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Applied research methodology lecture 1
APPLIED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EG921 CE Lecture 1 Mr. Nagendra Bahadur Amatya LecturerDept. of Eng. Science and humanities Pluchowk campus. IOE Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction: Students• Name• Academic background• Social background• Experience• Specific area of Interest• Why do you think such an interest crystallized?• Have you already gone some distance into the study?
Today’s Overview • Introduction 1 faculty, student and course 2 • Concept of research • Methods and Methodology 3 of research
IntroductionCourse Objectives• Applied Research Methodology – Increasing awareness of Research, Criticism, Role of RDM in an enquiry process – Introduce a Range of Research Methodologies, Strategies and tactics, weakness and strengths – Familiarize with problem base research – Develop the skill to handle qualitative and quantitative research – writing research proposal and reports
Textbooks and References• I shall be using some of these as references – Rossi, P.H., Wright, J.D. & Anderson, A.B. 1983, Handbook of Survey Research, Academic Press Inc., London. – Cooper, Donald R., Schindler, Pamela S., 2006, Marketing Research, McGraw- Hill, New Delhi – Cooper, Donald R., Schindler, Pamela S., 2006, Business Research Methods, McGraw-Hill, New Delhi – C.R.Kothari.,2004, Research Methodology Methods and techniques, New Age International (P) Ltd, Publisher, New Delhi – Y.K .singh,2006, Fundamental of research Methodology and statistics, New Age International (P) Ltd, Publisher, New Delhi – McQueen, R. & Knussen, C. 2002, Research Methods for Social Science, Prentice Hall. – Jonker, J. & Pennik, B. 2002, The Essence of Research Methodology, Springer. – Polonsky, M.J. & Waller, D.S. 2005, Designing and Managing a Research Project, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks. – Yin, R.K. 1994, Case Study Research, SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks. – Trochim, W.M.K. 2006, Research Methods Knowledge Base, [online], Available: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb, [2010, June 29] – Key, J.P. 1997, Research Design in Occupational Education, [online], Available: http://www.okstate.edu/ag/agedcm4h/academic/aged5980a/5980 [2010, June 29]
Course Outline• Ontological and epistemological underpinning of research• Formulation of research proposal, formulation and refining research topic, research design, research hypothesis, research process- from formulation of research question to final publication, research strategy and design• Use of quantitative and qualitative research methods, data collection, analysis and interpretation of qualitative data ( interview, participatory observation , group discussion).• Collection, analysis and interpretation of quantitative data, use of secondary data.• PRA tools, problem – base research, population, sampling interdisciplinary research, practical field work, use of SPSS, EXCEL, research ethics• Methods: Historical-interpretive, Qualitative, Co-relational, Causal- Experimental and Quasi-experimental, Simulation and modeling, Questionnaire Surveys, Case Studies• Data analysis and interpretation, application of SPSS, EXCEL• Writing research proposal, research report, thesis
Hours and Evaluation• 4 credits 2 sessions a week of 2 hours each/ 13/14 weeks.• Basically lectures• Assessment (40 marks) in three points – Cumulative assessment of interactions and outputs of tutorials – Written report and presentation – Written test• Course Outputs• Student Inputs 75% attendance • Interactions and inputs in Tutorial classes • Report and Presentation on Literature survey, References and bibliography • Participation through critiques
Introduction Academic/Applied ResearchResearch is a careful, systematic and patient study andinvestigation…undertaken to discover or establish facts orprinciplesKnowing creates description, explanation and understandingNew knowledge: not a perchance discovery! Old Theory: New Observations New Observations: New theory New procedures of practice for old knowledgePurposefulness of researchChanging Reality through New Knowledge
Meaning of research:• Research simply seeks the answer of certain questions which have not been answered so far and the answers depend upon human efforts.• Actually research is simply the process of arriving as dependable solution to a problem through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. Research is the most important process for advancing knowledge for promoting progress and to enable man to relate more effectively to his environment to accomplish his purpose and to resolve his conflicts. Although it is not the only way, it is one of the more effective ways of solving scientific problems.• Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation.• Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCHThe following characteristics may be gathered from thedefinitions of ‘Research’1. It gathers new knowledge or data from primary or first-hand sources.2. It places emphasis upon the discovery of general principles.3. It is an exact systematic and accurate investigation.4. It uses certain valid data gathering devices.5. It is logical and objective.6. The researcher resists the temptation to seek onlythe data that support his hypotheses.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH cont..7. The researcher eliminates personal feelings andpreferences.8. It endeavors to organize data in quantitative terms.9. Research is patient and unhurried activity.10. The researcher is willing to follow his procedures tothe conclusions that may be unpopular and bring socialdisapproval.11. Research is carefully recorded and reported.12. Conclusions and generalizations are arrived atcarefully and cautiously.
THE FUNCTIONS OF RESEARCHThe following are the main functions of research:The main function of research is to improveresearch procedures through the refinement andextension of knowledge.
OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH• Theoretical objective• Factual objective• Application objective
Theoretical objective:Those researches whose objectives are theoreticalformulate the new theories, principles or laws. Suchtype of research is explanatory because it explainsthe relationships of certain variables. Theseresearches contribute some basic knowledge to thehuman knowledge. The researches in differentdisciplines i.e., Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics etc.have the theoretical objective.
Factual objective : Those researches whose objective is factual find out new facts. This objective is by nature descriptive. These researches describe facts or events which happened previously. Such type of research is done in history.ApplicationobjectiveThe research having application objective does not contribute anew knowledge in the fund of human knowledge but suggestsnew applications. By application we mean improvement andmodification in practice. For example if anyone gives a newapplication of electricity then such type of research hasapplication objective.
MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH• What makes people to undertake research? This is a question of fundamental importance. The possible motives for doing research may be either one or more of the following:• 1. Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits;• 2. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates research;• 3. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work;• 4. Desire to be of service to society;• 5. Desire to get respectability.
TYPES OF RESEARCH• The basic types of research are as follows: Descriptive vs. Analytical( Ex post facto research) Applied vs. Fundamental: Quantitative vs. Qualitative: Conceptual vs. Empirical: Some Other Types of Research:
Descriptive vs. Analytical ( Ex post facto research)• The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening.• Most ex post facto research projects are used for descriptive studies in which the researcher seeks to measure such items• In analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.
Applied vs. Fundamental:• Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization, whereas fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory.
Quantitative vs. Qualitative:• Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Qualitative research, on the other hand, is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e., phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind.
Conceptual vs. Empirical:• Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones. On the other hand, empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory. It is data- based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment. We can also call it as experimental type of research.
Some Other Types of Research:• One time/ Cross sectional vs Longitudinal/ Developmental & Trend or Predication studies ( the time domain)• Filed setting vs Lab/ simulation research• Clinical vs diagnostic studies• Exploratory vs Formulated ( the degree of formulation of the problem) studies• Historical studies• Content analysis in one such quantitative method – multipurpose method developed specifically for investigating a board spectrum or problem in which the contents of commination serve as a basis of inference. Example usage rates, word counts, etc• Correlation research• Conclusion oriented or decision oriented research
Working Toward Research Achieve research objectiveResearch Worked On Design study implement Test, ,reliability validity Develop your research concept Time Spent
Research is Never Ending Processwhat ever you proved in your research it may be mid way of the process. watch at this animation Think where you are ? compare with your research process Animation