||||ìáË=I==œà≈kÿ^=m_èÎß2ÿ ||òÿ^ÏÛÈ=œËà•^=Ÿƒ"OCR"=ÿ=Ôg||å·ÿ_fï·ÿ^=∆‹=⁄‹_≈kŸÏfà≈ÿ^=====_ÂÎÿd=lŸ||ìË=;ÿ^=Ôg||å·ÿ^Ë Ó4~˚^Ë=Ôoÿ_oÿ^Ë=X_Îÿ_v )8( l|||||||||||||||||ê–_‡=;ÿ^==Ô·›–á=æÎð£=Ôgk’¥=ÔÎfà≈ÿ^=m_Õÿ¯ª^==Ô≈‹_r Óà‰_—ÿ^===fl_ƒ=àÍ_·Í=Ω=Êv_kkÃ^=#=ÌÜÿ^=ÑÍѧ^=_ÂÎηg‹=Ω2008===à›k||||||||||||||||ã^=ÌÜÿ^=fiÍÑ—ÿ^Ë=I ƒ=Ü·‹=Ô≈‹_§^=flÑØ=fl_1932===€ÈŸ•^=É_≠d=Ω=fi‰_|||||||||||||||||||åÍ=ÌÜÿ^=ȉË=IÏÿ_•^=_·k–Ë=kvË (1) SSRN. Social Science Research Network. http://www.ssrn.com/en/ (2) DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals. https://doaj.org/ )3(‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻣﻧﻅﻭﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻭﻳﺔ‬EduSearch.http://mandumah.com/edusearchdb )4(.‫ﺔ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻳ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺎﻧ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺳ‬ ‫ﻭﻡ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻠ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻌ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻭﻣ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻠ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻌ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺩﺓ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺎﻋ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻗ‬ .‫ﺔ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻭﻣ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻅ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻧ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻣ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬HumanIndex http://www.mandumah.com/HumanIndex )5(.‫ﺯﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻧﻙ‬http://www.askzad.com )6(.‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬ѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺳ‬ѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻭﻣﺅﺳ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺑﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳ‬ .‫ﻟﻠﺩﻭﺭﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺣﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﺣﻭ‬ .‫ﻳﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻣﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﺟﻼء‬ ‫ﻉ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﻠﺔ‬14،‫)ﻳﻭﻧﻳﻭ‬2015(:105-180. )7(‫ﻣﺟﻠﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬ѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺳ‬ѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺳ‬‫ﻟﻣﺅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺣﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺗﻁﻠﺑﺎﺕ‬ .‫ﻳﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻣﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﺟﻼء‬‫ﻉ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬13،‫)ﻳﻧﺎﻳﺭ‬ 2015(:27-90. )(8‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ.ﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﻠﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻣﻛﺗﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺅﻟﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻣﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺧﻁﻳﻁ‬ ..‫ﻳﺱ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻣﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﺟﻼء‬8،‫)ﻳﻭﻧﻳﻪ‬ 2012:(49-104.
  6. 6. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )10( ==Ô·›–àÿ=_ƒËàê‹=m_–È≈‹=Ÿƒ=hŸ…kŸÿ=_ƒ_gjd=Ôgk’ª^=Ÿƒ=≤≈kÍ=;ÿ^=⁄Û^Ñgÿ^=}àùË=Ôgã_·ª^ =I≤||||åv=⁄‹`F=Ô||||ã^áÉË=Xm_Õÿ¯ª^=ŒŸk©=‚‹=_ÂkƒÈ›ß2010E )1( =lÿË_·j=;ÿ^===Ô·›–àÿ^=∆–^Ë Ô|||||||ì_¶^=ÔÎ≈‹_§^=m_gk’ª^=ΩI=ˉ`=Íà|||||||êgÿ^=øËà|||||||êÿ^=fiÔ===àÃ^Èkj=„`=h≠=;ÿ^=Ôη—kÿ^Ë Ô·›–àÿ^=Ôη—j=“ÎgðkÿI=ÉÈrË=ÒÑ‹Ë====m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=Ôη—j=á_›okã_f=fikÂj=ÔÎ∑É_‘`=ÔΛΟ≈j=Ô‹È¡·‹ Ô|||||||ì_¶^=ÔÎ≈‹_§^=m_gk’ª^=ΩF=Ô|||||||ã^áÉË=XÔ–_·ƒË=É_≈|||||||ãI2010==‚‹=ÉÑ≈ÿ=lvàù=;ÿ^=E =ÔŸÙ||||||ã˚^==m_ƒËà||||||ê¥=fl_Ηÿ^=Ÿƒ=ÔÎfà≈ÿ^=Ôgk’ª^=ÓáÑ–=€Èv==W_·‹=IÔ·›–àÿ^=⁄‰===∆Îðk||||||åj =ÔÎfà≈ÿ^=Ôgk’ª^É_≠^===i_λ=⁄¿=Ω=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=Ôη—kf=Ô‡_≈k|||ã˘_f=_Âj_ÍÈk®=Ô·›–á=≥d=_—Íàù ==================ȉ=_º=“Ÿð·j=„`=Ñf˘=àÍÈðj=Ë`=pÍÑ¢=Ô‘àv=Ì`=„`=á_gkƒ˘^=≤≈f=Ü~aj=ÔŸ‹_’k‹=Ôð~ fiÛ_–==⁄‰=u_k¢==Èkÿ=m_ÎsÎj^3||ãdË=m_||ã_Î||ã=ÓáÈŸf=≥d=ÔÎfà≈ÿ^=Ôgk’ª^==m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=Ôη—j=ŒÎ¿ ===à||||||||||||||||ê‡Ë=I_Âj˘_ß=Ω=ÔÍàÍÈðkÿ^Ë=ÔÎowgÿ^=Éȧ^=∆ÃÑÿ=m_ƒËà||||||||||||||||êª^Ë=æð¶^=Ô‹_–dË ÔÍÈÕ≈ÿ^Ë=ÔÎÛ_—ŸkŸÿ=Á܉=ŒÎ¿Èkÿ^=ÔΟ›ƒ=◊àj=âÈ≠=⁄‰Ë=_‹^ÑÄk||||||||||ã^=Ë==Ω=á^à—ÿ^=Ö_£^=⁄‰ ==========`=ÔÎfà≈ÿ^=Ôgk’ª^=Ôã_Îã=Ë`=ÔÕåŸÃ=ÊΟ›kã=Ïfà≈ÿ^=ÒÈk-^=Ô·›–àÿ=ÔÎsÎj^3ãd=∆óË=€_ß==Ë m^Ñ≈‹Ë=‚‘_‹`Ë=à||||||||êf=‚‹=Ôv_kª^=m_·_’‹ˇ^Ë=Éá^Ȫ^=Ê›’¢F=Ô||||||||ã^áÉË=Xfl_‰È||||||||ã==I 2009E )2( ==;ÿ^Ãщ=lkÿ^=ŒÎ¿Èj=ÔΛ‰`=Ÿƒ=ÚÈ|||||òÿ^=Ú_—ÿd=≥dÔη—=====m_|||||å|||||㯋=Ω=ÔΛ–àÿ^ ====¿_Õ•^Ë=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=m_‹Ñ~=fiÍÑ—j=Ω=ÓÉȧ^=“Η¢=Ÿƒ=_Âj_||ã_’≈‡^Ë=Áä‘^à‹Ë=ŒÎ||èá˚^ ˚=â^àfd=∆‹=Ô‹˚^=Óà‘^Ö=Ÿƒ====€_.^=^܉=Ω=_ƒ_gj^=‚’∑=;ÿ^=m_ÎsÎj^3ã˘^Ë=⁄Û_ãÈÿ^=fi‰ ===ÔΟg—kåª^=Êj_΃^ÑjË=ÏrÈÿÈ·’kÿ^=Œ–Ȫ^=“Û_—v=„_gå•_f=Ü~˚^=∆‹===Ϫ_≈ÿ^=ÑÎ≈îÿ^=ŸƒË=X ==m2‹˘=Ô|||||ã^áÉ=Ñ™)2018,Lampert()3( =ÿ^=l|||||ê–_‡=;ÿ^==øÈ…|||||òª^=ÓÑÍ^äk==_ÂÂr^ÈÍ=;ÿ^ =È´=ÔΛ–àÿ^=m_gk’ª^=‚ÍàÍÑ‹=Ô·›–á›ßfiÂj_gk’‹=m_ƒÈ==”_ð‡=Ÿƒ=ÓÚ_Õ’f==‚‹=∆||||||||||ã^Ë Ÿƒ=œà≈kÿ^=€˙~==Éá^Ȫ^==m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=áÉ_||||||||î‹Ë=ÔÍà||||||||êgÿ^Ô‹â˙ÿ^==tj_‡=ÓÉ_Íäÿÿ^=ÔΟ›ƒ==Ô·›–à jËÑ—Í=›Ÿÿ=ÔŸ›k-^=m_‰ÈÍá_·Î|||åÿ^=‚‹=ÑÍÑ≈ÿ^=fim_gk’==á_Îk~˘===h||||ã_·j=Ô—Íàðf=_‹Ñ–=Ï|||òª^ )1(‫ﺍﻟﺣﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺗﻣﺭ‬ .‫ﺗﻘﺑﻠﻳﺔ‬ѧѧ‫ﻣﺳ‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻳﺔ‬ :‫ﺔ‬ѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﺧﺎﺻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺟﺎﻣﻌﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻣﻧﺔ‬ .‫ﻋﺑﺩﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻥ‬ѧѧ‫ﺣﺳ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﻝ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺗﺣﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﻥ‬ѧѧ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺷ‬ ( ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺣﺩﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺿﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬ :‫ﺃﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺑﻲ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻳﺔ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬.، ‫ﻟﺑﻧﺎﻥ‬2010.‫ﻣﺞ‬2. )2(‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﺗﺣﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﻥ‬ѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺷ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺗﻣﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻣﺎﻝ‬ .‫ﻳﻔﻲ‬ѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺷ‬ ‫ﻳﺩ‬ѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺻ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻣﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻧﻳﺎﺕ‬ .‫ﻭﻫﺎﻡ‬ѧѧѧ‫ﺳ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺩﻱ‬)‫ﻧﺣﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻧﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺩﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﻳﻝ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺗﺧﺻﺻﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬-‫ﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑﻠﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺅﻳﺔ‬.(، ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻐﺭﺏ‬2009‫ﻣﺞ‬ .2. )3( Cory Lampert. "Ramping up: Evaluating large-scale digitization potential with small-scale resources", Digital Library Perspectives, 34 , no 1, (2018):45-59,
  7. 7. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )11( _ÂÃ^щ`=Ô|||||||ã^áÉË=X====⁄fËáË=_’|||||||ãÈŸÎ6)2013,lWróbe,and,Chmielewska()1( ==;ÿ^ mà¿`=Ο›ƒ=áÈðjË=m_Í^ÑfÔ=Ô·›–àÿ^===∆‹=Ô‡á_—ª^=€˙~=‚‹=È||||||||||||||||||||||||||ãá^Ë=Ô≈‹_r=Ôgk’‹=Ω ˇ^=m^Ú^àrª^ÔŸn_›=^Ñ·ÿÈf=⁄~^ÉI==lÿË_·j=_›‘=hÎÿ_||||||||||ã˚=_ôÕ||||||||||ìË===ÔΛ–á=m_ƒÈ›ß=fiÍÑ—j Ë=X‚ÍÑÎÕk|||||囟ÿÔ|||||ã^áÉ==ÈÎÿ )Liu,2004()2( =;ÿ^ðŸ|||||ãl=====m_|||||ãá_›ª^=⁄|||||òÃ`=Ÿƒ=ÚÈ|||||òÿ^ ˘^Ë=m_‰_°˘^ˉm_‹_›k==m_ÍÑwkÿ^=∆‹=⁄‹_≈kŸÿ=_‰àÍÈðj=#=;ÿ^=Óâá_gÿ^==fi‰`=⁄’||||||||||êj=;ÿ^ =Ôg||å·ÿ_f=œË_Ī^=Ë`=m˙’||êª^ÿ=Ô·›–à=IÔÎ’Íà‹˝^=m_gk’ª_f=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=áÉ_||î‹==€˙~=‚‹ ö≈f=‚‹=“—wkÿ^====€Èv=á_|||||êk‡˘^=Ô≈|||||ã^Ë=_Í_|||||ò–m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=áÉ_|||||î‹===_æΛ–á=_ŸÍÈ¢=#=;ÿ^ kÿ^Ë=4Í_≈ª^Ëm_η—==_Âf=Ôðgjàª^=€_ß=Ωÿ^=Ô·›–à_‰4najË=K<—kÿ^Ë=Ï—ÍÈåkÿ^=‚ÍÑÎ≈îÿ^=Ÿƒ= = 1/7<Ìâ]ÖÇ÷]<l^v◊îí⁄V< < J==m_ÕŸª^=4Õ|||||êjCryptographic )3( =ÔΟ›ƒ=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=⁄ÍÈ¢==Ô΋âá^È~=fl^ÑÄk|||||ã_f 4Õêkÿ^=ÿ=_Ÿ—·2ƒ=m_’gêÿ^4»KÔÎv˙îÿ^=÷Ÿ∑=‚ª=˘d=ÓÚ^à—Ÿÿ=ÔŸf_–=4»=_Ÿ≈rË=Ô·‹˝^= = ==J== Ô||||·›–àÿ^DigitizationW==ðª^=É^Ȫ^= ⁄||||ÍÈ¢= Ô||||Ο›ƒ=Ô||||‡äĪ^=Ë`LË=IÔ||||ƒÈg===Ÿƒ ’êÿ^=m^Ö=É^Ȫ^Ë=XëÎÃËà’Ϊ^=Ë`=fiŸÎÃËà’Ϊ^IÌà||||||¿_·kÿ^=⁄=^=_ÂrÖ_∂=‚‹=;ÿ^Ë==Ôùàè˚ ÔÎÛàª^=ÈÍÑÎÕÿ^=Ôùà||è`Ë=IÔÎjÈ||îÿ^||åª^=“Íàù=‚ƒLË=XÏÛÈ||òÿ^=y€_~ɡ^=ÓÉ_ƒd=Ë`≥d=I===É^È‹ Ï›–á=⁄’||è=m^Ö==∆Îðk||åÍ=ÌÜÿ^=⁄’||êÿ^=ȉË||ã_•^iÈ=ÿ^==≥d=_›Ρ·kf=÷ÿÖË=IÊ≈‹=⁄‹_≈k =_ÂΟƒ=“ŸðÍ=m_‡_Îgÿ^=‚‹=ÔŸ|||||||||îÕ·‹=m^ÑvËBytesÔΟ~^É=‚Íä£=æÛ_|||||||||ãË=Ÿƒ=_·Íä£Ë=I== =Οª^=ñ^à–˚_‘=ÔÎrá_~=Ë`LË=XÔgŸîÿ^=ñ^à–˚_‘IÓáä=^à–`Ë=ÈÍÑÎÕÿ^=Λ–àÿ^Ô=XËLË`===_Âkv_jd ==Kl‡3‡ˇ^=Ô’gè=2ƒ= = J=^yåª=ÏÛÈòÿ^="Scanning")4( =Ο›ƒ=====|||ì=“Ÿ~=Ô==‚ƒ=ÔΟì˚^=ÓáÈîÿ^=Ë`=Ô—ÎnÈÿ^=⁄oμ=ÓáÈ ≥d=_·‹=p≈g·ª^=Ë`=ç’≈·ª^=ÚÈ||||òÿ^=⁄ÍÈ¢=“Íàù===ÓÉ_ƒdË=_Âof=Ë`=_·Íä£=‚’∑=ÔΛ–á=m^á_||||èd )1( Barbara Chmielewska,and, Agnieszka Wróbel. "Providing access to historical documents through digitization", Library Management, 34 no 4/5, (2013):324- 334. (2) Yan Quan Liu. "Best practices, standards and techniques for digitizing library materials: a snapshot of library digitization practices in the USA", Online Information Review, 28 no 5, (2004):338-345. (3) Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Cryptographic. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryptographic (4) Library, Information and Archival Terminology. http://www.elshami.com/
