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Ugc net notes


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Ugc net notes

  1. 1. Veblen goodIn economics, Veblen goods are a group of commodities for which peoples preference for buyingthem increases as a direct function of their price, as greater price confers greater status, instead ofdecreasing according to the law of demand. A Veblen good is often also a positional good.Some types of high-status goods, such as high-end wines, designer handbags and luxury cars, areVeblen goods, in that decreasing their prices decreases peoples preference for buying thembecause they are no longer perceived as exclusive or high status productsthe demand curve is generally downward-sloping. There may be rare examples of goods that haveupward-sloping demand curves. Two different hypothetical types of goods with upward-slopingdemand curves are Giffen goods (an inferior but staple good) and Veblen goods (goods mademore fashionable by a higher price).Theres A Difference Between Advertising and Publicity!Using Advertising and Publicity are very effective methods to promote and create positiveawareness for you and your business. But... there is a clear difference between Advertising andPublicity. Advertising is something you get by paying for it. Publicity however, is something youhope youll get. Why? Because publicity can be generally gained at no cost to you. And... itgenerally has many times the credibility of advertising. Heres what we mean:There are some experts like Al Reis, author of the superb marketing text, "Positioning: The BattleFor Your Mind," that believe a majority of companies shouldn’t waste their money on advertisinguntil they have established name recognition and credibility through Public Relations and publicity.Others will tell you that a combination of both advertising and PR are required. But one thingsfor certain: Every expert agrees, "that you can’t just put up your web site, open your store, offeryour service or manufacture a product and then not do anything to attract customers!"So... advertising is content you pay for (radio, tv, newspaper, banner advertising, etc). Publicity onthe other hand, refers to free content about you and your company that appears in the media. Itswhat others what others say about you. Publicity can result when an article you write is published,or when information you give to an editor convinces him/her to feature a story about you or isbased on a publicity release issued by a Public Relations firm you have retained. Over time,these stories help create a favorable impression of your product or services.The average person has no real idea of how the media find their stories, but the prevailing viewseems to be that reporters go out and find all of their news. This is simply not realistic thinking!There just aren’t enough reporters on the planet to find every bit of news worth covering. So if you 1
  2. 2. can present your information convincingly, theres a good a chance that youll gain the interest ofthe media.So how can I get publicity for my company? Well...lets deal with the Internet here. The Internetor World Wide Web, has its own rules about commercialism, and it usually is disastrous to thosewho break them. If your press releases, postings or articles are blatant self-promotion or a salespitch instead of truly useful information they will be ignored and won’t be used. Worse, you riskthe negative publicity of being flamed (you and your company being strongly put down online, oryoull receive quantities of unwanted and negative e-mail). So... heres a simply philosophy tofollow: "Before you put out a public message, play "who cares?" and ask yourself "why wouldother people be interested in what I have to say?" or "how can people benefit from the information Iam supplying?" If you cant come up with solid, positive answers to these questions, then keepworking on your publicity release or article until you do.Difference between Selling and MarketingMarketing is much wider than selling and much more dynamic.The fundamental differance between the two is that selling revolves around the needs and interestof the seller.Where as Marketing revolves around the needs and the interest of the buyers.Selling is an inside-out perspective. Its starts from factory, focuses on the companys existingproducts, and calls for heavy selling and promotion to obtain profitable sales.Marketing takes an outside-in perspective It starts with a well defined markert, focuses oncustomer needs, co-ordinates all the marketing activities affecting customers, and makes profits bycreating customer satisfaction.******************************************************************Marketing is the planning, pricing, promotion, packaging, advertising selling of any product orservice.selling is only a sliver of the over all marketing of any product or service. But as Zig Ziglar says"nothing happens until someone sells something" and what he means is that sales is not a fourletter word but a five letter word.Many marketing consultants talk about marketing as the "message to the consumer" or potentialclient or prospect. there is always a message in; Promoting, packaging, signage, advertising,Selling is also about delivering the message to the customer or prospect as well and it is a muchcloser message, person to person and selling can take the form of a telephone call, personal visit,demo, presentation or even an ad hoc or chance meeting with a conversation and later follow up. 2
