BIO ASSAY OF OXYTOCINJ.S.K. NAGARAJANASST. PROF.,JSS UNIVERSITY,(OFF CAMPUS: JSS COLLEGE OFPHARMACY,OOTACAMUND – 643001Ph: 94431 49945Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
OXYTOCIN• OXY – RAPID TOCOS- LABOR• Synthesized in both sexes, well recognized physiological effects only in women.• Cyclic Polypeptide hormone - from posterior pituitary gland.• Pituitary gland consist posterior labe which produce oxytocin and diuretic hormone.• Neurosecretary product mainly synthesize in the cell bodies of paraventracular nuclear of the hypothalamus.ROLE OF OXYTOCIN:• Stimulate the contraction of the uterine smooth muscle & memory gland.• Oestrogen progesterone & prolactin – responsible for production of milk by memory gland but milk ejection require oxytocin.• Facilitates the contraction of uterus.It is presented as a solid or solution in a solvent containing an appropriate antimicrobial preservative such as 0.2% w/v of chlorbutol.Animal species - 90 - 110% stated number of units of oxytocin activity.Synthetic: Solid - NLT 560 units/mg Calculated with reference to the peptide content & when liquid NLT 150 units/ml
Oxytocin – Mechanism of action Neuropeptide made in hypothalamus that stimulates contractions that expel the infant from uterus. Responsible for milk letdown & triggered by the nipple stimulation of suckling Called love & bonding hormone. It has a very special affect on mothering . Psychologically, oxytocin promotes a feeling of well being and tranquility. It enables the growing sense of love and attachment to the infant. The more the infant suck the more oxytocin is produced. In mothers it increases their attachment to their infant, promoting the feeling of love, and makes her infant more valuable to her. It also suppresses the fear that would normally cause her to back off from threat.
BIOLOGICAL ASSAY OF OXYTOCIN:PRINCIPLE: Potency is determined by comparing its activity – Depression of BP – Contraction of Uterus – Milk Ejection Pressure – Vasopressor activity with standard preparation of oxytocinSTANDARD PREPARATION:Consisting free dried synthetic oxytocin peptide with human albumin citric acid (12.5 units)
METHOD-A (Depression of the BP in chicken)Test Animals: Cockerel (young male chicken), 1.2 - 2.3 Kg, Healthy Anaesthesised cock-prolonged & constant high B.P Expose gluteus primus muscle(thigh) & remove politeal artery & crural vein. Cannulate the popliteal artery & record B.P response Cannulate the crural or brachial vein. Prepare std soln with saline. Inject 0.1 - 0.5ml Inject 2 doses of std soln into cannulate vein is record B.P response Dose should cause decrease in B.P (reqd. dose between 20-100mUnits)Interval bween 2 injection, bween 3-10mins depend on rate @ which B.P return normal Dil. test preparation with saline so as to get same response as standard The ratio between standard & test should be equalIf animal rapidly becomes insensitive to repeated injection the soln another must used.Measure all responses are calculated result of the assay by std statistical method.
METHOD—B: (By contraction of the rat uterus):Test animals: Female rat 120 – 200g Inject 100ug of oestradiol benzoate IM into female rat before the assay Immediately before assay confirm by vaginal smear that rate in oestrus or pre oestrus.Kill rat & suspend one horn of uterus in organ bath containing a solution of following Nacl,Kcl,Cacl2, NaHco3, Na2Hpo4, NaH2po4, Mgcl2, Dextrose Maintain the bath at temp at of 32 c Bath liquid required dose between 10-50 units/ml. Oxygenate solution with mix of 95% of O2, 5% of CO2 record -contraction of muscle.Record contraction produces by addition of two dose of std. ppn (Reqd. Dose 10 & 50munits/ml of bath liquid) when maximum contraction has been reached replace - bath liquid by fresh solution. Dose should be added at regular interval[3-5minutes] Similarly record the contraction of test preparation as standard.Ratio between two dose of test & two dose of std should be equal. This ratio kept constant through out the assay. Measure all response & calculate result of assay by standard statistical method.