  8. 8. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )12( Ô·Ë3’ÿd=ÓáÈî‘=Ôè_êÿ^=Ÿƒ=úà≈Ÿÿ=_·ÍÈ’jK= = J=_j^É_kΪ^ )1( Metadata===_‹=„_Î’f=Ôðgjàª^=Ë`=_‹=„_Α=Ω=Ô·›||||||||||||||òkª^=m_‡_Îgÿ^ „_Î’ÿ^=^܉=ŒîjË===Kʃ_r3ã^=Ÿƒ=у_åjË 2.<ÌÌfl€ŒÜ÷]íπ]Ê<›Á„Àπ]<HVx◊î<< < lÿË_v==Ïs·‹=ŒÍà≈j=≥d=€È||ìÈÿ^=Óà—Õÿ^=Á܉ª=Ô·›–àÿ^=yŸð||î=pÎvÑ≈Í===yŸð||î‹ Ïfà≈ÿ^=_·≈›kß=Ÿƒ=_Îgå‡=ÑÍÑr=^=Ôg‘^Ȫ=à¿kÿm_η—=ÔΛ–àÿ^=ÔoÍÑ•^K=== = 2/1<]<x◊îí⁄Íπ^√÷]<ÎÜ”À÷]<t^jfl÷]<ª<Ìfl€ŒÜ÷V< < J=ÔÿË_®=Ω=ÿ¿=∆gkk=Ô·›–àÿ^=yŸð|||||î‹=áÈDigitization‫ﺑﻐﺭﺽ‬==Ÿƒ=œà≈kÿ^==m_Í^Ñf ======IÊ≈‹=Ô‹ÑÄkåª^=Òà~˚^=m_wŸðîª_fË=IÊf=Ϫ_≈ÿ^=Ìà’Õÿ^=u_k·ÿ^=fl_›k‰^=ÒÑ‹Ë=Ê‹^ÑÄkã^ =à||è_gª^=æ¶^=Ÿƒ=ÉáÈÕ||å‘`=fis≈‹=Ω=Êk≈r^à‹=€˙~=‚‹=÷ÿÖËI)2( ==ʇ`=mÑrÈÃ^===flÑÄk||ã =m_wŸð|||î‹Digitise, Digitize, Digitalize==⁄f_—›‘==yŸð|||î‹=‚‹=“k|||êª^=E‚›–àÍF=⁄≈ÕŸÿ =Ï›–áDigit=====Êk§_≈‹=‚’∑=Ï›–á=⁄’|||||||è=≥d=EmÈ|||||||îÿ^=Ë`=áÈ|||||||îÿ^F=⁄ÍÈ¢=ʇaf=ÊÃàƒË =||ã_•^=â_Âr=Ôð||ã^ÈfiÈ=_è‹`=Im_wŸð||îª^====ÏÂÃ=Ô·›–àÿ^=yŸð||îª=⁄f_—›‘=_‹ÑÄk||ã^=;ÿ^ Digitization, Digitalization, Digitizer==K= = J==≥d=ÔÃ_|||||||óˇ_f=^܉‹=≤wŸð|||||||î¥3|||||||åfË=fis≈à|||||||è_gª^=æ¶^=Ÿƒ=)3( _›‰Ë== Digitizing,DigitizedK= = v=Ω=“g||||||ã=_›ƒ=ŒŸk£=Òà~`=m_wŸð||||||î‹=mÑrË=_›‘==ÔÎÛ_sŸÿ=_≈gj=Ú_s7^=œËà =Ô||·_||ðÍ2ÿ^‫ﻣﺛﻝ‬Digitisation, Digitalisation, Digitised, Digitising=||ÍÑ|¢=Ñ||≈fË=I===ÁÜ|‰=Ñ ÿ^=Ñì^à‹=‚‹=Éу=Ω=pwgÿ^=Ú^àrd=#=m_wŸðîª^ÔΪ_≈ÿ^=m_‡_Îg=ÔÕŸkĪ^I=W_·‹Ë= = `J==Ñ|||ìà‹‫ﺑﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬Proquest )4( ==Ôη‹äÿ^=Ó3Õÿ^=Ïð»=ÌÜÿ^=IÔÎ∑É_‘˚^=m_vËàù¸ÿ =‚‹1777==≥d2018Ë=I=Ñ–=fl_ƒ=≥d=ÉÈ≈j=Êf=Ô|||||ã^áÉ=€Ë`=„`=Ñr1970===Á^áÈk‘ÑŸÿ=ÔvËàù`=Ω (1) ISO 8459-5-2002 (E) Information and Documentation – Bibliographic Data Element Dictionary. Part 5. Data Elements for Exchange of Cataloguing and Metadata .- 1st ed. Geneva, 3. (2) Oxford University Press. Oxford: Free Online Dictionary. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/digitization (3) Merriam-Webster. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/digitizing. (4) ProQuest. http://www.proquest.com/
  9. 9. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )13( _·_ÕŸ||å·f=Ô≈‹_r=‚‹)1( ==yŸð||îª=l‡_‘Digitizing==Ω=_||òÍ`=ÉáË=ÌÜÿ^1320=Òà~`=ÔŸÎs||åj== Ñ|||ìàª_f=m_wŸð|||î‹=Ñ|||ìàª^=ÑvË=Ñ–Ë=^܉=XDigtisation, Digitization===Éу=_›7=⁄s|||ãË 988==XÔvËàù`‫ﻭ‬Digitalization, Digitalisation=ÃΩ=^Ú_s=Éу=121====⁄‘=ÉáË=_›‘=XÔŸÎsåj =‚‹Digitizer, Digitiser=Ω=Éу=545======yŸðî‹=_è‹`==XÔŸÎsåjDigitized==ào≈ÃÊÿ==Ÿƒ7676== =yŸð||||||î‹=à¿Ë=XÔŸÎs||||||åjDigitised==Ω75==yŸð||||||î‹=ÉáËË=XÔŸÎs||||||åjDigitising==Ω156== =XÔŸÎsåj‫ﻭ‬565==Ω=ÔŸÎsåjDigitize=lŸésäãË=X70=ÔvËàù`==||||ÿDigitise^4~`Ë=X=58=ÔvËàù`====|ÿ Digitalize==K= = =iJ==Ñ|||||||ìà‹=ΩËm_‡_ÎfLibraryOnlineWiley )2( ===Ìà’Õÿ^=u_k·ÿ^=Ïð…Í=ÌÜÿ^Ë =fl_ƒ=‚‹=m_ƒÈ›s›Ÿÿ1799-=2018I=€Ë`=à¿=Äk|||||ã^fl^Ñ==m_wŸð|||||îªDigitized,=Digitize,== Digitizing, Digitization==fl_ƒ1965=X=_wŸð|||||||î‹=Ú_rËDigitalization, Digitalize==Ω676== =yŸð|||||||î‹=flÑÄk|||||||ã^Ë=XÔŸÎs|||||||åj=Digitizer==Ω897=XÔŸÎs|||||||åj=‫ﻛﺫﻟﻙ‬Digitise,Digitised, Digitising, Digtisation==Ω58989=ÔŸÎs||||||||åjX=ËÉáËDigitiserΩ134=ŸÎs||||||||åjÔ==àoƒË=X =m_wŸðîªDigitalisation,Digitalise==Ÿƒ1356===KÔŸÎsåj= = u=J==Ñ|||||||||||ìà‹=_è‹`‫ﺑﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬DirectScience )3( ===‚‹=ÓÑk›ª^=Ôη‹äÿ^=Ó3Õÿ^=Ïð…Í=ÌÜÿ^Ë =fl_ƒ1823==kvË2018=fl^ÑÄk||ã^=€Ë`=„_‘=Iª=yŸð||îDigitization‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬=1952=f=ÉÑ≈35370== ÔŸÎs|||||||åjyŸð|||||||î‹=_è‹`=X=Digitized==Éу=Ω=⁄s|||||||åÃ125677====|ÿ=ÑrË=÷ÿÜ‘=XÔŸÎs|||||||åj Digitizing==Éу56489==Ë=XÔŸÎs||||||||åjѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻟـ‬Digitalization=9878====yŸð||||||||î‹=_è‹`=XÔŸÎs||||||||åj Digtisation===Ω=⁄s|||||åÃ8765==XÔŸÎs|||||åj‫ﻭ‬Digitising==Ω6576==mÑrËË=XÔŸÎs|||||åj19876== =ÔŸÎsåjyŸðîªDigitised=X‫ﻭ‬74787=Ÿðîª=ÔŸÎsåj===||||||||||||=yDigitizer=X‫ﻭ‬9898==|||ÿDigitiserX=== Ë9864=|ÿDigitize=Ë==X1234==|ÿDigitiseI==^4~`Ë1234==|ÿ=ÔŸÎsåjDigitalisation==K= = ÉJ==m_‡_Îf=Ñ||||||||||||||||||||||ìà‹=ΩËLibrary, Information Science & Technology (1) Bishnu Das Pradhan. Automatic Digitizing and Processing of Spatial Data Using the Hough Powell Flying Spot Scanner. (Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania, 1970). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. (2) Wiley Online Library https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/ (3) Science Direct. http://www.sciencedirect.com
  10. 10. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )14( )LISTA()1( Abstracts==‚‹=Ó3Õÿ^=Ïð…Í=ÌÜÿ^1974==kvË8201=Éу=à|||||||||îv=#=I4323= =ÔŸÎs||åj‫ﻟﻣﺻﻁﻠﺣﻲ‬Digitization,=Digtisation===fl_ƒ=_‰˘Ë`=mà¿1987=X‫ﻭ‬1234===∆‹=ÔŸÎs||åj Digitize=X‫ﻭ‬2343===|||||||||||||||||||ÿ=ÔŸÎsåjDigitized=yŸðî‹=Ú_r=_›‘=XDigitizing==Éу=Ω1876== =XÔŸÎsåj‫ﻭ‬Digitizer==Ω134=ŸÎsåjÔ=Ÿƒ=àoƒ=÷ÿÜ‘=X65==|||||||||||||ÿ=ÔŸÎsåjDigitised=Ë=X87===|ÿ Digitise=Ë=X98==|ÿDigitising=_òÍ`Ë=X83==ÏwŸðîª=ÔŸÎsåjDigitalisation, DigitalizationK= = WWÏj˝^=Ñ™=“gã=_‹=≥d=à¡·ÿ_fË= = ƒô^ࡇ=äÍ=Ñv^Ë=yŸð|||||||||||î‹=Ÿƒ=m_goÿ^=flÑ≈ÿèg≈ƒ=àÃ=IÔÍäΟ™ˇ^=Ô…Ÿÿ_f=Ô·›–àÿ^=‚==Ñ— _‹=Ê·ƒ=4g≈kŸÿ=Ô‹ÑÄk||||åª^=m_wŸð||||îª^=mÉÑ≈j=≤fDigitization, Digitize, Digitized,Digitizer,Digitizing, Digitalization, Digitise, Digitised, Digitiser, Digitising, Digitalisation, Digitisation=_‡_Îgÿ^=Ñ||||ìà‹=Ω==m =|||||ò≈fË=ÔÕŸkĪ^=m_‡_Îgÿ^=Ñ|||||ì^à‹=≤fË=Ñv^Èÿ^tÛ_k·ÿ^=lk|||||êj=Ïÿ_kÿ_fË=ö≈gÿ^=_Â== =m_wŸðîª^=Á܉=≤f=Ô·›–àÿ^=«ÈóÈ¥=Ôì_¶^^KÔÕŸkĪ= = ƒˇ^=Ô·›–àÿ^=m_wŸð||||||||î‹=≤f=m_Ã˙k~˘^=lŸoμ“||||||||êÿ^=Ω=ÔÍäΟ™===Iæ—Ã=χ_oÿ^ =ȉË=yŸð||||||||||îª^=‚‹=€Ë˚^=∆ð—ª^=lgn=_›·ÎfDigit==ÌÜÿ^=m_k||||||||||êÿ^=‚‹=⁄Ÿ–=_º=I ÿ=Ñ|||||||ì^àª^=ö≈f=∆ÃÉË=IyŸð|||||||ÿ=qÑÆ=„`=‚’∑==m_wŸð|||||||îª^=≤f=Ôÿ_vâ =⁄o‹=_Âò≈fË=ÔÕŸkĪ^Proquest, Wiley Online Library, LISTAK= = ƒ=у=Ôn^Ñv=≥d=Ô·›–àÿ^=m_wŸð|||||||î‹=ÉÑ≈j=∆ràÍ^—j=flуË=yŸð|||||||îª==I_ÎÿËÉ=ʷη ÿ=Ñv^Ë=yŸð||||î‹=≤·—kf=^܉=Ÿƒ=hŸ…kÿ^=‚’∑Ë===◊àj=∆‹=ÏŸg—k||||åª^=fl^ÑÄk||||ã˙ ===ËÜj=kv=_Îÿ_v=Ô‹ÑÄkåª^=Òà~˚^=m_wŸðîª^=IÔÿË^Ñk‹=4»=ygîjË=l–Èÿ^=∆‹=Ì== Ñ—Ã=≥d=ÌɯÍ=Ñ–=yŸð|||||||îª^=ÑÎvÈj=flу=„d=pÎv=Êf=ægjàª^=ÒÈk-^=‚‹=4o’ÿ^== ÿ=ÔÎ≈Îgù=ÔsÎk·‘=Ipwgÿ^=ÔΟ›ƒ=Ú^àrd=Ñ·ƒflÑ≈=_’f=fl_ªˇ^==m_wŸð|||||||||||||||||îª^=Ôà Ë`LË=Ê·‹=Ô—kêª^=Òà~˚^==Ω=Ê≈‹=ÔÕŸkĪ^vKÚ_s7^=œËà= = ƒ====m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª^=€_ß=Ÿƒ=Ê‹^ÑÄk||||ã^=Ω=à||||îk—Í=%=Ô·›–àÿ^=yŸð||||î‹=„d (1) Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA). http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/search/basic?vid=1&sid=883a68e8-cdec- 4489-9cf1-f95afe4fe7dc%40sessionmgr120
  11. 11. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )15( „d=⁄f=Iæ—ÃKÓÉÑ≈k‹Ë=Ó4o‘=Ô΃ÈóÈ‹=m˘_s¥=ægjá^=ÁáÈ¿= = ƒ====_Îgÿ^=Ñì^à‹=Ω=yŸðîª^=fl^ÑÄkã^=m_Í^Ñf=„dj=ÔÕŸkĪ^=m_‡=·Î囶^=≥d=∆rà==m_Î K‚Íàê≈ÿ^=„à—ÿ^=‚‹= = ƒ===áÈŸÎj=ŒÍà≈kÿ=ô_≈gjË=^܉=)2007,Taylor( )1( =======⁄oμ=Ô·›–àÿ_Ã=m_kgÿ^=≤f=”àÕÿ^ Bits‫ﻭﻳﻌﺪ‬ ،‫ﻮء‬ѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﻀ‬ ‫ﺮﻋﺔ‬ѧѧ‫ﺳ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻔﺮ‬ѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﺘﻄﻴﻊ‬ѧѧ‫ﻭﻳﺴ‬ ،‫ﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻔﺮ‬ѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﺼ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻼﺳ‬ѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺑﺴ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺾ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺮ‬ѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻋﻨﺼ‬ ‫ﻐﺮ‬ѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺃﺻ‬‫ـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﺭﺍﺕ‬Atoms‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ѧ‫ﻣﺜ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ѧ‫ﻠﺒ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﺼ‬ ‫ﺎﺩﺓ‬ѧ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﺎﻝ‬ѧ‫ﺍﻟﺤ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ѧ‫ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌ‬ ‫ﻞ‬ѧ‫ﻜ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺗﺸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺬﺍﻥ‬ѧ‫ﺍﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻹﻋﻄﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎ‬ ِ‫ﻌﺎﻥ‬َ‫ﺿ‬ ْ‫ُﻮ‬‫ﻳ‬==fl_¡‡ ==Ô…Ÿf==_Âkv_jdË=ÔƒÈgðª^=É^È›Ÿÿ=áÈîÿ^=ø_—kÿ^=‚‹=ÓäÂr˚^=ö≈f=‚’›äÍ=χË3’ÿd £=fin=‚‹Ë=ÓàÕê‹==K_‰4Î…j=kvË=_ÂÄå‡Ë=_ƒ_r3ã^Ë=_Ÿ—‡Ë=_·Íä ƒ=à||||è_gª^=æ¶^=Ÿƒ=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª^=fiŸƒ=éÈ‹_–=h||||åvËODLISI)2( ===„eà ===Ï›–á=⁄’|||||||||||||è=≥d=m_‡_Îgÿ^=⁄ÍÈ¢=_‰_|||||||||||||òk—¥=fikÍ=;ÿ^=ÔΟ›≈ÿ^=ω=Ô·›–àÿ^ iÈã_•^=Ô||||||||ðã^Èf=_Âk§_≈ª==K====fi¡‡=Ω=Ô·›–àÿ^=y||||Ÿðî‹=flÑ||||||||||||ÄkåÍ=_||||‹=ÓÉ_ƒË ‹ÈŸ≈ª^gðª^=ï·ÿ^=⁄ÍÈ¢=≥d=Óá_||||||||èâÿ=m_ÔÎÛ_·n=m^á_||||||||èd=≥d=áÈ||||||||îÿ^=Ë`=«È=J= ã_f=ÏÛÈòÿ^=yåª^=ÓäÂr`=Ñv`=fl^ÑÄkJ=KiÈã_•^=Ÿƒ=_Âóàƒ=‚’∑= = ƒ=Ô||||å||||㯋=l‹ÑÄk||||ã^=Ñ–Ë=^܉DPC) Digital Preservation Coalition،( =ωË=Ïÿ^Èv=‚‹=Œÿckj=yfàŸÿ=ÔÃÉ_‰=4»=Ô·_ðÍàf=Ô||å||㯋20===_·›||ó=‚‹=ñÔ›¡·‹ gk’ª^=fl_ƒ=lñŸö’|||è=IñÔ·_ðÍ2ÿ^=ñÔ2001===_Í_|||ò—ÿ^=∆|||óË=Ω=⁄|||òÕÿ^=_7=„_‘Ë=I =ÔéÎ|||ã_Î|||åÿ^=€_›ƒ˚^=÷€ËÑr=‚›|||ó=éÔΛ–àÿ^I )3( ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺢ‬=Digitisation‫ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ،‫ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻅﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺢ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍء‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ (1) Larry Shane Taylor. New Media Migration: Digitization and Computer Networking Technology Use in Three Community Newspapers. (Ph.D. Knoxville:The University of Tennessee, 2007). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. 13-14. (2) Joan M. Reitz. ODLIS — Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. https://www.dpconline.org/pages/handbook/docs/DPCHandbookIntro.pdf (3) Ray Prytherch Harrod’s. Librarians. Glossary and Reference Book.10th ed. (England:Ashgate Publishing Limited,2005), 229.