  3. 3. Most sales Managers Consider selling to be about report and relationship building; getting to knowthe potential customer or prospect their desires and needs and solving a problem by offering yourproduct or service to themMarketing is in fact the act of bringing the product to market. Selling is about closing a sale andturning a potential buyer into a customer. Closing a sale is also called a conversion.Marketing is primarily about research - identifying potential buyers and then finding the best way tointroduce your product to them.Selling is about overcoming objections. It is a one to one technique where the seller helps thebuyer to reach a decision. Selling is when all marketing research is applied at the point of sale.Marketing is an art as well as a numbers game.sales is more of an art only.Broadly, Marketing creates the atmosphere to make it easy for sales to happen. Marketing consiststhings like:Marketing Strategy,target market etc.Sales" obviously is getting out and writing the orders ... tough disciplined work. This involves skillslike "closing" the sale - very different skills to MarketingGood sales people do not make good marketers and vice versa ...A marketer is a creative person, a law unto himself, a person with few boundaries, a person wholives inside the head of your customer, a person who dreams and creates at any/all hours of dayand night, a person who can send normal disciplined people crazy. For a marketer, the thrill of thechase is creating original thinking / products - original ideas that work, ideas that nobody elsethought about. Top marketers are some of the worlds highest paid professional people.A salesperson, unlike a marketer, is a well disciplined person who works within a tight set ofconventional rules to get the sales orders. A salesperson is motivated by the thrill of closing a dealand the attendant cash bonus. You drive a good sales person crazy when you dont give him/hersound marketing back up.Get the marketing right and sales near automatically follow.your marketing campaign should generate leads. Your sales people take the leads and generatesales. Measure the results of your marketing by the number and quality of leads youre getting.Measure your sales staff by how much theyre selling.the marketing process is a proactive approach done often before the product or service isproduced and sold. And selling starts after production of is the process of establishing a need, sales is the process of fulfilling that needthe marketing function consists of making the market aware of who you are and what you do 3
  4. 4. the sales process commences when a formal offer for services has been made, and concludeswhen the offer is accepted or rejectedDistribution ChannelsDistribution channels are the methods that companies use to enter the consumer market with theirproduct. While many methods exist, they have changed over the years because of the Internet andglobal sales. DefinitionA distribution channel is the method a company uses to get its products into the marketplace forconsumer use. The traditional channel goes from supplier, manufacturer, distributor, wholesalerand retailer. Two types of distribution channels exist: indirect and direct.Indirect ChannelThe indirect channel is used by companies who do not sell their goods directly to consumers.Suppliers and manufacturers typically use indirect channels because they exist early in the supplychain. Depending on the industry and product, direct distribution channels have become moreprevalent because of the Internet.Direct ChannelA direct distribution channel is where a company sells its products direct to consumers. Whiledirect channels were not popular many years ago, the Internet has greatly increased the use ofdirect channels. Additionally, companies needing to cut costs may use direct channels to avoidmiddlemen markups on their products.Indirect Channel MethodsDistributors, wholesalers and retailers are the primary indirect channels a company may use whenselling its products in the marketplace. Companies choose the indirect channel best suited for theirproduct to obtain the best market share; it also allows them to focus on producing their goods.Direct Channel MethodsSelling agents and Internet sales are two types of direct distribution channels. Selling agents workfor the company and market their products directly to consumers through mail order, storefronts orother means. The Internet is an easy distribution channel because of the global availability toconsumers.WTO and implications for Indian Economy 4
  5. 5. Abstract: thOne of the most dramatic events that have taken place in later part of 20 century was culmination stof GATT 1947 into WTO (The world Trade organization), which came into being on 1 January2005. This WTO has set expectations high in various member countries (by now 149 includinglatest addition of Saudi Arabia) regarding spurt in world trade where India has insignificant share inthe pie-Only 0.75% at the most. Even in IT exports the share of Indian exporters is just peanuts inview of overall world market.Since formation of WTO there have been regular meetings of Ministerial Conferences (HighestPolicy level body of WTO) religiously every 2 years and 5 such meetings have taken place whileworld prepares for the Hong Kong meeting to take place shortly, the sixth one. thWhile 5 meet at Cancun, Mexico was more or less failure, the earlier one at Seattle, USA wasreceived with brickbats from environmentalist and Labor union Groups protesting against WTOregime.It is statistical fact that world trade has definitely grown since 1995 thereby giving indicators thatinternational trade reforms do play important role in boosting economic development of variouscountries.Problems facing India in WTO & its Implementation:But there are several problems facing these Multilateral Trade agreements:- Predominance of developed nations in negotiations extracting more benefits from developing andleast developed countries- Resource and skill limitations of smaller countries to understand and negotiate under rules ofvarious agreements under WTO- Incompatibility of developed and developing countries resource sizes thereby causing distortionsin implementing various decisions- Questionable effectiveness in implementation of agreements reached in past and sincerity- Non-tariff barriers being created by developed nations.