METHOD C: (Milk ejection pressure in Lactating rat)TEST ANIMALS: Lactating rat, 3-21 day after parturition, 300g Separate from litter & 30-60 minutes later anaesthetise (IP Pentobarbitone Na). Tie rat to an operating table, at 37º, by its hind legs leaving front legs free. Cannulate trachea with a short PE tube of i.d. 2.5 mm in such a manner so as to ensure a free airway; apply artificial respiration only if necessary. Cannulate an external jugular or femoral vein with a PE tube of i.d. 0.4 mm filled with saline & closed with a pin.Shave the skin surrounding the inguinal and abdominal teats and excise the tip of one teat, preferably the lower inguinal teat. Insert a PE tube of i.d. 0.3 mm & e.d. 0.6 mm, to a depth sufficient to obtainappropriate measurement of pressure (3-10 mm depth), into the primary teat duct which opens onto the cut surface and tie firmly in place with a ligature. Connect this cannula with a suitable strain gauge transducer (such as that usedfor recording arterial BP in rat) and fill with a 3.8% w/v of Na citrate /saline contain 50 Units of heparin Na/ml to prevent clotting of milk. After cannulation, inject 0.05 - 0.2 ml of this solution into teat duct throughtransducer to clear milk from tip of the cannula. (This procedure may be repeated during the assay should obstruction arise from milk ejected into the cannula).
Clamp the strain gauge so that a slight tension is applied to the teat and its naturalalignment is preserved and connect the gauge to a potentiometric recorder adjusted to give full-scale deflection for an increase in milk-ejection pressure of 5.3 kPa. Inject all solutions through the venous cannula using a 1-ml syringe graduated in 0.01 ml and wash them in with 0.2 ml of saline. Prepare a solution of Std. & Test Ppn in saline solution so that the volume to be injected is between 0.1 - 0.4 ml. Choose two doses of Std Ppn such that the increase in milk-ejection pressure is about 1.35 kPa for Lr dose and about 2.7 kPa for Hr dose. As an initial approximation, a lower dose of between 0.1 and 0.4 milliUnit and an upper dose of 1.5 to 2 times this amount may be tried.Choose two doses of the Test Ppn with the same inter-dose ratio, matching effects of doses of the Std Ppn as closely as possible. Inject four doses (2 doses of Std & 2 doses of Test) at intervals of 3- 5 minutes.2 doses of Std and 2 doses of test should be given according to randomised block or a Latin square design & at least four responses to each -recorded. Measure all responses & calculate result of the assay by std statistical methods. Potency - 90% - 111%. Fiducial limits of error are 80% - 125%stated potency.
Vasopressor activity :NMT 0.5 Unit /20 Units of oxytocic activity - by biological assay for vasopressor activity-comparing activity of Test & Std Ppn of arginine vasopressin Freeze-dried syn. arginine vasopressin peptide acetate with human albumin & citric acid (supplied in ampoules containing 8.20 Units) Inject slowly into tail vein of male albino rat weighing 300g -solution of a suitable a-adrenoceptorblocking agent, (10 ml/kg body weight of solution prepared by dissolving 5 mg of phenoxybenzamine HCl in 0.1 ml of ethanol (95%), adding 0.05 ml of 1 M HCl & dil to 5ml with saline . After 18 hours, anaesthetise rat - that will maintain -prolonged & uniform BP. After 45-60 minutes, tie the rat on its back to the operating table by its hind legs. Cannulate trachea with short PE of E.D. 2.5 mm & dissect carotid artery ready for cannulation. Then cannulate the femoral vein close to the inguinal ligament. Retract the abdominal muscles to expose the inguinal ligament. Retract superficial pudendal vein to one side & dissect femoral vein towards inguinal ligament from corresponding artery. When dissecting, a deep branch reaching femoral vein must be found & tied off to prevent bleeding during cannulation.Tie a short PE cannula of E.D. about 1 mm into femoral vein by two ligatures & join by a short piece of flexible tubing to a 1-ml burette with an attached thistle funnel containing saline at about 37º. Firmly fix wet absorbent cotton swab to thigh so as to cover incision and cannula. At this stage inject through venous cannula 200 Units of heparin, dissolved in saline /100 g of body weight.