  12. 12. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )16( ‫ﺭﻗﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬‫ﺭﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻒ‬. )1( 2/2Ìfl€ŒÜ÷]<x◊îí⁄eÜ√÷]<ÎÜ”À÷]<t^jfl÷]<ª<<VÍ< < Îfà≈ÿ^=ÔÍÈ…Ÿÿ^=ç΋^È—ÿ^=fl_›k‰^=flÑ≈ÿ=^ࡇ=yŸð|||||î‹=ÑÍÑwkf=_ÂΟƒ=≤›Û_—ÿ^Ë=Ôn==lf_ ====yŸðîª=⁄f_—›‘=fl^ÑÄkã˙ÿDigitizationΩ=fà≈ÿ^=Ô…Ÿÿ^=f_—ª^=m_wŸðîª^=mÉÑ≈j=Ñ—Ã=ÔÎ==ÔŸ ÏŸÍ=_›‘=IÊÿW= = ƒ=ÿ^=Ö_k|||ã˚^=flÑÄk|||ã^=áÈk‘ÑFÏ|||ãàs7^I2000E )2( ====:Î|||åwkÿ^=fl_¡·ÿ^=yŸð|||î‹ ÏÛ_·oÿ^==yŸð||||||îª=⁄f_—›‘Digital=J===€È–=h||||||åv=ÔÎfà≈ÿ_f=Ï›–á=Ô›Ÿ‘=„d=pÎv ==ÏŸ||||||||||ì˚^=·≈ª^=Ÿƒ=_7˙¡f=Ï—Ÿj=„`=‚’›ª^=‚‹=Òà~`=m˘ÈÿÑ‹=_7=ÊjÉ_Î||||||||||ã =======«_r3ã˘^=Ñ·ƒ=Ï—Ÿk›Ÿÿ=Ôgå·ÿ_f=”É˚^Ë=yì˚^=ʇ`=_›‘=IÌäΟ™ˇ^=yŸðÿ=J= ÷ÿÖË==m_—Îgðj=fl^ÑÄkã^=Ÿƒ=Ôÿ˘ÑŸÿiÈã_•^========⁄ÍÈ¢=_|||ÂÎÃ=_¥=m_gk’ª^=⁄~^É ====:Îåwkÿ^=Ω_óˇ^=⁄’êÿ^=ÊΟƒ=“Ÿù`=ÌÜÿ^Ë=Ï||||||||||||›–àÿ^=⁄||||’êÿ^=≥d=m_ηk—ª^ áäΟª^I)3( ==hÎ||||||åwkÿ^=œàƒ=_›‘Computation==fl_ƒ2002==Ÿƒ=É_›kƒ˘^=ʇaf=I •^=iÈ|||ã__ÂjÚ^à–Ë=ñÈ|||î·ÿ^=⁄Îs|||åj=Ω)4( =Ÿð|||î‹=€È¢=Ñ–Ë==Ñ≈f=hÎ|||åwkÿ^=y =fl^ÑÄkã^=Ÿƒ=Ôÿ˘ÑŸÿ=÷ÿÖiÈã_•^=Km_gk’ª^=Ω= = ƒu^àÃF=_è‹`I=2004E )5( ==⁄f_—›‘=Ï›–àÿ^=⁄ÍÈwkÿ^Ë=Ô·›–àÿ^=ÏwŸð||î‹=flÑÄk||ã_Ã==I =ÌäΟ™ˇ^=yŸð||||||||||||||ÿDigitization===≥d=m_‡_Îgÿ^=⁄ÍÈ¢=ÔΟ›ƒ=_›Â‡af=_›ÂÃàƒË =Ôðã^Èf=_Âk§_≈‹=⁄r˚=÷ÿÖË=Ï›–á=⁄’èiÈã_•^==K= = ƒ=F=flÑÄk|ã^=_›‘fi·ÍâI=2006E )6( ====;ÿ^=ÔΟ›≈ÿ^=ʇaf=ÊÃàƒË=“Û_nÈÿ^=fiΖàj=yŸð|î‹ =========_ÂÎÃ=fikÍ=;ÿ^=ÔΟ›≈ÿ^=Ì`=IÔƒÈgð‹=ÓÉ_‹=‚‹=χË3’ÿd=⁄Îoμ=“Ÿ~=fikÍ=_—Íàù=‚ƒ (1) Digital Préservation Coalition. Preservation Management of Digital Materials: The Handbook, 25. https://www.dpconline.org/pages/handbook/docs/DPCHandbookIntro.pdf )2(،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻣﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ :‫ﻛﻧﺩﺭﻳﺔ‬ѧѧѧ‫)ﺍﻹﺳ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺗﻛﻧﻭﻟﻭﺟﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻁﺑﻳﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﻻﺕ‬ѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺻ‬ .‫ﻲ‬ѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺟﺭﺳ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﻣﺩ‬ ‫ﻌﺩ‬ѧѧѧ‫ﺳ‬2000،( 158. )3("‫ﺍﻟﻣﺭ‬،‫ﻧﻔﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻊ‬149." )4(‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬ѧѧ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺗﺭﻧﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ .‫ﻲ‬ѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺟﺭﺳ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﻣﺩ‬ ‫ﻌﺩ‬ѧѧ‫ﺳ‬7‫ﻉ‬ ،2،‫)ﻣﺎﻳﻭ‬ 2002:(13. )5(‫ﻉ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺗﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﻠﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻳﻡ‬ .‫ﻓﺭﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺣﻣﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺑﺩ‬10،‫)ﻳﻭﻧﻳﻭ‬2004.( )6(‫ﺍ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺟﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ѧѧѧ‫ﻋﺑ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﻧﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺎﻣﺢ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺳ‬.‫ﻭﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺎء‬ѧѧѧ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺑﻧ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺧﻁﻳﻁ‬ :‫ﺔ‬ѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻳ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬ѧѧѧ‫ﻳﻔ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺷ‬ ‫ﺎﺕ‬ѧѧѧ‫ﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑ‬)،‫ﺍﻟﻣﺅﻟﻑ‬ :‫ﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﻘ‬ 2006/2007‫ﺝ‬ .(2،38‫ــ‬39.
  13. 13. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )17( =Ìà¿_·jF=Ë`=χË3’ÿd=4»=áÑ|||||||||î‹=⁄ÍÈ¢Analog===ÓÚ^à—Ÿÿ=⁄f_–=⁄’|||||||||è=≥d=E ===_wÕ|||ì=áÈ|||ì=ø_—kÿ^=_è‹`=W≥d=4|||êÍ=_‹=ÓÉ_ƒ=ȉË=KiÈ|||ã_•^=Ôð|||ã^Èf=mPage Images==⁄‹_‘=ï‡=Óá^Ñ||||||||ìd=ø_—kÿ^=Ë`=IÔ—ÎnÈÿ^=‚‹=áÈ||||||||ì=_gÍà—j=ωËFull Text Version=KÔÎî‡=œËàw‘=Ô—ÎnÈÿ^=„ä£=_—Íàù=‚ƒ=;ÿ^= = ›–àÿ^=yŸð|||||||||||||îª=ÔÎÿÈ6=ào‘`=ŒÍà≈j=Ú˙sk|||||||||||||ã˘Ë==‚‹=Òà~`=ÔÕÛ_ðÿ=úà≈‡=Ô· Ë`=Im_wŸðîª^=ç΋^È–=Ω=mÉáË=;ÿ^=m_ÕÍà≈kÿ^=ÔîîÄkª^=œá_≈ª^=àÛ^ËÉ=Ω‘=Ë`=I==m_f_k ÏŸÍ=_›‘=I≤îîÄkª^=q_ü`ËW= = ƒÏŸƒF=œàƒI=2003E )1( ==Ô·›–àÿ^=Digitization============∆Î∏=lÿ_v`=;ÿ^=ÔΟ›≈ÿ^==_‡af =====⁄||ã˙||ã=≥d=Ô‘àwk‹Ë=Ôkf_n=áÈ||ì=€_’||è`Ë=ñÈ||î‡Ë=É^у`=‚‹=âÈ‹àÿ^=”_||å‡` ==Á܉=àÂ||||||||||î·kÿ=ÏÛ_·oÿ^=É^у˚^=fl_¡·ÿ=_—ÃË=Ñv^Èÿ^Ë=àÕ||||||||||îÿ^=_‹^È–=fl_–á˚^=‚‹ j=Ω=”_||å‡˚^j=⁄¿=Ω=Ó4o‹=m_ÕÎÿÈm_η—==ÓÉÑ≈kª^=æÛ_||ãÈÿ^Multi-Media==_›‘=I =ÌäΟ™ˇ^=⁄f_—ª^=œàƒDigitalization )2( ===ñÈ||||||||||||||||||î·ÿ^=€È¢=;ÿ^=ÔΟ›≈ÿ^=ʇaf ======⁄ã˙ã=≥d=m^Èì˚^Ë=€_’è˚^Ë=‚‹=====Ô§_≈›Ÿÿ=ÔŸf_–=ygîj=kv=Ñv^Èÿ^Ë=àÕîÿ^ ÓÉÑ≈kª^=æÛ_ãÈÿ^=Ô’Îgã=Ω=á_Â^Ë=ÔÎÿ˝^K= = ƒ^=á_||è`=≤v=Ω=ŒÎ||èá˚^Ë=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª^=m_wŸð||îª=σÈ||ãȪ^=fis≈ªI)3( == ÔÍà¿_·kÿ^=É^Ȫ^=⁄ÍÈ¢=Ô|||||||Ο›ƒ=_‡`=Ÿƒ=Ô·›–àŸÿAnalog Material===⁄|||||||’è=≥d =EÏ›–áFχË3’ÿdElectronic (Digital)K= = ƒÌÉ_7^=ÑgƒF=á_è`ËI=1999E )4( =d==“Û_nÈŸÿ=fikj=;ÿ^=⁄ÍÈwkÿ^=m_Ο›ƒ=_‡af=Ô·›–àÿ^=≥ ^=€_’|||||||||è˚^=‚‹==_ÂÎÃ=_¥=Ï›–àÿ^=χË3’ÿˇ^=⁄’|||||||||êÿ^=≥d=ÔƒÈgðª^=ÔÍÑΟ—kÿ KχË3’ÿˇ^=àê·ÿ^=m_Ο›ƒ= = ƒEÔÎfà≈ÿ^=ÔÄ|||||å·ÿ^F=_ÍÑÎgÎ’ÍË=Óà•^=ÔƒÈ|||||ãȪ^=l‹_–Ë)5( ===yŸð|||||î‹=fl^ÑÄk|||||ã_f )1(‫ﻧﺑﻳﻝ‬،‫ﻟﻠﻧﺷﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ :‫)ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺻﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺣﺩﻳﺎﺕ‬ .‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬2003،(12‫ـــ‬13. )2(‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺑﻳﻝ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ѧѧ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺟﻧﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺣﺗﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻋﺔ‬ѧѧ‫ﺻ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺯﻳﺯ‬ .‫ﻣﺑﺭ‬ѧѧ‫ﺩﻳﺳ‬ .(‫ﻛﻭﺍ‬ѧѧ‫)ﺍﻹﺳ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ѧѧ‫ﺳ‬2006، 39. (3) Library, Information and Archival Terminology. http://www.elshami.com/ )4(:‫ﺍﻹﻟﻛﺗﺭﻭﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻧﺷﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﺑﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﻥ‬“.‫ﺍﻹﻟﻛﺗﺭﻭﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻧﺹ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻠﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺭﻛﻳﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺟﺎﺭﺏ‬’‫ﺍﻻﺗﺟﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺣﺩﻳﺛﺔ‬6‫ﻉ‬ ،12،‫)ﻳﻭﻟﻳﻭ‬1999:(39. )5(‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺣﻭﻳﻝ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺣﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺳﻭﻋﺔ‬ .‫ﻭﻳﻛﻳﺑﺩﻳﺎ‬.