- Regional cooperation groups posing threat to utility of WTO agreement itself, which is multilateralencompassing all member countries- Poor implementation of Doha Development Agenda- Agriculture seems to be bone of contention for all types of countries where France, Japan andsome countries are just not willing to budge downwards in matter of domestic support and exportassistance to farmers and exporters of agriculture produce.- Dismantling of MFA (Multi Fiber Agreement) and its likely impact on countries like India 5
  6. 6. - Under TRIPS question of high cost of Technology transfer, Bio Diversity protection, protection ofTraditional Knowledge and Folk arts, protection of Bio Diversities and geographical Indications oforigin, for example Basmati, Mysore Dosa or Champagne. The protection has been given so far inwines and spirits that suit US and European countries.Implications for IndiaIt appears that India does not stand to gain much by shouting for agriculture reforms in developedcountries because the overall tariff is lower in those countries. India will have to tart major reformsin agriculture sector in India to make Agriculture globally competitive. Same way it is questionableif India will be major beneficiary in dismantling of quotas, which were available under MFA formarket access in US and some EU countries. It is likely that China, Germany, North Africancountries, Mexico and such others may reap benefit in textiles and Clothing areas unless Indiaembarks upon major reforms in modernization and up gradation of textile sector includingapparels.Some of Singapore issues are also important like Government procure, Trade and Investment,Trade facilitation and market access mechanism.In Pharma-sector there is need for major investments in R &D and mergers and restructuring ofcompanies to make them world class to take advantage. India has already amended patent Actand both product and Process are now patented in India. However, the large number of patentsgoing off in USA recently, gives the Indian Drug companies windfall opportunities, if tappedintelligently. Some companies in India have organized themselves for this.Excerpts from Speech of Ramkrishna Hegde, the then Minister, at Geneva in 1998-"In order to make WTO an effective multilateral body, which serves the objectives for which it wasset up, it is necessary to go back to the basic principles. The Uruguay Round negotiators hadstated their intentions quite clearly in the Preamble to the Marrakesh Agreement establishing theWTO. They recognised "that their relations in the field of trade and economic endeavour should beconducted with a view to raising standards of living, ensuring full employment and a large andsteadily growing volume of real income and effective demand, and expanding the production ofand trade in goods and services, while allowing for the optimal use of the worlds resources inaccordance with the objective of sustainable development, seeking both to protect and preservethe environment and to enhance the means for doing so in a manner consistent with theirrespective needs and concerns at different levels of economic development. They recognized also"that there is need for positive efforts designed to ensure that developing countries, and especially 6
  7. 7. the least developed among them, secure a share in the growth in international tradecommensurate with the needs of their economic development".The Objective of WTO Reiterated:It is very clear that the intention of the negotiators was to use trade as an instrument fordevelopment, to raise standards of living, expand production, keeping in view, particularly, theneeds of developing countries and least-developed countries. The WTO must never lose sight ofthis basic principle. Every act of implementation and of negotiation, every legal decision, has to beviewed in this context. Trade, as an instrument for development, should be the cornerstone of allour deliberations, decisions and actions. Besides, the system should be seen to be equitable andfair. It must be used in such a manner that the letter and spirit of the Agreements is fully observed.The WTO Members must mutually support and encourage each other to achieve the final goal. Itmust be recognized that all Members should assume a negotiating rather than an adversarialposture. It should also be recognized that different economies have different features andstructures, different problems, different cultures. The pace of change must be carefully calibratedto take into account such differences. All Members should guard against unilateral action that cutsat the root of multilateral agreement and consensus.Developing countries have generally been apprehensive in particular about the implementation ofspecial and differential treatment provisions (S&D) in various Uruguay Round Agreements. Fullbenefits of these provisions have not accrued to the developing countries, as clear guidelines havenot been laid down on how these are to be implemented. "The first Ministerial Conference held in 1996 in Singapore saw the commencement of pressures toenlarge the agenda of WTO. Pressures were generated to introduce new Agreements onInvestment, Competition Policy, Transparency in Government Procurement and Trade Facilitation.The concept of Core Labor Standards was also taken up for introduction.India and the developing countries, which were already under the burden of fulfilling thecommitments undertaken through the Uruguay Round Agreements, and who also perceived manyof the new issues to be non-trade issues, resisted the introduction of these new subjects into WTO.They were partly successful. The Singapore Ministerial Conference (SMC) set up open-endedWork Program to study the relationship between Trade and Investment; Trade and CompetitionPolicy; to conduct a study on Transparency in Government Procurement practices; and doanalytical work on simplification of trade procedures (Trade Facilitation).Most importantly the SMC clearly declared on the Trade-Labor linkage as follows: 7