Then tie in a carotid cannula of E.D.about 1 mm & connect by a column of saline containheparin with a pressure measuring device such as Hg manometer of I.D. about 2-3 mm. central & peripheral nervous system including both vagus & associated sympathetic nerves is left intact. No artificial respiration is necessary.No air is injected, inject all solutions through venous cannula by means of a 1-ml syringe & wash in with 0.2 ml of saline from burette.Dil extract of Std & Test Ppn with saline so that volume to be injected is between 0.1 & 0.5 ml. Choose 2 doses of the Std Ppn such that the elevation of the BP is about 4 kPa for Lr dose & about 7 kPa but always submaximal for higher, ratio of low to high dose beingdetermined by response & usually being 3-5. As an initial approximation doses of 3 and 5 MUnits may be tried. Choose 2 doses of Test ppn with same inter-dose ratio, matching effects of dose of Std Ppn. Inject doses at intervals of 10 - 15 minutes. 2 doses of Std & 2 doses of Test Ppn should given in randomised block / Latin square design & 4-5 responses to each recorded. Measure all responses & calculate result of the assay by Std statistical methods.
METHOD A METHOD B METHOD C Method D Depression of BP Contraction of Uterus Milk ejection Pr.in Lactating rat Vasopressor Activityanimal Cockerel, 1.2 to 2.3 Kg Female rat 120 200g Lactating Rat,300g 3-21 Male rat 300g days parturitiction.Organ Anaesthetised , prolonged Inject 100ug oestradiol by anaesthetise(Pentobarbitone Inject adrenoceptor blocking agent Na IP). Tie hind legs leaving (phenoxybenzamine 5mg) into tail & const high BP IM. Confirm rat in front legs free,@37c. vein of rat, after 18hrs, anaesthetise oestrus /pre oestrus by Cannulate trachea-respirate rat-prolonged & uniform BP. After 45- 60mints, tie rat on its back to Gluteus Primus muscle vaginal smear. artificially if reqd. Shave skin operating table by its hind legs. around inguinal abdominal (thigh) & remove politeal Kill rat & suspend one teats . Pr. 3-10mm. Cannulate trachea with PE & dissect carotid artery ready for cannulation. artery & crural vein. horn of uterus in organ Connect cannula with gauge Cannulate femoral vein close to Cannulate Popliteal artery bath contain Na, K, Ca, transducer & fill with 3.8% Na inguinal ligament. Retract superficial citrate/saline contain 50 pudendal vein to one side & dissect & record BP. Mg chrloride Units heparin Na/ml to femoral vein towards inguinal NaHCO3,NaHPO4 and prevent clotting of milk. After ligament from corresponding artery. When dissecting, a deep branch dextrose- bath 32c cannulation, inject 0.05 - 0.2 reaching femoral vein must be found ml of this solution into teat & tied off to prevent bleeding. Tie a duct through transducer to PE into femoral vein by two ligatures clear milk from tip of cannula. & join by a short piece of flexible Clamp strain gauge so that tubing to burette with attached thistle a slight tension is applied to funnel containing saline-37º.Inject teat & its natural alignment is 200Units of heparin, dissolved in preserved & connect gauge to saline/100g of body weight thru a potentiometric recorder venous cannula. Tie in a carotid cannula & connect by column of adjusted to -for increase milk- saline contain heparin with pressure ejection pressure of 5.3 kPa. measuring device-CNS & PNS including both vagus & associated 2 doses of Std Ppn - increase in sympathetic nerves is left intact. No mil k-ejection pressure is 1.35 air is injected, inject all solutions thruStd With Saline 0.1 -0.5ml 10-50units/ml 0.1-04 ml kPa for Lr dose & 2.7kPa - Hr 0.1 & 0.5ml venous cannula by means of syringe Inject 2 doses of std solution into Oxygenate the soln. with 95% O2, dose. 2 doses of the Test Ppn with & wash with 0.2 ml of saline 2 doses Std Ppn -elevation BP 4 kPa for Lr & 7 kPa higher dose, ratio of low to high cannulate vein record BP 5%CO2 record the contraction. the same inter-dose ratio, dose being determined using 3-5 munits Decrease of BP Record the contraction by addition matching effects of doses of of 2 doses of STD. the Std Ppn as closely as possible.Interva 3- 10 mins bween 2 injection- 3-5 minutes 3-5 mints Inject doses at intervals ofl depend on rate of BP returns 10 - 15 minutes. normalTest Dil. Test ppn with saline get same As per std. 2 doses Std & 2 doses test - 2 doses of std & Test response randomised block/Latin randomised block/Lati n square square design & at least 4 design & 4-5 response recorded. responses to each -recorded.ratio Between Standard & Test equal