  14. 14. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )18( =ÌäΟ™ˇ^=yŸð||||||||ÿ=⁄f_—›‘=Ï›–àÿ^=⁄ÍÈwkÿ^Digitizing==ÔΟ›ƒ=ʇaf=ÊkÃàƒË=I =Ë==Ifl_år˚^=⁄Îoμ=áÈîÿ^Ë=Im_ÕŸª^I==Ë`=m^á_èˇ^=FÔΟn_›kÿ^====ԃțß=fl^ÑÄkã_f=E ====_ÂΟƒ=“ŸðÎÃ=Ï›–àÿ^=⁄ÍÈwkÿ^=ÔsÎk‡=_è‹`=KÔŸ||||||||||||||||||îÕ·‹=ø_—‡=‚‹=ԇȒ‹=Ô≈ð—k‹ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬=‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻲ‬======4…j=∆‹=Óà›kå‹=Óá_èd=ÔΟn_›kÿ^=Óá_èˇ^=„È’j=pÎv‫ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬===„`=Ì`==I =_›·Îf=KÔ¡•=⁄‘=Ñ·ƒ=ÑrÈj=Óá_||èˇ^=ԛΖ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺷﺎﺭﺓ‬===Ôg|||å·ÿ_f=Ô≈ð—k‹=„È’j =ȉ=Ï›–àÿ^=⁄ÍÈwkÿ_Ã=Ïÿ_kÿ_fË=I‚‹äŸÿ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺐ‬=K_Ÿo∑=;ÿ^=Óá_èâÿ= = ƒÌË^Ñ·7^F=Ñ·ƒËE)1( =====ÌÜÿ^=”_Î|||åÿ^=h|||åv=χ_≈‹=Óу=Ü~aÍ=Ô·›–àÿ^=yŸð|||î‹=„eà ==WÏŸÍ=_›‘=IÊÎÃ=flÑÄkåÍ= = =`J==Ô·›–àÿ^•^=Ω=Ôg||ãÈd=m_‡_Îgÿ^=⁄ÍÈ¢=W===_Âk§_≈‹=‚’∑=pÎü=Ï›–á=⁄’||è=≥ KiÈã_•^=Ôðã^Èf= = ===iJ==Ô·›–àÿ^fi¡‡=”_Î||||||||ã=Ω≈ª^⁄ÍÈ¢=Wm_‹ÈŸ====hk’ÿ^=⁄o‹=ÔƒÈgðª^=ñÈ||||||||î·ÿ^ KæÛ^à~=Ë`=m_v_|||||òÍd=Ë`=ÔÎÃ^à»ÈjÈÃ=áÈ|||||ìF=áÈ|||||îÿ^Ë4»Ë=E1^=KK==‚‹=ÔÍÑΟ—kÿ^=É^Ȫ^=‚‹=_‰ ;ÿ^=_7_’||è``F=„_||å‡ˇ^=Ôð||ã^Èf=`à—j=„`=‚’∑=ÔÍà¿_·j=Ìà—j=;ÿ^=€_’||è˚^=≥d=E==_ÂÎÃ=` =Ôð||ã^ÈfiÈ||ã_•^d=≥d=Ì`=I||è=ÔÎÛ_·n=m^á_Signals=BinaryÖË=I==ø«È‡=fl^ÑÄk||ã^=“Íàù=‚ƒ=÷ÿ ÏÛÈòÿ^=yåª^=ÓäÂr`=‚‹=_‹=Scanningÿ^=“Íàù=‚ƒ=Ë`=Iƒ=tk·Í=;ÿ^Ë=IÔΛ–àÿ^=m^4‹_’==_· ==KiÈã_•^=Ôè_è=Ÿƒ=_Âóàƒ=fikÍ=€_’è`= = =uJ=Ѫ^=ÓÑÎ≈f=m˘_||îj˘^=”_Î||ã=Ω=Ô·›–àÿ^m^á_||èˇ^=⁄ÍÈ¢=≥d=4||êj=WÒ¿_·kÿ^==ÔÍà Óà›kåª^Analog Continuous Signals=≥dKÔÎÛ_·n=ÔΛ–á=m^á_èd= = J=_gåvË=||||||ÿ=F^ÌË_ÎwÎÿI=1997E)2( ==‚‹=m_kf=⁄’è=Ÿƒ=ä΋3ÿ^=ÔΟ›ƒ=_‡eÃ)1-0(=== =======mÈì=‚‹F=m^á_èˇ^=⁄‘=„`=·≈¥=KÔ’gêÿ^=2ƒ=_7_ãád=∆‹äª^=m^á_èˇ^Ë=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=⁄’ÿ =ÌÉу=‚‹=âÈ‹á=≥d=€Èwkj=E_‰4»Ë=ÓáÈ|||||ìË=ð≈‹Ë(0-1)=====_›|||||ò—j=„`=Ô’g|||||êŸÿ=‚’∑ =Ω=m^ÑvÈ‘K€ÈìÈÿ^=Ñ·ƒ=ÔΟì`=Ôÿ_ãà‘=_Ÿg—kåjË=pgÿ^= = http://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AA%D8%AD%D9%88%D9%8A%D9%84_%D8% B1%D9%82%D9%85%D9%8A )1(،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻟﻛﺗﺭﻭﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻧﺷﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻬﻧﺩﺍﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﺷﻡ‬1. )2(‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻫﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﺷﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻳﺣﻳﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﺣﻳﻰ‬‫ﻣﺣﺎﺿﺭﺓ‬ :‫ﺍﻻﺷﺗﺭﺍﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺗﺣﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﺭﻳﺩﺓ‬ .‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ‬ )21‫ﺃﺑﺭﻳﻝ‬1997:(3.http://doc.abhatoo.net.ma/IMG/doc/yah1.doc
  15. 15. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )19( ===ÔΉ_‹=‚ƒ=Ôw|||||||||||ó^Ë=ÓáÈ|||||||||||ì=_·kðƒ`=Ñ–=_‡`=Ñ™=m_ÕÍà≈kÿ^=ÁÜ7=_·j_≈ÿ_ð‹=‚‹Ë ==‚‹=flÑÄk|||||||åª^=:·r˚^=yŸð|||||||îª^=œ˙k~^=¬v˙‡Ë=IÔ·›–àÿ^=yŸð|||||||î‹Digitization===≥d Digitalization=fin=IDigitizing=IScanning=IComputerization=IDigitisation=I›‘=====⁄f_— =Ô·›–àÿ^=Ïfà≈ÿ^=yŸð||ÿ======Ô…Ÿÿ^=Ÿƒ=^à||î–=l||åÎÿ=Ï›Ÿ≈ÿ^=yŸð||îª^=ÑÎvÈj=ÔŸ’||ê‹=„`=Ì` =æ—Ã=Ô|||Îfà≈ÿ^J====áÈ¿=≥d=ÒÉ`=_||º=_|||Âj^ÉàÕ¥=Ô|||η»=Ô|||…ÿ=Ô|||Îfà≈ÿ^=Ô|||…Ÿÿ^=„`=Ω=”á_|||Õÿ^=∆‹ ====IfiΖ3ÿ^Ë=IÔ·›–àÿ^=⁄o‹=ÔŸ|||||||||||||||||îf=ö≈gÿ^=_Â|||||||||||||||||ò≈gÿ=lμ=˘=Ô·›–àŸÿ=m_wŸð|||||||||||||||||î‹ ⁄ÍÈwkÿ^ËL^€ÈwkÿLIÏ›–àÿ^=⁄Îo›kÿ^=KÔ·Ë3’ÿˇ^Ë=ÔΛ–àÿ^=ÔÕèá˚^Ë=I¬Õ•^Ë=I“ÎnÈkÿ^Ë= = ====yŸð||||î‹=Ô||||ã^áÑÿ^=Ñ›k≈j=œÈ||||ãËDigitization====Ô…Ÿÿ=Ôg||||å·ÿ_f=_è‹`=IÔÍäΟ™ˇ^=Ô…Ÿÿ =====yg||||||ì`=ÌÜÿ^=hÎ||||||åwkÿ^=≤fË=Ê·Îf=⁄||||||îÕÿ^=#=„`=Ñ≈f=Ô·›–àÿ^=yŸð||||||î‹=lgn=Ñ—Ã=ÔÎfà≈ÿ^ Km_gk’ª^=Ω=Ô‹ÑÄkåª^=ÔÎÿ˝^=fi¡·ÿ^=≥d=Óá_èâÿ=flÑÄkåÍ= = =‚‹Ë=IÔ·›–àÿ^=m_ÕÍà≈kÿ=“f_||||åÿ^=y||||åª^=€˙~Ô»_Î||||ì=#===yÎ||||óÈkÿ=Ïÿ_kÿ^=ŒÍà≈kÿ^ WÏŸÍ=_›‘=ÊÕÍà≈jË=yŸðîª^= = ƒ=Ô|||·›–àÿ^Digitization==Ô|||ƒÈgðª^=É^Ȫ^=⁄|||ÍÈ¢=Ô|||Ο›ƒ=ωI=Ô|||‡äĪ^=Ë`LË==Ÿƒ =IÌà||||||||||||||||||||||||||¿_·kÿ^=⁄’êÿ^=m^Ö=É^Ȫ^Ë=XëÎÃËà’Ϊ^=Ë`=fiŸÎÃËà’Ϊ^===‚‹=;ÿ^Ë ==||è`Ë=IÔÎjÈ||îÿ^=Ôùà||è˚^=_ÂrÖ_∂ÔÎÛàª^=ÈÍÑÎÕÿ^=Ôùà===XÏÛÈ||òÿ^=y||åª^=“Íàù=‚ƒ LË€_~ɡ^=ÓÉ_ƒd=Ë`Ï›–á=⁄’|||||è=m^Ö=É^È‹=≥d=I===∆Îðk|||||åÍ=ÌÜÿ^=⁄’|||||êÿ^=È‰Ë ===“ŸðÍ=m_‡_Îgÿ^=‚‹=ÔŸ|||||îÕ·‹=m^ÑvË=≥d=_›Ρ·kf=÷ÿÖË=IÊ≈‹=⁄‹_≈kÿ^=iÈ|||||ã_•^ =_ÂΟƒBytes==Ë`LË=XÔgŸ||||||îÿ^=ñ^à–˚_‘=ÔΟ~^É=‚Íä£=æÛ_||||||ãË=Ÿƒ=_·Íä£Ë=I ~^à–˚_‘=ÔÎrá_ñ^à–`Ë=IÓáäΟª^=ñ=Λ–àÿ^=ÈÍÑÎÕÿ^Ô====Ô’gè=2ƒ=_Âkv_jd=Ë`LË=X ==Kl‡3‡ˇ^= = =yŸð||î‹Ë=Ô·›–àÿ^=Digitization==“k||ê‹=‚‹==yŸð||î‹=Ï›–á=DigitalI=Á_·≈‹Ë=IÉÑ≈k‹== 4»=ÉÑ®=ÉÑ≈f=÷ÿÜfË=ÈÂÃ=ŒŸkØ=‚ƒ=yŸð||||||î‹=¿_·jÌà=Analog=ÌÜÿ^=<≈Í=ÉÑ®=˘=ÑÍäÍ== ‚ƒ=≤·n^I=_è‹`=⁄≈Õÿ^=ÈÂÃ=‚›–àÍ=Digitize=ËÁ_·≈‹=∆|||òÍ=Em_‡_Îgÿ^F=⁄’|||êf=Ë`=Ô…Î|||ì=IÔΛ–á== Ë`=⁄≈≠=ÚÏêÿ^=Kô_Λ–á= = 3.<<<<Ìfl€ŒÖ<ÿu]Ü⁄<l^¬Á€•ÌÈeÜ√÷]<l^fj”π]V< < =ÔΟ›ƒ=àμÿ^===Á܉=ÉÑwkjË=Iö≈f=_Â|ò≈f=⁄›’Í=;ÿ^Ë=Ô‹_7^=⁄v^àª^=‚‹=ÉÑ≈f=Ô·›–à
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  19. 19. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )23( ð‹=m_rà©====ÔÃ_|||óˇ_f=IÔ|||ê7^=€È|||ì˚^=⁄®=⁄¢=Ï’ÿ=ÓÉȧ^=ÔÎÿ_ƒ=ÔƒÈg =======flÑ£=Ï’ÿ=áÈîÿ^=Á܉=‚‹=ÔòÕÄ·‹=}ÈóË=ÔráÉ=m^Ö=m^á^Ñìd=”_—kè^=≥d K€Èì¸ÿ=ÔÍáËàòÿ^=4»=ÔÍËÑÎÿ^=ÔŸ‹_≈ª^=⁄Ο—kÿ=ÔÎ≈rà‹=áÈî‘== 6=J===Ô|||Λ–àÿ^=Ô|||gk’ª^=È´=€Èwkÿ^==Ë= IÔ|||Îfà≈ÿ^===⁄|||v^à‹=q˙n=‚‹=„È’kj=;ÿ^ à‹=_‰˘Ë`=IÔÎ|||ã_|||ã`ÿ^=‚‹=_‰ÑÎ|||ìá=ÓÉ_Íâ=ÔŸv==Ôsk·ª^=Ú^È|||ã=ÔΛ–àÿ^=m_‡_Î’ ===Ô·›–àª^=Ë`=Ï›–á=⁄’è=Ω=˙ì`j=_Âk·_nË=IÏÿb=fl_¡‡=4ÃÈ=ƒÈ›.^=Óá^ɡ==m_ IÔΛ–àÿ^=;ÿ^=ÔÎÛ_·ÿ^=ÔŸvàª^=_Âkoÿ_nË=_Î’ÿ^=«_r3|||||ã^Ë=„^äk~^=_ÂÎÃ=fikÍ==m_‡ =ÔΛ–àÿ^=Á܉=⁄Î…êkÿ=^ÑÎÂμ==KÔgk’ª^ 7=J=ƒ=Ôg‘^È‹=Ÿƒ=Óу_||||||||||||||||||||åª^=fiΟ≈kÿ^=⁄o‹=ÔoÍÑ•^=m_η—kÿ^=‚‹=ÉÑ==IÑ≈f=‚ƒ ========≤›k›Ÿÿ=Ôgå·ÿ_f=Ô‹_7^=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=‚‹=_‰4»Ë=I_Ÿ›êÍ=;ÿ^=ÔÕŸkĪ^=m_îîÄkÿ^Ë KfiΟ≈kÿ^=‚‹=«È·ÿ^=^Ü||Âf====m_||η—j=÷||ÿÜ||‘====Ô||vÈkÕª^=m_||≈‹_||§_||f=fiΟ≈kÿ^Open University=˙o∑=pÎv„==Ôðã^Èf=fiΟ≈kŸÿ=Ô‹_‰=ÔÍá_°=”ÈãhÎã^È•^K)1( EtD<VÍi˚]<≈^fide<^€„œÈœ†<‹jËÊ<HÌË^€£]Ê<¿À£]< < 1=J=||Îv=IÊ||Οƒ=¿_||Õ•^Ë=Ïfà≈ÿ^=q^3ÿ^=“ÎnÈj===Ô||ƒÈgðª^=m_||ƒÈ›.^=Ô||≈Îgù=„d=p I‚‹äÿ^=áËà¥=Ÿgj==ÑÍÑ≈Ÿÿ=Ô|||||||óàƒ=_‡`=_›‘‹Óá^à•_‘F=ŒŸkÿ^=⁄‹^ȃ=‚I== ÔfÈùàÿ^ËI==ÚÈòÿ^ËI==m^àê•^ËI=^=m˙ƒ_Õkÿ^Ë”ä›kÿ^Ë=EÔÎÛ_ΛΒÿ=====«_Îòÿ^Ë kŸÿ=ÔsÎk·‘∆ãÈ^à—ÿ^=⁄g–=‚‹=_‹^ÑÄkã^=Ω≤ov_gÿ^Ë=Ú. 2=J=Õÿ^Ë=Ôì_¶^=m_ƒÈ›s›Ÿÿ=ÏØá_kÿ^=¬Õ•^—•=;ÿ^=á^àó˚^=‚‹=ÑwŸÿ=ÓÑÍà==l fÿ_=Å||å·=ÔΟ||ì˚^ÿ^=⁄‹^ȃË=Ô~ÈÄÎ||êŸÿ=ÔsÎk‡=I‚‹ä==⁄’||è=≥d=_ŸÍÈwkf=÷ÿÖË ==K_ÂÎÿd=€ÈìÈÿ^=Ôv_jd=Ÿƒ=⁄›≈ÿ^Ë=Ï›–á 3=J=^Ë=Ô’ÿ_Âkª^=m_ƒÈ›.^=fl^ÑÄkã^=ÑÍÑ°KÔÕÿ_kÿ 4=J=kv˘_f=÷ÿÖË=Iqá^È’ÿ^=ÔÂr^Ȫ=æÎðÄkÿ^==Ô—ð·‹=Ω=ÔΛ–á=Å||||||||||||||||||||||å·f=¿_Õ K∆–Ȫ^=uá_~=‚ÍäÄkŸÿ= = )1(‫ﺑﻭ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﺢ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﺑﺩ‬.‫ﻋﺯﺓ‬“.‫ﺍﻟﻔﻛﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﻳﺎ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺿ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬”‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻧﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﻛﺗﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﻠﺔ‬11‫ﻉ‬ ،1، ،‫ﻳﻭﻟﻳﻭ‬ ‫ـــ‬ ‫)ﻓﺑﺭﺍﻳﺭ‬2005:(82-83.