  8. 8. " We reject the use of labor standards for protectionist purposes, and agree that the comparativeadvantage of countries, particularly low-wage developing countries, must in no way be put intoquestion. In this regard we note that the WTO and ILO Secretariat will continue their existingcollaboration".Not many people in this country are aware that there is a dispute settlement system in the WTO.This is at the heart of the WTO and sets it apart from the earlier GATT. Countries like the USA andthe European Union have brought cases against us and won these cases like in pharmaceuticalpatents. India too has complained against the US and Europe and it too has won its fair share ofdisputes in areas like textiles. India must effectively use this mechanism to extract fair share inworld markets.It would be advantageous for India to give concrete shape to SAARC economic forum or Freemarket and align itself with ASEAN.What India should do?The most important things for India to address are speed up internal reforms in building up world-class infrastructure like roads, ports and electricity supply. India should also focus on originalknowledge generation in important fields like Pharmaceutical molecules, textiles, IT high endproducts, processed food, installation of cold chain and agricultural logistics to tap opportunities ofglobalization under WTO regime.Indias ranking in recent Global Competitiveness report is not very encouraging due toinfrastructure problems, poor governance, poor legal system and poor market access provided byIndia.Our tariffs are still high compared to Developed countries and there will be pressure to reducethem further and faster.India has solid strength, at least for mid term (5-7 years) in services sector primarily in IT sector,which should be tapped and further strengthened.India would do well to reorganize its Protective Agricultural policy in name of rural poverty andFood security and try to capitalize on globalization of agriculture markets. It should rather focus onTextile industry modernization and developing international Marketing muscle and expertise,developing of Brand India image, use its traditional arts and designs intelligently to givecompetitive edge, capitalize on drug sector opportunities, and develop selective engineering sectorindustries like automobiles & forgings & castings, processed foods industry and the high endoutsourcing services. 8
  9. 9. India must improve legal and administrative infrastructure, improve trade facilitation through cuttingdown bureaucracy and delays and further ease its financial markets.India has to downsize non-plan expenditure in Subsidies (which are highly ineffective and wronglyapplied) and Government salaries and perquisites like pensions and administrative expenditures.Corruption will also have to be checked by bringing in fast remedial public grievance system, legalsystem and information dissemination by using e-governance.The petroleum sector has to be boosted to tap crude oil and gas resources within Indianboundaries and entering into multinational contracts to source oil reserves.It wont be a bad idea if Indian textile and garment Industry go multinational setting their foot inwestern Europe, North Africa, Mexico and other such strategically located areas for large US andEuropean markets.The performance of India in attracting major FDI has also been poor and certainly needs boost up,if India has to develop globally competitive infrastructure and facilities in its sectors of interest forworld trade.IntroductionA leading, industrially advanced developing country, India has large, medium and small industrialunits of production in almost all branches of the industry. Since the time of the independence in1947, a significant feature of the Indian economy has been the rapid growth of the small industrysector. The small industry sector is considered to have a major role in the Indian economy due toits 40 percent share in the national industrial output along with an 80 percent share in industrialemployment and nearly 35 percent share in exports . The small scale industries sector has beenassigned an important role in the industrialization of the country by the previous and currentgovernments of India.There are no clear official definitions of small. Small scale industries are usually distinguished fromthe large-scale and medium-scale industries on the basis of size, capital resources and labor forcein the units. At one time the government of India had grouped small-scale industrial undertakingsinto two categories - those using power but employing less than 50 persons and those not usingpower and employing less than 100 persons. However, capital investment on plant and machineryby units is considered as a main criteria for distinguishing between the large and small industries.An industrial unit can be classified as a small-scale unit only if it meets the capital investment limitsset by the government of India (GoI). These limits have been steadily increased over the years. In1996, the investment limit for small-scale industry (SSI) was raised from $6 million to $30 million. 9