  20. 20. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )24( EÅD<HàÈ£]<4 Ái==ª^=m_ƒÈ›.^=Ô·›–á=⁄›≈j=pÎvWŸƒ=ÔƒÈgð= = 1=J===ÊŸ…||êj=ÌÜÿ^=χ_’ª^=äΕ^=Ω=4ÃÈkÿ^^≈ÿ^=ÔÃ_o’ÿ^Ë=ÔƒÈgðª^=m_ƒÈ›.==ÔÎÿ_ Km_‡_Îgÿ^=„^äk~^=Ω 2=J=v=ÓÉ_Íâ=⁄~^É=áËàª^=Ô‘àÃáÈ=IÔgk’ª^=œË==Åå·ÿ^=‚‹=ÔΛ–á=Åå‡=Ôv_jef=÷ÿÖ== KÔƒÈgðª^= = E‚{D<H–ËÁäj÷]Ê<Å^íjŒ˜]=Ô‹_7^=⁄‹^È≈ÿ^=‚‹=_›‰Ë=Ÿƒ=у_åj=;ÿ^ËW=== = ==1=J=ª^Ë=m_gk’ª^=≤f=m_‘à|||êÿ^=fiƒÉË=ÔΛ·j==Ôƒ_·|||îf=Ô›kª^=ÔÎfà≈ÿ^=m_|||å|||ã¯== ª^=fiƒÑÿ^=ÊÎrÈjË=IÏfà≈ÿ^=Ï›–àÿ^=ÒÈk-^=|åª=_7=ÌÉ__Âjу_Ÿƒ=”^È|ã`=ykÃ== ÔÎfàƒÔΪ_ƒË=ÓÑÍÑrK 2=J=ª=ÔΪ_ƒ=ÔΗÍÈ||||åj=m˘_ß=“Ÿ¶=æÎðÄkÿ^m_gk’ª^=m_ηk—=àª^=ÔÎfà≈ÿ^·›–Ô==I 3‡ˇ^=Ô’g|||||||||è=2ƒ=Ôv_kª^=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=„d=pÎv===‚ÍäÄkÿ^=æÛ_|||||||||ãË=Ÿƒ=Ë`=l‡ ⁄’ÿ=∆Îf=ÔΟ›ƒ=‚‹=Úär=_gÿ_»=ω=IÔÍȇ_oÿ^=_åÍ=_º=Im_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=Á܉=«^ȇ`==у =Ÿƒª^=‚‹=ÌÜÿ^=ÌÉ_ª^=ÑÛ_≈ÿ^=ö≈f=“Η¢==‚‹=_||||||||||||||||||||||ê‹_‰=Ïð…Í=„`=‚’› Km_ƒËàêª^=Á܉=ÔÍá^à›kã^=„_›òÿ=ÔÕŸ’kÿ^ 3=J==¬Õ•^=m^Ú^àref=Ôì_¶^= ÿ_gª^=4ÃÈjËÈgðª^=„^Ñ—ÃË=ÑΟskÿ^Ë=Ô‡_Îîÿ^Km_ƒ 4=J=Ο—kÿ^=‚ÍäÄkÿ^=m_gŸðk‹=m^Ú^àrd=öÎÕ£==⁄o‹˚^=fl^ÑÄk||||||||||ã˘^=“Íàù=‚ƒ=ÌÑ ÿ^=‚ÍäÄkÿ^=æÛ_ãÈÿKÌȇ_o EÊD<H‡ËÇÈÀjäπ]<l^q^Èju]=ÂkÎgŸj=Ÿƒ=⁄›≈ÿ^=fikÍËWÏŸÍ=_‹=“Ηwkÿ=_= = 1=J=‚ÍÑÎÕk||åª^=m_r_Îkv^=Ω=«È·kÿ^=Ôg‘^È‹====_›‘=fiÂj_||î||î£=“›ƒË=fiÂgÿ_ð‹Ë =||ã=Ià||ì_≈ª^=ÑÎÕk||åª^=Ô≈Îgù=„d=pÎv=I_ÕΑË==Ë`=ô_ðð©=Ë`=ô_ov_f=„_‘=Ú^È =Ô≈Íà||||åÿ^=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=≥d=Êkr_vË=Iá^à–=∆‡_||||ì=^Ë=ÔŸ‹_||||êÿ^Ë==_º=m4…j=ԗΖÑÿ `Ë=ÔÍÑΟ—kÿ^=”àðÿ_f=Á˜_Õk‘^=flу=≥d=ÒÉ`_|||îª^Ë=“Û_nÈÿ^=≥d=ÚÈsŸÿ^=yg|||ì==áÉ kv˘^=Á܉=≤‹ajË=ÔÎgŸj=‚ƒ=är_ƒ=ÔƒÈgðª^Km_r_Î 2=J==ÔÿÈÂã===ÔƒàãË=„_’‹=ÑÍÑwãjÚ_ƒÈÿ^==‚›–àª^Ë=€ÈìÈÿ^==ÊÎÿd===€Ë_·k‹=Ω=Ê≈óËË I‚ÍÑÎÕk||||||||åª^=b=àÃ^Èj=hg||||||||åf=÷ÿÖË=m_Îÿÿ^épwg=ª^=ÔÍÈ—ÿ^==Ω=_è‹d=_Îÿ_v=Ôv_k
  21. 21. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )25( ÿ^’gê-^=m_=Ëñ`=ÔëΟ=Ô’gè=Ÿƒl‡3‡ˇ^K 8=J=====€È||||ìÈÿ^=Ÿƒ=ÓáÑ—ÿ^=≥d=ÔÃ_||||óˇ_f=IÚ_ƒÈÿ^=Ú^är`=≤f=à•^=⁄—·kÿ^=Ô·_’‹d Ô—Û_Õÿ^=æf^Ëàÿ^=“Íàù=‚ƒ=IÚ_ƒÈÿ^=«È||||óÈ¥=Ô–˙ƒ=m^Ö=áÉ_||||î‹=≥dHyper Links=ov_gÿ^=l||îŸ~=;ÿ^≤==Ÿ||åkÿ^=∆gkkÿ^=Ê||óàÕÍ=ÌÜÿ^=ÉÈ›§^=‚‹==Ñ·ƒ=ÏŸ||å ÔÍÑΟ—kÿ^=m_ƒÈ›.^=Ω=Ô·Î≈‹=m_‹ÈŸ≈‹=‚ƒ=pwgÿ^K)1( 3=J==h΃=Ÿƒ=hŸ…kÿ^ÓÚ^à—ÿ^=ÔÍÉËÑ®=ÈrȪ^=Ω=É=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=áÑî‹=·ª^=Ï›–àÿ^====aê ÿ^=àÃÈÍ=pÎv=I«Ègð‹=4¡‡=Êÿ=áÑ||||||||||îÍ=%=ÌÜÿ^==Ω=Ê≈‹=⁄‹_≈kÿ^=‚›–àª^=Ú_ƒÈ KÔr_•^=håv=‚›–àª^=Ë`=«Ègðª^=ÊΟ’è 4=J=„_‹äÿ^=ÔŸ’|||||||ê‹=⁄v=^=Ÿƒ=€È|||||||îwŸÿ=„_’ª^Ëf=÷ÿÖË=Im_‹ÈŸ≈ª==‚‹=áàwkÿ_ ÔÍÑΟ—kÿ^=«˙ù˘^=”àù=ÔÍÉËÑ®ª^=Ú_ƒÈŸÿ==m^Ú^àrˇ^=⁄o‹=_Âk—|||||||||||||||ê‹Ë=«Ègð ==_|||åj=_‡`=_›‘=IÔ—‰àª^=ÔÎ|||îÄ|||êÿ^Ë=ÔÍá^ɡ^Ÿƒ=у==Ω=pv_gÿ^=l–Ë=4ÃÈj= ≥d=i_‰Üÿ^=wgÿ^=m^Ú^àrd=«_gjdË=IÔgk’ª^==Ñ–=ÌÜÿ^=àÍÈ||||||||||îkÿ^Ë=«˙ù˘^Ë=p =‚‹=hŸðkÍÔgk’ª^=fisv=håv=fl_Í`=≥d=m_ƒ_ãK= = 5=J==`=Ô›Ÿ‘=‚ƒ=ÏÿÈ›êÿ^=pwgÿ^=m^äκ=Ôv_jd=Ω=yŸðî‹=Ë==É^у`=Ë`=≤≈‹=Éу ÍÑÎÕk|||||åª^=‚‹=ÉÑ≈ÿ=ÔÕŸk©=⁄~^Ñ¥Ë=IÓ4o‘IÊ|||||åÕ‡=l–Èÿ^=Ω=‚===⁄›≈Í=_º Ë=pwgÿ^=m_Ο›ƒ=∆Íàåj=Ÿƒ˘^=«_r3ã-ÍÈkK_Âj_= = 6=J==Óу_||||||||å‹ÈΟggÿ^=m˙Îs||||||||åkÿ^»ÔÎÃ^à=ov_gŸÿ≤==€Èv=à||||||||ê‡=_‹=Ô≈f_k‹=Ÿƒ =Ô΃Ë`=‚‹=à||||ê‡=_‹=ÔÃà≈‹Ë=fiÂj_‹_›k‰^_‹ÈŸ≈‹====€È—v=‚›||||ó=∆—j=ÔÍáÑ||||î‹=m =^=ÏÕÍà≈kÿ^=áËÑÿ^=≥d=ÔÃ_|||||óˇ_f=IfiÂj_|||||î|||||î£Êg≈Ÿj=ÌÜÿ==‚ƒ=}_|||||îÃˇ^=Ω 4»Ë=ÔÿË^Ñkª^=4»=m_ƒÈóȪ^ÂÎÃ=qÈwgª^==K_ EáD<V±c<ÕÇ„ËÊ<Hl^fj”π]<∞e<·Ê^√j÷]< < 1=J==fi|||||ã_—jÔ·›–àª^=m_ƒÈ›.^==≤f=_›ÎÃm_gk’ª^===ѧ^=á^à’j=flу=„_›|||||òÿ )1(.‫ﺣﻭﻱ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﺿ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻧﺎء‬ ،‫ﺣﺎﻓﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺯﻳﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﺑﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺩ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺷ‬ ‫ﻋﺑﺩ‬“‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺎﺩﺭ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﻣﺻ‬‫ﺍﻹﻧﺗﺭﻧﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻛﺔ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﺷ‬‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ‬ : .‫ﻟﻠﺗﻘﻭﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺗﺭﺣﺔ‬”Cybrarians Journal‫ﻉ‬ ،1،‫)ﺩﻳﺳﻣﺑﺭ‬2006.( http://journal.cybrarians.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1 05:-----------2-----------&catid=49:2010-06-29-05-08-25&Itemid=54
  22. 22. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )26( KÔ·›–àÿ^=m_Ο›ƒ=Ω=€ËÜgª^ 2=J=ÑvȪ^=Ïfà≈ÿ^=éàÂÕÿ^=Ω=◊^3||||è˘^I)1( ====Ω=◊^3||||è˘^=ÁáËÑf=yÎkÎ||||ã=ÌÜÿ^Ë KÔΪ_≈ÿ^=Ô·Ë_≈kÿ^=ÔãàÂÕÿ^=m_‹Ñ~ 3/1/1/2==l^q^Èju]<Ìâ]ÖÅ„i^f◊õ<ÌÈf◊iÊ<‡ËÇÈÀjäπ]V‹=== = =Ï…g·Í=Ô·›–àŸÿ=«Ëà||||ê‹=Ì`=ÔÍ^Ñf=ΩÂ∏=ÑÍÑ¢===Á܉=‚‹=œÑÂk||||åª^=‚ÍÑÎÕk||||åª^=áÈ =======kv=Ô||||||Ο›≈ÿ^==||d=⁄îj=„`=Ôgk’ª^=∆Îðkåj=_r_Îkv^=ÔÎgŸkÿ=Ô·’º=Ô—Íàù=⁄òÃ`=≥==^܉=IfiÂj Õk|||||å‹=áÈÂ∏=≥d=áÈ›§^=^܉=fiÎ|||||å—j=‚’›ª^=‚‹ËkÎ|||||ã=≤Ο~^É=‚ÍÑ΃=Ê≈‹=⁄‹_≈kÿ^=fi==‚ “Íàù==ȇ_oÿ^=‚ÍäÄkÿ^=æÛ_||||ãË=Ë`=l‡^3‡ˇ^=Ô’g||||è‹=áÈÂ∏Ë=XÔÍ=fikÎ||||ã=≤Îrá_~=‚ÍÑÎÕk||||å== 3|||å‘ˇ^=Ë`=l‡3‡ˇ^=Ô’g|||è=“Íàù=‚ƒ=Ê≈‹=⁄‹_≈kÿ^¢=Ôgk’ª^=∆Îðk|||åj=_·‰=‚‹Ë=Kl‡^==ÑÍÑ ===;ÿ^=fi¡·ÿ^=fiΛîjË=IÊ‹Ñ—kã=ÌÜÿ^=ÌÈk-^=«È‡=ã=·›–àª^=m_ƒÈ›.^=_Âkðã^Èf=}_kk==”àùË=Ô ==^=«^ȇ`Ë=Iúà≈ÿ^=m_Âr^Ë=fiΛîjË=I_ÂÎÿd=€ÈìÈÿ^==ïÛ_î~Ë=ItÛ_k·ÿ^=úàƒ=”àùË=IyÕîkÿ== Ñ~=Ï‹ÑÄk|||||å‹=∆‹=⁄‹_≈kÿ^=”àùË=IÔ‹ÑÄk|||||åª^=pwgÿ^Ô·›–àª^=m_ƒÈ›s›Ÿÿ=Ôgk’ª^=m_‹==I _‹ÈŸ≈ª^=‚‹=_Âj_r_Îkv^Ë=”Èåÿ^=m_ƒ_ð–=ÑÍÑ¢Ë==Km= = 3/1/1/3<]<ìÒ^í§]^„jfl€ŒÖ<Å]Üπ]<l^¬Á€r€◊÷<ÌËÅ^πV< < ===à|||||||ì_·ƒ=fi‰`=‚‹=_Âk·›–á=É^àª^=m_ƒÈ›s›Ÿÿ=ÔÍÉ_ª^Ë=ÔÎÛ_ÍäÎÕÿ^=ïÛ_|||||||î¶^=ÔÃà≈‹ ||||||ê‹=Ω=}_s·ÿ^==ÑÍÑwkÿ=ÔΟ||||||ì˚^=Å||||||å·ÿ^=Ôÿ_v=Ÿƒ=œà≈kÿ^=€˙~=‚‹=÷ÿÖË=Ô·›–àÿ^=m_ƒËà =====„`=≥d=ÔÃ_óˇ_f=_Âkÿ_v=áȉÑj=Ÿƒ=Óу_åª^=∆·ª=yåª^=ÔΟ›ƒ=Ú_·n`=_Âk§_≈‹=ÔÎÕΑË=Ô—Íàù ===========ÔÎÿ_ƒ=Ú_—‡=ÔráÉ=≥d=u_kwÎã=yåª^=„_‘=^Öd=ÑÍÑ¢=≥d=ÌɯÎã=ÔΟì˚^=Åå·ÿ^=Ôÿ_v=ÔÃà≈‹ =.^=⁄’||è=ÔÃà≈‹Ë=IÔÍÉ_ƒ=Ë`=È||ã`Ë=öÎf`F=ԃț=m_‹È||ãäá=Ë`=èïã‡=Ë`=I„^Èÿ`=Ë`=IÉ==fisvË=IE ===ÒÈk-^=«È‡Ë=Ifis•^=Ó4g’ÿ^=m_ƒÈ›s›Ÿÿ=y||å‹=⁄›≈ÿ=Ôgk’ª^=ÔÎv˙||ì=ÒÑ‹Ë=m_ƒÈ›.^ ======_ÂΟƒ=„äÄk|||||ã=;ÿ^=m_ÕŸª^=€_’|||||è`Ë=IEÔ·_Îf=ô_‹È|||||ãá=Ë`=ô^áÈ|||||ì=⁄›|||||êÍ=fl`=Iæ—Ã=ï‡F m^äκË=I_Â…Î||||||||ìË=_›svËiÈ΃Ë⁄‘_·‹ÒÑ‹ËÂk›Û˙‹_Ô≈Îgðÿ==I≤‹ÑÄk||||||||åª^ ÑÍÈ’j=fl_¡‡Ëm_ÕŸª^flÑÄk||||||||åª^4Í_≈‹=“Îgðkÿm_ÎsÎj^3||||||||ã^pwgÿ^⁄~^É==m_ÍÈk® ===ñ^à–`=Ÿƒ=‚ÍäÄkÿ^=⁄Û_|ãËË=IÔÕ|èá˚^Ë=¬Õ•^=Ô…Î|ìË=IÔ·›–àª^=m_ƒÈ›.^====Ë`=Ôùà|è`=Ë` Ô’g||||||||||||||êÿ^=ŸƒI===á^à—ÿ^=Ö_£^=⁄r`=‚‹=÷ÿÖ=Ÿƒ=∆–Ȫ^=flÉ_~=ÓáÑ–=ÒÑ‹=ÔÃà≈‹=h≠=_·‰Ë )1(.‫ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺣﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻬﺭﺱ‬www.aruc.org
  23. 23. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )27( ã_·ª^Kyåª^=m_Ο›≈f=fl_ΗŸÿ=h= = 3/1/1/4<Ìfl€ŒÜ÷]<ÌÈ◊€√÷<›^√÷]<Ö^õ˝]V<<< < á_ùˇ^=_‹=Ô·›–àÿ^=ÔΟ›ƒ=ÊÎÃ=fikk|||ã=ÌÜÿ^=¯|||ãflÈ—j=Ôgk’‹=⁄‘=ÊΟƒ=hΰ=fl_‰=€^== =<‹â=€ËÑr=∆óË=h≠=÷ÿÜÿ=K_Âj_ηk—‹=Ô||||||||||·›–àfÍ=⁄›≈ÿ^Ë=IÔ·›–àÿ^=«Ëàê‹=Êgåv=4åƒ==Ÿ Û_k·ÿ^=≥d=€ÈìÈÿ^=„_›òÿ=Êj^Èð~=⁄’f=fl^äkÿ˘^==Km_ƒËàêª^=÷Ÿj=⁄o‹=‚‹=ÓÈràª^=t= = 3/1/1/5Ìfl€ŒÜ÷]<ÌÈ◊€¬<º¥V<<< < =ÌÜÿ^=Ô·›–àÿ^=æ∂|||||||ãÌáËà|||||||òÿ^=‚‹=Áá_Îk~^=fikÎ=≈kª^=⁄v^àª^=∆Î∏=Ω=∆gkÍ=„`==Ô—Ÿ ñÈ|||||||||||||||î·ÿ^=Ô§_≈¥=I_Îk~^=4Í_≈‹=‚‹=ôÔÍ^Ñf=÷ÿÖË===I_Âk·›–á=fikÎ|||||||||||||||ã=;ÿ^=m_ƒÈ›.^=á ===d=σÈóȪ^=_‰^Èk®=⁄ÍÈwkf=Ôì_¶^=m^Ú^àrˇ^Ë=è=≥ÿ^=kv=I_Îÿb=ÓÚ^à—Ÿÿ=⁄f_–=⁄’===€ÈìÈ ==ƒ=Ô°_·ÿ^=Ú_ð~˚^=yÎw||||||||îkf=Ô||||||||ì_¶^=ÔΟ›≈ÿ^=≥d=Ôv_jef=Ú_Âk‡^Ë=IÔ·›–àÿ^=ÔΟ›ƒ=‚^==ï·ÿ ^=á_Îk~^=4Í_≈ª=ô_—gùË=Kfl^ÑÄk||||||||||ã˙ÿ=ÑÎÕk||||||||||囟ÿ==m_rà©=flÑÄk||||||||||åj=„`=‚’∑=m_η—kÿ =t‹^2ÿ^=”_ð‡=Ω=æ—Ã=çÎÿ=Ô·›–àª^=m_ƒÈ›.^^f=I_ÂΟƒ=l—gù=;ÿ^=ÔÎ|||||||ã_|||||||ã˚==‚’∑=⁄ ’‹=ÔÎÃ_|||||ód=Òà~`=m_—Îgðj=⁄~^É=ô_|||||òÍ`=_‹^ÑÄk|||||ã^_Íâ=h‡_r=≥d=_Âk›Î–=‚‹=ÑÍäj=ÔŸ›==ÓÉ =K_‰à|||||ê‡=ñàÃ=_›‘·_’‹d=≥d=4Í_≈ª^=÷Ÿj=ÉÈ—j≤f=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_‡_Îgÿ^=€É_gj=Ô===m_gk’ª^ _Âj_ÙÃ=œ˙k~^=Ÿƒ=“ÎnÈkÿ^Ë=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=ä‘^à‹Ë==ñÈ|||||||||||||||||||||î·ÿ^=≤f=æfàÿ^=Ô·_’‹d=≥dË=I =m^Ö=Ô·›–àª^=IÔ‘3|||êª^=Ô΃È|||óȪ^=m_‹_›k‰˘^=‹d=≥d=÷ÿÜ‘==É^уd=Ω=◊^3|||è˘^=Ô·_’ Kl‡3‡ˇ^=Ÿƒ=m_f^Èf=fiΛîjË= = 3/1/1/6<ÿËÁ€j÷]V< < ====||ÍÉ_||‹=Ô||ÕŸ’‹=Ô||Ο›ƒ=Ï›–àÿ^=⁄||ÍÈwkÿ^=Ô||Ο›ƒ=„d====2‘`=‚‹=Ô||ÕŸ’kÿ^=ÁÜ||‰=Ñ||≈jË=_ ==ª^=‚‹=4o’ÿ=àoƒ=àsv=„È’j=Ñ–=;ÿ^=m˙’||||||||||||||||||||||||||||êª^’==Im^Ñ≈‹=hŸðkj=pÎv=m_gk Im_ÎßàfË=jË=m_Ο›ƒ=Ÿƒ=ÔÍàêgÿ^=áÉ^È’ÿ^=hÍáÑ====‡dË=IÓÉȧ^=ægóË=IÏÛÈòÿ^=yåª^===Ú_ê =========^=Ôgk’ª^=Ÿƒ=hrÈkÍ=÷ÿÜÿ=I_j^É_kΪ^=4Í_≈‹=====ΰ=„`=_ÂkƒÈ›ß=Ô·›–á=Ω=h»àj=;ÿ==Ÿƒ=h kÿ^=ÔΟ›≈ÿ=ÔÍÉ_ª^=ÔÕŸ’kÿ^=_‹=Ïÿ_kÿ^=€^¯|||||åÿ^_f=Ôgk’ª^=∆Îðk|||||åj=⁄‰Ë=Ï›–àÿ^=⁄ÍÈw==_‰É_›kƒ _›kv^=ÔÎj^Üÿ^=_ÂjáÑ–=Ÿƒ==_7= = ===≈j=ÌÜÿ^Ë=ÏŸ~^Ñÿ^=⁄ÍÈ›kÿ^=ȉ=€Ë˚^=I_›Â·Îf=á_k£=„`=Ôgk’ª^=Ÿƒ=„˙v=ÑrÈÍË===Ñ›k IÔÎj^Üÿ^=_Âj_·_’‹d=Ÿƒ=ÊÎÃ===«Ëà||||||||||||||||ꛟÿ=Ïrá_¶^=ÌÉ_ª^=⁄ÍÈ›kÿ^=4ÃÈj=ȉ=⁄ÍÑgÿ^=⁄•^Ë
  24. 24. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )28( ==“Íàù=‚ƒ=÷ÿÖË=Êv_™Ë=Áá^à›k||ã^=„_›||òÿÔÎrá_¶^=y·ª^f=Ô||ì_¶^=ÉÈ—≈ÿ^=∆ΖÈjË=I==fl^äkÿ˘_ ==ÿ^=Ïå㯪^======ÔηùÈÿ^Ë=ÔΟ-^=m_ðŸåÿ^=‚‹=⁄‘=ÊÎÃ=◊3êj=⁄ÍÑf=áÑî‹=≤‹ajË=IÑ‹˚^=⁄ÍÈð Áâ_™ˇ=Ô≈–Èkª^=y·ª^=lÕ–Èj=_‹=€_v=Ω=Ô·Ë_≈kÿ^ËK )1( = = 3/1/1/7<Ü√÷]<l^¬Á€r€◊÷<ÌËÜ”À÷]<ÌÈ”◊π]Ê<ƒfî÷]<—Áœu]<ÌÈeÌfl€ŒÜπV< < ===ÿ^=m_||gk’ª^=_||ÂÂr^Èj=;ÿ^=m_||ÍÑ||wkÿ^=fi‰`=‚‹=2k≈j=Ô||Íà’Õÿ^=Ô||Î’Ÿª^=Ô||Í_||π==; Ô·›–àÿ^=m_ƒËà|||ê¥=fl_Ηÿ^=h»àjI====fiåÂñÕÿ=òÔÍáËà|||ó=ωË=Ò2‘=ÔÎ|||ò–=∆gðÿ^=”È—v=„d=pÎv =Ôgk’ª^=“—¢=kwÃ=ñÔÍà’Õÿ^=ÔÎ’Ÿª^=÷”È—v=_Í_||||ò–==”È—v=i_w||||ì`=≤f=h||||ã_·ª^=„â^Èkÿ^ ∆gðÿ^=≤≈Õk·ª^Ë=ÔÍà’Õÿ^=ÔÎ’Ÿª^Ë=ƒÈ›.^=‚‹Ô===Á܉=_ÂΟƒ=Ìà||||||||||||åj=lÿ^â=˘=;ÿ^=Ô·›–àª^ I≤‡^È—ÿ^=`=h≠=WȉË==fl_‰=€^¯|||||ã=Ÿƒ=hΰ=„==Ôÿa|||||å‹=_‰4oj=„`=‚’∑=;ÿ^=_Í_|||||ò—ÿ^=_‹ _Í_|||||||ò—ÿ^=ÁÜÂf=Ôη≈ª^=œ^àù˚^=_‹Ë=Ô·›–àÿ^=%_ƒ=Ω=ŒÎÿakÿ^=”È—v )2( ====⁄›≈ÿ^=„`Ë=Ô|||||||ì_~ ==∆||||||òØ=€^äÍ=_‹=∆ràª=Ê·›||||||òj=„eÃ=IÊÿ=ÔÍà’Õÿ^=ÔÎ’Ÿª^=”È—v=Ó3Ã=lÂk‡^=Èÿ=kv=ÏfÉ˚^ «Èò†=⁄ÎÕ‘=ÔÍà’Õÿ^=ÔÎ’Ÿª^=”È—•=KÔÍà’Õÿ^=ÔÎ’Ÿª^=”È—•=ÊŸ›‘af=⁄›≈ÿ^=== = =Ôgv_||||îª^=ÔÎgŸ||||åÿ^=ÓáÈ||||îÿ^=≥d=ÔÃ_||||óˇ_f=^܉ÿÈj=;ÿ^Ë=IÔ—ÎnÈŸÿ=ÔΛ–àÿ^=ÔÄ||||å·Ÿ==Ïv Íàðf=≤jÉËÑ-^=4»=Ô·||||||||||ìà—ÿ^Ë=Ô–à||||||||||åÿ^=Ô·_’‹ef`=Êÿ=úà≈kj=_‹=_‰É_≈f`=Ω=”ÈÕj=Ô—==ÔÎƒË ÿ^=m˘b=“Íàù=‚ƒ=â^äkf^=‚‹=ÔƒÈgðª^=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^====Åå·ÿ^Ë=àÍÈîkPhotocopy MachinesI===÷ÿÜÿ Ω=ÉÑ¢=„`=Ôgk’ª^=Ÿƒ=Ô—Íàù=ÔÍ^Ñgÿ^=_Ÿ‹_≈j‹∆=^=ÔÎ||ã_Î||åÿ^Ë=Ô·ȇ_—ÿ^=m˙’||êª^==Ô—Ÿ≈kª ηùÈÿ^=ÉËÑ•^=2ƒ=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_‡_Îgÿ^=“ÃÑkf==KÔ= = 3/1/1/8<^e<ÿ€√÷]<–Ë܉◊u]Ü⁄<Ã◊jß<ª<≈ÊÜéπV< < ô^á^à–=Ô·›–àÿ^=m_ƒËà||||||ê¥=⁄›≈ÿ^=“ÍàÃ=⁄Î’||||||êkf=ñ_¶^=á^à—ÿ^=Ñ≈Í=ô_ÍÈÎv==^ÜÿË=I ===flÈ—Î|||||||||||||||||||ã=ÌÜÿ^=⁄›≈ÿ^=“ÍàÃ=ÑÍÑwkf=flÈ—j=pÎv=IÔgk’ª^=‚‹=_Ο≈ÿ^=Óá^ɡ^=fl_›k‰^=hŸðkÍ =Ω=≤ÿÈÙ||||åª^=á_Îk~_f=ÔÍ^Ñf=I«Ëà||||êª_f====Ô||||óÈÕª^=ÔðŸ||||åÿ^=ÑÍÑ¢Ë=«Ëà||||êª^=⁄v^à‹=ŒŸk© Ñwkf=^áËà‹Ë=IfiÂÎÿdÍ====ÔÕŸkĪ^=m_gr^Èÿ_f=fl_Ηÿ^=fi7=øÈ·ª^=É^àÃˇ^=m_ÎÿÈÙå‹Ë=m_ì_îk~^=Ñ== ====Ÿƒ=fiÂ≈ÍâÈkf=fl_Ηÿ^Ë=IfiÂÍÑÿ=Ó2¶^=m_ÍÈk|||||å‹Ë=fiŸ›ƒ=m˘_ß=Ÿƒ=Ú_·f=÷ÿÖË=I«Ëà|||||êª_f (1) Laurie Lopatin. "Library Digitization Projects, Issues and Guidelines: A Survey of the Literature." Library Hi Tech 24, no. 2, (2006): 275. Retrieved from Emerald Group Publishing Limited. (2) Will Sherman. 33 Reasons Why Libraries and Librarians Are Still Extremely Important. http://www.trinityhistory.org/Crisis/Lbrary%20article.pdf
  25. 25. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )29( =‚ƒ=„ÈÿÈÙåª^=⁄o‹=Ôgã_·ª^=€_›ƒ˚^d‚‹=Ñ‘akÿ^=‚ƒ=„ÈÿÈÙåª^Ë=yåª^=⁄g–=m_ƒÈ›.^=É^у== ==IÔΟ||||ì˚^=Å||||å·ÿ^=Ô‹˙||||ãª^Ë===Ôg–^à‹Ë=Ú^É˚^=‚ƒ=„ÈÿÈÙ||||åª^Ë=IáÈ||||îÿ^=ø_—kÿ^=‚ƒ=„ÈÿÈÙ||||å ª^Ë=IÓÉȧ^=≈ÿ^=“ÍàÃ=„È’kÍ=„`=‚’›ª^=‚‹Ë=K1^KKKŒÎ·||îkÿ^Ë=Ô||ãàÂÕÿ^=‚ƒ=„ÈÿÈÙ||å==‚‹=⁄› ÈΟgf=≤ÎÛ_|||||||î~`=„Ë_≈j=€˙~»====Ô‡_Î|||||||îÿ^Ë=Ô|||||||ãàÂÕÿ^Ë=àÍÈ|||||||îkÿ^=<ÃË=≤Îgk’‹Ë=≤ÎÃ^à Km_gã_vË=m_’gè=ÏÛ_î~`Ë=== = 3/1/1/9<—Üõ<Ìfl€ŒÜπ]<l^¬Á€.]<±c<ŸÁëÁ÷]V< < =Ô·›–àª^=m_ƒÈ›.^=≥d=€È||ìÈÿ^=”àù=ÑÍÑ¢‹=fi‰`=‚ƒËà||ê‹=Ω=Óàn¯ª^=⁄‹^È≈ÿ^==m_ ·‹=⁄‹^È≈ÿ^=‚‹=ԃțß=_‰ÉÑ¢=;ÿ^Ë=IÔ·›–àÿ^ƒ=_Ο~^É=€È|||||||||ìÈÿ^=Ôv_jd=fikÎ|||||||||ã=⁄‰=W_==‚ Ôùà|||||è˚^=Ë`=ÓáäΟª^=ñ^à–˚^=“Íàù=Ë`=Ôð·…›ª^=‹=“Íàù=‚ƒ=_Îrá_~=Ë`=ÔΟ~^É=Ô’g|||||è==∆–È ⁄‰Ë==l‡3‡ˇ^=2ƒ=ª_ƒ=Ë`=ÏŸ®=áÈ›§=}_kk||ã=ÉÑ≈ÿ=€È||ìÈÿ^=ÑÎΗj=fikÎ||ã=⁄‰=Ï=≤≈‹==‚‹= ‡=_‹=Ô‹ÑÄkåª^=úà≈ÿ^=m_Âr^Ë=_‹=‚ÍÑÎÕkåª^==flÑÄkåª^=ÒÈk-^=Óá^Éd=fl_¡= = 3/1/1/10Ìfl€ŒÜ÷]<·^”⁄V< < ====Ô·›–á=Ω=Ôg»^àÿ^=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=Ô||å||㯋=Ë`=Ôgk’ª^=Ÿƒ=Ï…g·Í=;ÿ^=Ô‹_7^=à||ì_·≈ÿ^=‚‹ Âj_ƒÈ›ßÔgk’ª^=„^áÑr=⁄~^É=Ô·›–àÿ^=ÔΟ›ƒ=fikk||||||||||ã=‚Í`=ω=_·ƒ=á^à—ÿ^=ÜÄkj=„`=_=In- House====Ÿƒ=É_›kƒ˘_fË=ԛª^=ÁÜÂf=fl_ΗŸÿ=ÓäÂßË=ô_—gå‹=ÓÑ≈‹=‚||||||||||||||||||||‘_‹`=⁄~^É=÷ÿÖË=I ==Á܉=⁄o¥=fl_Ηÿ^=Ÿƒ=ÔΟg—k||||||åª^=ÓáÑ—ÿ^=_ÂÎð≈Í=_º=_Âf=ÓÉÈrȪ^=ÔÍà||||||êgÿ^=m^2¶^Ë=Éá^Ȫ^ fáѪ^=Ôÿ_›≈ÿ^Ë=m^äÎÂskÿ^=_7=àÃ^Èkj=pÎv=m_ƒËàêª^=|||||||||||||||=_Ârá_~=Ë`=XÔOut–Sourcing‫ﻋﻥ‬== j=“Íàù===àÃÈÍ=_º=ԛª^=ÁÜÂf=fl_ΗŸÿ=«È||||||óȪ_f=Ô||||||î||||||îÄkª^=Ó4g¶^=m_§^=ÒÑvd=ŒÎŸ’ ==Ó2¶^=≥d=ÔÃ_|||óˇ_f=_Âk‡_Î|||ìË=ÓäÂr˚^Ë=É_k≈ÿ^W)1( =====Ôð|||ã^Èf=≤s7^=iÈŸ|||ã˚^=“Íàù=‚ƒ=Ë` K«Ëàêª^=Ω=ÓÉÑ-^=fl_ª^=ö≈gf=fl_ΗŸÿ=‚ÍÉáȪ^=Ÿƒ=É_›kƒ˘^= = `=⁄~^É=Ô·›–àÿ^=≤f=á_Îk~˘^=ÔÎÿ_’|||||||èd=Ñ›k≈jË==Ÿƒ=€Ë˚^=fl_—ª^=Ω=Ôgk’ª^=uá_~=Ë ÓÑÍàÕÿ^=⁄‹^È≈ÿ^=‚‹=ԃȷk‹=ԃțß=_·‹=IÔÎsÎj^3|||||ã˘^====_‰_·gkj=;ÿ^=Ô‹_≈ÿ^=Ô|||||ã_Î|||||åÿ^=Ë` ==ÁÜÂf=fl_ΗŸÿ=ï|||||îĪ^=Ïÿ_ª^=É_›kƒ˘^Ë=Ô·^äΪ^=fisvË=IÔ·›–àÿ^=ÔΟ›≈f=ïkØ=_›ÎÃ=Ôgk’ª^ )1(‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ѧѧ‫"ﻣﺷ‬ .‫ﺎﻟﺢ‬ѧѧ‫ﺻ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ѧѧ‫ﻋﻳﺳ‬ ‫ﻋﻣﺎﺩ‬‫ﺭﺍﻑ‬ѧѧ‫ﺇﺷ‬ ."‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻅﻳﻔﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻧﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﺗﻁﻠﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻁﺑﻳﻘﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ѧѧ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳ‬ :‫ﺭ‬ѧѧ‫ﻣﺻ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻁﺭﻭﺣﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﺑﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻳﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﺑﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺗﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﻣﺩ‬‫ﺩﻛﺗﻭﺭﺍﻩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ѧѧѧѧѧѧѧѧ‫ﻗﺳ‬ .‫ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻳﺔ‬ .‫ﺣﻠﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ :‫ﺣﻠﻭﺍﻥ‬ ، ،‫ﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﻌﺑﺔ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬2004،186.