  10. 10. Production units that are ancillary to large-scale units are also considered as small if they sell notless than 50 percent of their manufactured products to one or more industrial units.However, there is a clear distinction between the traditional and modern small industries. Thetraditional small industries include khadi and handloom, village industries, handicrafts, sericulture,coir, etc. Modern small industries manufacture a wide variety of goods from simple items tosophisticated items such as television sets, electronics control system, various engineeringproducts, particularly as ancillaries to large industries. The traditional small industries are highlylabor-intensive, while the modern small industries use highly sophisticated machinery andequipment. The term small-scale industries is mostly used to represent modern small industries.The SSIs manufacture many items which include rubber products, plastic products, chemicalproducts, glass and ceramics, mechanical engineering items, hardware, electrical items, transportequipment, electronic components and equipments, automobile parts, bicycle parts, instruments,sports goods, stationery items and clocks and watches.Since Independence, the growth and development of the small-scale sector has been favored bythe GoI on the following grounds: (1) generation of employment opportunities by SSIs, (2)mobilization of capital and entrepreneurship skills, (3) regional dispersal of industries and (4)equitable distribution of national income. The policies pursued by the GoI over the years havehelped in the growth of the SSIs to a considerable extent.Statistics on SSIsThe total number of SSI units increased from 2.082 million units in 1991-92 to 2.724 million units in1995-96. During the same period, at constant prices, the production increased from nearly $1.6billion to approximately $2.2 billion. The total number of persons employed in SSIs increased from12.9 million to 15.2 million[1]. According to Second All-India Census of Registered SSI units, 42percent of the units were functioning in rural areas, 48 percent in urban areas and 10 percent inmetropolitan areas. 62.2 percent of the units were located in backward areas. The rate of growth ofthis sector has been higher as compared to the whole industrial sector.In terms of the abovementioned development, the progress of the SSI sector is consideredimpressive by experts. But the SSIs are mostly effected by a number of problems that havehampered its absolute gwoth. According to the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) the growth of theSSIs has been constrained by various factors ``including technological obsolescence, inadequateand irregular supply of raw materials, lack of organized market channels, imperfect knowledge of 10
  11. 11. market conditions, unorganized nature of operations, inadequate availability of credit, constraint ofinfrastructure facilities including power etc. and deficient managerial and technical skills.Small-Scale Industry PolicyThe government of India (GoI) has taken many measures for the growth and development of theSSI sector. It has followed a policy of reservation of items for exclusive manufacturing by the small-scale sector. Over the years, the number of items on the reserved list have increased reaching 836items in 1996. However, 14 of these items have been dereserved by the 1997-98 Union Budget.For the past several years the GoI has recognized the need for the modernization of the SSI andhas initiated measures towards this end. It has put in place an infrastructure consisting of manyinstitutions both at the national as well as state and district levels to work for the modernization ofthe SSIs. Some of these institutions will now be discussed in brief.Small Industries Development Organization (SIDO)One of the most important initiative undertaken by GoI is the establishment of the SIDO in 1954.This organization is headed by a Small Industries Development Commissioner (DCSSI). SIDO isplaced under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Industrial Development and has its headquarters inNew Delhi, India. The branch offices of the DCSSI that are spread all over the country take care ofthe establishment, operation and growth of the SSIs. The organizations under the control DCSSI,at central and state level, organize various types of activities including training, seminar, plantvisits, and group discussions. Some of the major programs of the SIDO are technologydevelopment, energy conservation, pollution control, ISO-9000 etc. They help the SSIs byproviding them with raw materials that are not readily available in the market when needed.(Earlier, the small industries were mostly depedent on local raw materials. However the modernsmall-scale industries manufacturing more sophisticated and new products are using imported rawmaterials. Sometimes problems arise in procuring the right quality of raw materials in time, foroperating their production plans and delivery schedules, due to foreign exchange crisis or otherreasons such as working capital problems.) The DCSSI branch offices also assist the SSIs incollecting outstanding dues from their customers. The SIDO is an umbrella organization underwhich a number of institutions operate. These are the service institutes, the district industriescenters and the information banks.Small Industries Service Institutes (SISIs) 11