  26. 26. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )30( Ó4g¶^=ÔŸ‹_≈ÿ^=ÒÈ—ÿ^=àÃ^Èj=ÒÑ‹Ë=IÔΟ›≈ÿ^I)1( =j=÷ÿÜ‘Ë==ÔΟ›≈ÿ=ÔÎ||||||||||ã_||||||||||ã˚^=Ôηgÿ^=àÃ^È ==ÓáÑ—ÿ^Ë=IÔŸÍÈù=Ó3Ã=≤Ο~^Ñÿ^=≤Ÿ‹_≈ÿ^=hÍáÑj=”à…k|||||||||||||||||||||åÍ=pÎv=l–Èÿ^=⁄‹_ƒË=IÔ·›–àÿ^ Ë=ÓÑÍàÕÿ^=É^Ȫ^=∆‹=œ^3v_f=⁄‹_≈kÿ^Ë=IÔη—kÿ^Ô||||||||||||||||||||||ê7^=Ë`=ÓáÉ_·ÿ^=É^Ȫ^==IÔΟ›≈ÿ^=fisvË=I àª^=É^Ȫ^=Ô΃ȇË=Im_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=áÑî‹=Ô≈Îgðf=Ôðgjàª^=m_η—kÿ^=m^ÑΗ‹Ë==^Öd=Ôì_~Ë=_Âk·›–á=É^ =l‡_‘=Ô|||ê‰=Ë`=ÓáÉ_‡==Ë`==Ο|||ì`=Å|||å‡Ô==ÔÕŸ’j=≥d=u_k¢=Ñ–=fis•^=ÔÍÉàÃ=Ë=ÔÎÃ_|||ód==m^Ñ≈‹ =====m^2¶^Ë=Ô‹ÑÄk|||||åª^=ÔÍÉ_ª^=m^äÎÂskÿ^Ë=m_η—kÿ^Ë=IñÈ|||||î·ÿ^=m_ƒÈ›ß=⁄—‡Ë=IÔ|||||ì_~ =======ÔÎrá_¶^=Ô||å||㯪^=⁄›ƒ=íáË=‚‘_‹`=≤f=ÔŸ||ì_Õÿ^=ÔÃ_||åª^Ë=Ô||å||㯛Ÿÿ=Ô—f_||åÿ^=iá_skÿ^Ë Ô›Û_—ÿ^====h‡_r=≥d=IÔgk’ª^=⁄~^É=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=áÉ_|||||||||||||||||||||î‹=Ñr^Èj=‚‘_‹`=≤fË=Ô·›–àÿ^=Ÿƒ ==≥d=Ôgk’ª^=uá_~=_Âk·›–á=fikÍ=;ÿ^=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=áÉ_||||||||||î‹=ÓÉÈr=ÒÑ‹=Ω=fi’wkÿ^Ë=ŒÎÿ_’kÿ^ K÷ÿÖ=4»=Ô·›–àŸÿ=Ôgk’ª^=á_Îk~^=€_v=ΩË=_Îrá_~=Out-Sourcing===Ÿƒ=≤›Û_—ÿ^=Ÿƒ=hsÎà ^=Ö_£_f=^È‹È—Í=„`=«Ëà||||||||êª^==IÔ·›–àÿ^=ÔΟ›ƒ=m_rà©=„_›||||||||ó=‚‹=Ñ‘akŸÿ=Ô‹â˙ÿ^=4f^Ñkÿ WωË= = ==F`E=K€Èì˚^=¬Õv=ÓáËàó=Ÿƒ=Ñ‘akÿ^= = FiE===m_Õ|||||||||||||ì^Ȫ^Ë=€_’|||||||||||||èˇ^Ë=4Í_≈ª_f=Ô·›–àÿ^=ÔΟ›≈f=flÈ—j=;ÿ^=Ô§^=fl^äkÿ^ ====„ËÉ=÷ÿÜÿ=_ÂkÕÿ_Ī=ÔsÎk‡=Ú_ð~`=‚‹=tk·Í=_‹=yÎwîj=_Ÿ›¢Ë=IÊΟƒ=“Õkª^=<‹äÿ^=€Ëѧ^Ë d=ŒÎÿ_’jÔÎÃ_óK )2( = = 3/1/1/11Í€ŒÜ÷]<¿À£]V< < kƒÈ›ß=¬Õv=”àù=ÉÑ¢=„`=Ôgk’ª^=Ÿƒ=^4~`äÂr˚^=⁄|||||||êÃ=€_v=Ω=Ô·›–àª^=_Â==Ó I⁄ÍÈðÿ^=ÒѪ^=Ÿƒ=_ÂÍÑÿ=ÓÉÈrȪ^=m_Îß2ÿ^Ë=ð~=∆|||||||||||||óË=÷ÿÜ‘==⁄ÍÈ›kÿ^=Éá^È‹=≤‹akÿ=Ô Ô·›–àª^=m_ƒÈ›.^=Ô‡_Îîÿ=Ô‹â˙ÿ^=˙~=‚‹=÷ÿÖËÔÎÿ_kÿ^=ÔŸÙã˚^=Ÿƒ=Ôf_rˇ^=€W= = 1=J==“Ηwkÿ=_Âj_ƒ^à‹=Ï…g·Í=;ÿ^=h‡^ȧ^=_‹^«Ëàꛟÿ=Ï›–àÿ^=¬Õ• 2=J==Ô·›–àÿ^=«Ëàê‹=∆òÍ=⁄‰m_ÎsÎj^3ã^=ÔÍá^Éd=Ï›–àÿ^=¬ÕwŸÿ=Ôwó^Ë=ÔηÃË )1(‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﺳ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﺳ‬‫ﻣﺅ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻝ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻧﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻌﻳﺩ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﺳ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺣﻣﺩ‬ ،‫ﻓﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻣﺩ‬‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻬﺎ؟‬‫ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻳﺎﺕ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻹﺷ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﺳ‬‫ﺩﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺎﺋﻳﻲ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﻷﺧﺻ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﻋﺷ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺣﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺗﻣﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺗﻳﺎﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬)‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻷﻣﻳﺔ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﺛﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺑﺎﺋﻳﺔ‬-‫ﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻳﺔ‬-‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺗﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻳﺔ‬(.،‫ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺻﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ :‫ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺻﻭﺭﺓ‬26–28‫ﻳﻭﻧﻳﻭ‬2007. )2(‫ﻣﺣﻣﺩ‬،‫ﺗﻙ‬ѧ‫ﺳ‬ѧ‫ﻣﺅﺳ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻧﻔﺫﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻳﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻣﻝ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ѧ‫ﻭﺭﺷ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺗﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻧﺔ‬ .‫ﺇﺑﺭﺍﻫﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﻳﺣﻳﻰ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺗﻧﻣﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻧﻅﻣﺔ‬15‫ـ‬17‫ﻣﺎﺭﺱ‬2007،4. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/arado/unpan024086.pdf
  27. 27. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )31( 3=J==Î≈‹=æÛ_||ãËË= Î||ì=á_Îk~^=«Ëà||êª^=σ^àÍ=⁄‰Î—¢=Ÿƒ=Óу_||囟ÿ=Ô›Û˙‹=ÔÍá_==“ Ï›–àÿ^=¬Õ•^ 4=J=àêª^=_Â≈gkÍ=;ÿ^=hÎÿ_ã˚^=_‹_ÂkÍ_Õ‘=ÒÑ‹=_‹Ë=Ï›–àÿ^=¬ÕwŸÿ=«Ë )1( = = 3/1/2≈ÊÜé€◊÷<ÔÊÇ¢]<Ìâ]ÖÅ<Å]ǬcV< < Îgÿ^Ë=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=∆›û=Ôgk’ª^=l‹_–=„`=Ñ≈f==Ú_·f=fikÎ||||ã=;ÿ^Ë=Ô΃È||||óȪ^=m_‡_ƒ==_ÂΟ ^=Óá^ɡ^=ÒÑÿ=yg|||||||||||||||||||||ì`Ë=IÔ·›–àÿ^=ÔΟ›≈ÿ=æÎðÄkÿ^Ο›≈ÿ^=œ^щ˚=⁄‹_’ÿ^=fiÂÕÿ^=_Ο≈ÿ==IÔ ||||ê·ÿ^Ë=€_›ƒ˚_f=Ô‹_kÿ^=ÔÃà≈ª^˯Î||||ã=;ÿ^=m_ù_f=fl_ªˇ^Ë=I“ÍàÕÿ^=‚‹=ÉàÃ=⁄‘=_ÂÍÉ===ø_||||ê·ÿ_ =ÔŸvà‹=kvË=ÔÍ^Ñgÿ^=ÔŸvà‹=‚‹=«Ëà|||||||ꛟÿ=⁄‹_’ÿ^jÿ_kÿ^=ÓÈð¶^=Ïjaj=IÊj_rà©=fiΟ|||||||å==ÔÎ ==KÒËѧ^=Ôã^áÉ=É^уd=ωË= = 1=J==ÒËѧ^=m_||||||||||||ã^áÉ=œà≈jËFeasibility Study==_‡af==ÑÍÑwkÿ=ÔÎÿË`=Ô||||||||||||ã^áÉ «Ëà||||êª^=Ω=_‹Ñ–=Ï||||òª^=Ô·_’‹djË=I=_ÂsÛ_k‡=flÑÄk||||åá^à–=Ö_£˘=_è‹d==Ë`=I_‹==‚‹=Ñ‘akŸÿ =I⁄êÕÿ^Ë=}_s·ÿ^=m˘_›kv^==fiÍÑ—kÿ=Ë`====‚‹=;ÿ^=⁄‘_ꛟÿ=Ô·’›ª^=m_ÎìÈkÿ^Ë=ÔŸÍÑgÿ^=€ÈŸ•^ «Ëàêª^=^܉=Êr^Èj=„`=‚’›ª^K)2( = = =áÑÿ^=_‡af=œà≈j=Ô·›–àÿ^=m_ƒËàê‹=Ôÿ_v=ΩË=Ôã^==⁄o‹=‚ƒ=≤ÿÈÙ囟ÿ=flÑ—j=;ÿ^===Á܉ k·k||||åjË=Im_ƒËà||||êª^·›–àÿ^=ÔΟ›ƒ=l‡_‘=^Öd=_‹=tÍá^à›k||||ã^=„_›||||òÿ=ÏÕ’Í=_¥=ÔÍÑß=Ô==Ô à|||||||||êª^=„_‘=^Öd=_‹=ÑÍÑ¢=≥d=œÑÂjË=I_Âf=⁄›≈ÿ^Ë=I˘=fl`=“›ƒ`=Ô|||||||||ã^áÉ=≥d=u_kÆ=«Ë==fikÍ n`=l≈∏=;ÿ^=“Û_—•_f=m_r_k·k||||||||ã˘^=Á܉=fi΃Ñj;ÿ^Ë=Im_||||||||ã^áÑÿ^=ÁÜ7=É^уˇ^=Ú_·==‚‹= ·ȇ_—ÿ^=⁄‘_êª^Ë=IÔÕŸ’kÿ^=Wàì_·ƒ=_›‰`^Ë=IÔ==K“ÍÈåkÿ= = Ñwkf=ÒËѧ^=Ô||||||||||||||||ã^áÉ=Ω=≥Ë˚^=ÓÈð¶^=`ÑgjË==„`=‚’›ª^=‚‹=;ÿ^Ë=œ^щ˚^=ÑÍ =_ÎÛ_‡=_‰á_Îk~^=⁄g–=_‰Üg‡=Ë`=_7^Ñgkã^=Òà≠===ÿ^=uàĪ^=Ω=ÌáÜr=⁄’êf=àn¯kã=pÎv==ÏÛ_· =_Âj^äκ=ÑÍÑ¢=hr^Èÿ^=‚‹=÷ÿÜÿ=IÔ||||||||||ã^áÑÿ^=ÁÜ7=œ^щ˚^=ÑÍÑ¢=2k≈Í=pÎv=_ÂfÈ΃Ë===^Ö Ó4g‘=ÓÑÛ_Ã=Km_ƒËàêª^=Á܉=⁄o‹=Ω= = =====m_||gk’ª^=∆·—j=Ô||··—‹=Ô||Îð∂=œ^Ñ||‰`=Ñ||ÍÑ||¢=‚’›ª^=‚‹Ë=^Ü||‰Ô||Îfà≈ÿ^====Ô||·›–àf )1(.‫ﺑﺎﻣﻔﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻌﻳﺩ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﺳ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺗﻥ‬"‫ﺍ‬.‫ﻌﻭﺩﻳﺔ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﺳ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺭﻳﻊ‬ѧѧѧѧ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺷ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻁﺑﻳﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺣﻔﻅ‬"‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﻠﺔ‬ 29‫ﻉ‬ ،1،‫)ﻳﻧﺎﻳﺭ‬2009:(6. (2) Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. Feasibility_study. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feasibility_study
  28. 28. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )32( ==WωË=I_Âj_ηk—‹= = 1=J===KÔ‡_Îîÿ^Ë=¬Õ•^=Ú_gƒ`=‚‹=ïŸÄkÿ^ 2=J===KÌÉ_ª^=‚ÍäÄkÿ^=m_gŸðk‹=öÎÕ£ 3=J=ÔoÍÑ•^=m_η—kÿ^=hÎÿ_ã`=fl^ÑÄkã^=Ôv_jd==K 4=J=È›.^=Óá^ɡ=Ïÿb=fl_¡‡=4ÃÈj›–àª^=m_ƒKÔ· 5=J=KÓÑÍÑr=ÔΗÍÈåj=m˘_ß=“Ÿ~== ==_ÂÎÃ=ä‘àÍË=ÔŸ||||îÕ‹=„È’j=„`=h≠=ÒËѧ^=Ô||||ã^áÑÿ=ÔÎ||||ã_||||ã˚^=œ^щ˚^=„`=Ì` ==============Ô·›–á=„d=pÎv=Ôgk’ª^=Ÿƒ=ÔÍÉ_ª^=Ú_gƒ˚^=öÎÕ£=Ÿƒ=⁄›≈ÿ^=“ÍàÃ=====Ô|gk’ª^=m_ƒÈ›ß …g·Í=÷ÿÜ‘=IŒŸkÿ^=‚‹=_7=ÔÍ_›•^=4ÃÈjË=_·Íä£=ŒÎÿ_’j=öÕ~=≥d=ÌɯÎ|||||||||||||ã==fiÂΟƒ=Ï ==fl_Ζ=≤f=ÔÍÉ_îk–˘^=ÔŸó_Õª^=“Íàù=‚ƒ=Ô·›–àÿ^=ÔΟ›≈f=fl_ΗŸÿ=Ô·’›ª^=ŒÎÿ_’kÿ^=⁄–^=úàƒ =•^Ë=ÏÛÈ||||òÿ^=y||||åª^=ÓäÂr`=Ú_·k–_f=Ôgk’ª^hÎ||||ã^È==Ô·›–àÿ_f=ñ_¶^=É_k≈ÿ^Ë=m_Îß2ÿ^Ë=I ==ÔÂr=≥d=Êk‹àf=à‹˚^=É_·|||||||||||||||||||||||||||ãd=Ë`=I_Ο~^É=ÔΟ›≈ÿ^=ÁÜÂf=fl_Ηÿ^=Ÿƒ=_Âf=≤Ÿ‹_≈ÿ^=hÍáÑjË Äk‹=Ôîîÿ==KÔ·›–àÿ^=m_Ο›≈f=fl_ΗŸ= = =======I_—Îgðj=€_ßË=Ôã^áÑÿ^=ÔŸ’ê‹=ÑÍÑwkf=ÒËѧ^=Ôã^áÉ=Ω=Ô·_oÿ^=ÓÈð¶^=ÏjajË ===ω=m_ƒÈ›.^=Ô·›–á=«Ëà||||ê‹=ÔŸ’||||ê›Ã=I_Ÿv=‚’∑=kv=_Âk||||ê–_·¥=⁄›≈ÿ^=“ÍàÃ=fl_Î–Ë ÏÛ_·ÿ^=uàĪ^=“ÍÈåj=fin=I_Ÿ›¢=Ÿƒ=Ôgk’ª^=ÓáÑ–Ë=⁄ÍÈwkÿ^=ÔΟ›≈ÿ=ÔΟ≈Õÿ^=ÔÕŸ’kÿ^===ÒÑ‹Ë ==KÔgk’›Ÿÿ=ÌÉ_ª^=yfàÿ^=ö≈f=“ΗwkÿË=ÔΟ›≈ÿ^=ŒÎÿ_’kÿ=ÊkÎð…j= = ===Ω=_ÂΟƒ=É_›kƒ˘^=fikÎ|||||ã=;ÿ^=ÔÍà|||||êgÿ^=Éá^Ȫ^=ω=Ô|||||ã^áÑÿ^=ÁÜÂf=m^Èð¶^=pÿ_nË ==fi‰=‚‹=_ÂÍÑÿ=≤Ÿ‹_≈ÿ^=‚‹=Ôgk’ª^=÷Ÿμ=⁄‰=ȉË=fl_‰=€^¯||ã=}àù=fikÎ||ã=_·‰Ë=IÔ·›–àÿ^=ÔΟ›ƒ ›ƒ=≤Ÿ‰¯‹ŸjË=_Îô_η—=^=ÔΟ›≈f=fl_ΗŸÿ==É^àÃ˚^=‚‹=ԃțß=∆‹=Ñ–_≈kÿ_f=flÈ—k|||||||ã=_‡`=fl`=Ô·›–àÿ ===l¢=⁄›≈ÿ^=Ÿƒ=Ôgk’ª_f=≤Ÿ‹_≈ÿ^=hÍáÑjË=«Ëà||||êª^=Ÿƒ=œ^à||||èˇ^=“v=fi7=„È’Í=≤Ÿ‰¯ª^ K_Âf=fl_ΗŸÿ=Ïrá_~=⁄›ƒ=“ÍàÃ=≥d=_Ÿ‘=ÔΟ›≈ÿ^=É_·ãef=flÈ—kã=fl`=IfiÂÃ^àèd= = =ѧ^=Ô|||||||ã^áÉ=fiÍÑ—j=ÔŸvà‹=Ïjaj=Ô—f_|||||||åÿ^=m^Èð¶^=fikj=„`=Ñ≈fË===_Ÿ’|||||||è=Ω=ÒË ====Ô|||||||||ã^áÑÿ^=œ^щ`=_ÂÎÃ=_¥=IÔ·›–àÿ^=ÔΟ›≈ÿ=Ô‹_≈ÿ^=fi΋_|||||||||îkÿ^=Ÿƒ=ÌÈk¢=;ÿ^Ë=IÏÛ_·ÿ^ ====ÑÛ^ÈÕÿ^Ë=IÔv_kª^=Éá^Ȫ^Ë=I«Ëà||||ꛟÿ=Ô‹_≈ÿ^=ÔÕŸ’kÿ^=i_||||åvË=I_7=ÔÎÛÑgª^=àÍá_—kÿ^=∆Î∏Ë
  29. 29. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )33( =====K_Âf=lrà~=;ÿ^=Ô‹_7^=m_ÎìÈkÿ^Ë=⁄g—kåª^=æð~Ë=IÊ—ÍÈåjË=Ê·‹=ÉÈ≈kã=;ÿ^= = 3/1/3<hÖ^rj÷^e<Å^ç3â˜]]π]<4Ë^√π^e<Ñ}˘]Ê<Ìœe^ä÷ÌflflœV<<< < ==á_gkƒ˘^=Ω=Ü~˚^=Ô·›–àÿ^=«Ëà||||||||||||||||ê¥=fl_Ηÿ^=Ñ·ƒ=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=“Ãà‹=Ë`=Ôgk’ª^=Ÿƒ ======‚ƒ=Ñ≈gÿ^Ë=ÓÈ—ÿ^=ø_—·f=É_è3ã˙ÿ=IÒà~˚^=m_§^=_Âf=l‹_–=;ÿ^=ÔŸÎoª^Ë=Ô—f_åÿ^=iá_skÿ^ ª^=4Í_≈ª_f=ÑΗkÿ^=÷ÿÜ‘=I_Âf=Œ≈||||||||òÿ^=ø_—‡==ÑÎr=⁄›≈f=uËàÄŸÿ=Ô·›–àÿ^=m_ƒËà||||||||êª=Ô··— K_Ϊ_ƒ=^á_êk‡^=“—Æ=„`=∆ÎðkåÍ= = 3/2Ö^Èj}˜]<Ì◊uÜ⁄V< < ===_‹=IÔ·›–àÿ^=m_ƒËà||||||||ê¥=ÚÑgÿ^=⁄g–=_ÂΟƒ=Ôf_rˇ^=h≠=;ÿ^=ÔÎÛÑgª^=ÔŸÙ||||||||ã˚^=‚‹ ==ÉÑwkjË=_Âk·›–á=fikÎ||||||ã=;ÿ^=m_ƒÈ›.^=á_Îk~^=_ÂΟƒ=Ú_·f=fikÎ||||||ã=;ÿ^=ç||||||ã˚^Ë=m_ÍÈÿË˚^ ÉÑ≈f=Ôf_rˇ^===ŒŸk£=;ÿ^Ë=Êj_ÍÈÿË`Ë=á_Îk~˘^=ç||||||||||||||||ã`=ÑÍÑ¢=Ω=fi’wkj=;ÿ^=⁄‹^È≈ÿ^=‚‹ ==WÏÿ_kÿ_‘=ωË=I_Â≈›kßË=Ôgk’ª^=«È‡=håv= = 3/2/1Ö^Èj}˜]<l^ËÁ÷Ê_V< < F`E=====m_ƒÈ›s›Ÿÿ=ÔÍà’Õÿ^=ÔÎ’Ÿª^=”È—•=m_‹ÈŸ≈ª^=Ô||||||å||||||㯋=Ë`=Ôgk’ª^=◊˙k‹^ ==àê‡=”È—•=Ôgk’ª^=◊˙k‹^=Ñ≈Í=pÎv=WÔ·›–àŸÿ=Ó_—k·ª^-^======‚‹=yÍàîj=Ÿƒ=_7Èîv=Ë`=ÒÈk ======Ô—Ã^Ȫ_f=àê·ÿ^=m_å㯋=Ÿƒ==Ω=«È–ÈŸÿ=_ÍÉ_Õj=_‰á_Îk~^=m_ÍÈÿË`=‚‹=Êk·›–áË=ÒÈk-^=Ôv_jd KÔ·ȇ_—ÿ^=⁄‘_êª^= = FiE=KÔ·›–àŸÿ=Ó_—k·ª^=m_ƒÈ›.^=‚ƒ=àê·ÿ^Ë=ŒÎÿakÿ^=”È—v=øÈ—ã= = FuE=K«Ëàêª^=Ô·^ä΋= = FÉE=Ÿƒ=Ú_·f=Ú_ƒÈÿ^=ÔΛ‰`==ÔÎØá_kÿ^=ԛΗÿ^KÊÿ= = F|‰E=KÊÿ=σÈóȪ^=ÒÈk-^=Ÿƒ=Ú_·f=Ú_ƒÈÿ^=ÔΛ‰`= = FËE=KÊΟƒ=‚ÍÑÎÕkåª^=hŸù=ÔÃ_o’ÿ=_—ÃË=Ú_ƒÈÿ^=ÔΛ‰`= = FâE=KÚ_ƒÈŸÿ=EÔÎÛ_ÍäÎÕÿ^F=ÔÍÉ_ª^=Ôÿ_•^= = F}E==„ËÑÎÕk|||||||åª^==«Ëà|||||||êª^=‚‹=„ÈŸ›k-^Ë=„ÈÎÿ_•^===Ô≈Îgðÿ^Ë=IΩ^à…§^=fiÂ≈ÍâÈjË Kfl^ÑÄkã˙ÿ=Ô≈ö–ãÈãkòª^Ë=ÔΟ≈Õÿ^= = FøE=ÎgùK⁄›k-^Ë=Ïÿ_•^=fl^ÑÄkã˘^=Ô≈= = FÌE=K_‡^äk~^Ë=_Âkv_jdË=_ÂÕìË=ÔÎÕΑË=Ú_ƒÈŸÿ=}3—ª^=Ï›–àÿ^=⁄’êÿ^= =
  30. 30. = = = = = = = = = = = = =ÉÑ≈ÿ^ÿ^àê≈„Ë<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{^=ÔŸßm_‹ÈŸ≈ª^Ë=m_gk’ª<{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{{Ô·ÈÍ=2018 )34( F◊E=KÒà~˚^=éÔΛ–àÿ^=éÉÈÂò§^=∆‹=ÔÎð…kÿ^=⁄‹_’j= = F€E=KÑÛ_≈ÿ^Ë=ÔÕŸ’kÿ^=áÈîj= = 3/2/2Ö^Èj}˜]<ãâ_V< < E_D<•<gäu<Ö^Èj}˜]ÌȬÁïÁπ]<Ì¢^√π]Ê<ÌÈî«j÷]<Ÿ^V h||åv=á_Îk~˘^=fikÍË=pÎv=IσÈ||óȪ^=ÒÈk-^====€È||î•^=≥d=ô_›Û^É=„Èov_gÿ^=≈||åÍ ===IÔΛŸ≈ÿ^=fiÂj_||ã^áÉË=fiÂn_ü˚=ÔÍÈ–=Ô‹_ƒÉ=„È’kÿ=_ƒÈ||óÈ‹Ë=_‰^Èk®=Ω=Ôη»=áÉ_||î‹=Ÿƒ WÏŸÍ=_›‘=÷ÿÖË 1=J=m_‹ÈŸ≈‹=áÉ_î‹=KÔŸ‹_è=m_îî£=m^Ö= = 2=J=m_‹ÈŸ≈‹=áÉ_î‹=KԗΖÉ=m_îî£=m^Ö 3=J=m_‹ÈŸ≈‹=áÉ_î‹=KÔ‹_ƒ= = EhD<j}˜]äπ]<l^„¢]<gäu<Ö^Ȉ÷ÊVÌ åª^=m_§^=håv=á_Îk~˘^=Ô—Íàù=Ôgk’ª^=∆gkj˯=‚ƒ=ÔÿËÿ^WÏŸÍ=_›‘=Iàê·= = 1=J=m_‹ÈŸ≈‹=áÉ_î‹==KÔì_¶^=m_§^Ë=„Ëàè_·ÿ^=_‰áÑîÍ=I= = 2=J=m_‹ÈŸ≈‹=áÉ_î‹=á=4»Ë=m_≈‹_§^Ë=щ_≈ª^=_‰áÑîj=ÔÎüKÔΛŸƒ=ä‘^àª^= = EtD<Ìu^i˝]<ÌœËÜõ<gäu<Ö^Èj}˜]V k~˘^=fikÍËWÏj˝_‘=IÔgk’ª^=Ω=m_ƒÈ›.^=_Âf=ÓàÃÈkª^=Ô—Íàðÿ^=håv=_ÂÎÃ=á_Î= = 1=J=m_‹ÈŸ≈‹=áÉ_î‹=ÔƒÈgð‹K 2=J=m_‹ÈŸ≈‹=áÉ_î‹=fiŸÎÃËà’΋=Ÿƒ=Ô‡ä©=KëÎÃËà’΋=Ë` 3=J=m_‹ÈŸ≈‹=áÉ_î‹=KÔð·…º=Ôùàè`=Ÿƒ=ÓàÃÈk‹= = EÅD<ÌÈfl⁄à÷]<ÌÈî«j÷]<gäu<Ö^Èj}˜]V<<< < ==j_ƒÈ›ß=Ô·›–àf=m_gk’ª^=ö≈f=fikÂj=pÎv=_Â=h|åv===ö≈gÿ_Ã=I_7=Ôη‹äÿ^=ÔÎð…kÿ^ ===ÒàÍ=_›·Îf=IÔ·›–àŸÿ=_ƒËà|êª=„_’¥=ÔΛ‰˚^=‚‹=Ô∑Ñ—ÿ^=ÔÎn^3ÿ^=m_ƒÈ›._f=ÚÑgÿ^=„`=ÒàÍ ====Ô·›–àÿ^=«Ëà||||||ê‹=äÎ∑=_‹=âàf`=‚‹=Ïj_‹ÈŸ≈‹=áÑ||||||=m_ƒÈ›.^=Ôn^Ñv=„`=à~˝^=ö≈gÿ^ Û^Ñf=⁄|||||||||||||îkÍ=_›ÎÃ=ÑÍÑr=ȉ=_‹=⁄‘=Ÿƒ=€È|||||||||||||îwŸÿ=≤ov_gÿ^=ÚÈsŸÿ=^ࡇ==fiÂj_‹_›k‰^=Óà WÏŸÍ=_ª=_≈gj=m_ƒÈ›.^=ÑÎìá=‚‹=á_Îk~˘^=‚’∑=÷ÿÜÿ=IÔÎowgÿ^= = 1=Km_‹ÈŸ≈‹=áÉ_î‹=KÔoÍÑv

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