  12. 12. As of 1991, there were 26 SISIs, 32 branch institutes and 39 extension centers under the DCSSI.These institutions are fully devoted to provide assistance to the SSIs in all phases of theiroperation. These organizations help the SSIs in identifying items for manufacturing, provideinformation on technologies, feasibility studies, training, organization of workshops and seminarsand other such programs. SISIs have a program for stocking up spare parts and other supply itemsnot readily available in the market but necessary for the small-scale industries. The SISIs alsohave `reasonably well-equipped workshops and labs that offer testing services to small-scaleindustrial units which are not equipped or have no proper personnel.Directorate of IndustriesThe Directorate of Industries is an apex body for promoting industrial development in the states.The Development Commissioner (Industries) heads the institution which is supported by 6 regionaland 30 district level establishments. The regional offices in each state are headed by the JointDirector of District Industries Centers. The important functions of this agency is the implementationof the small-scale industry promotional schemes.District Industries Centers (DIC)The idea of District Industries Centers (DIC) was introduced by the Industrial Policy Statement ofDecember 1977. These DICs were established in each district to `provide and arrange a packageof assistance and facilities for credit guidance, raw materials, training, marketing, etc.[2]. Thisprogram began in May 1979. As of 1996, there are 422 DICs operating in 431 districts in thecountry.National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC)The National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC) was formed to assist the small industrial units byproviding equipment on hire-purchase basis. The supplied machines are used in various industriessuch as plastics, leather, printing and stationery, automobile componenets and spares, electronicequipment etc. NSIC projects to promote SSIs include finanacial services, technology upgradation,technical training and marketing assistance. NSIC has prototype development and testing centersat three places in the country to make available improved machine designs and to give advancedtechnical training to personnel from the small industry. Most states in the country have an industrialinfrastructure corporation that provides buildings, sheds and developed plots to small industrial 12
  13. 13. units and small industries marketing boards to assist in marketing. These corporations in somestate are separate for certain industries such as the electronics, leather, and ceramics.National Institute of Small Industry Extension Training (NISIET)The National Institute of Small Industry Extension Training (NISIET) was established as anautonomous society by the Government of India, at Hyderabad in 1962. The principal activities ofthe Institute are the training, research and consultancy in the four related fields of small industrydevelopment, management, extension and information for development. In 1970, the SmallEnterprises National Documentation Center (SENDOC) was set up at NISIET to assist the smallindustry in its information needs.Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)The Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) was set up by GoI under a special act ofthe Parliament in April 1990. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of the IDBI. SIDBI has a network of 33offices (5 regional and 28 branch offices). The Bank was instituted to ensure the increased flow offinancial assistance to SSIs. It assists the SSIs through direct assistance schemes as well asindirect assistance such as refinancing.Information banksThe GoI has established information banks in certain areas for assisting academic institutions andindustry. This system is called the National Information System for Science and Technology(NISSAT). These information banks help the small industrial units with information, particularly withrespect to the latest developments in the field of technology.Apart from the aforementioned institutions, the Trade Development Authority of India and the stategovernments organize trade fairs and exhibitions to provide opportunities for the small industrialunits to exhibit their products. The SSIs can also use the Regional Testing Centers to test theirproducts and help them maintain their product quality. The Indian Standard Institution hasdeveloped standards to assist the SSIs.There are several Indian R&D academic and technical institutions such as the Indian Institutes ofTechnology, universities, colleges and polytechnics that can provide equipment, expert personneland testing facilities and other services to the SSIs. Each of these institutions have a consultingdivision to cater to the needs of the SSIs. The institutions can be used as consultants by the SSIs, 13
  14. 14. if necessary on a continuous basis. However, these services are not used by the SSIs for variousreasons including the lack of information and lack of time to pursue such avenues among others.Recent modernization effortsInspite of the existence of all the aforementioned organizations to help the development of the SSI,an increasing spread of sickness is reported in the sector. Acknowledging this fact, the DCSSI setup a working group in 1985 to make recommendations for a suitable action. The suggestions madeby this group included the following:[3]Establish a well-equipped design and technology development cell in the office of the DCSSI tocoordinate programs of modernization in the small small-scale sector.Special cells called ``Product-cum-Process Development Centers will be necessary forundertaking research, locating sources of modern technology, identifying suitable technology fortransfer and help the small-scale industries in obtaining inputs.Liberal imports of technology and equipment should be allowed to modernize the small-scalesector.Incentives should be provided to enterprises with modern technologies to transfer them to theSSIs.In August 1991, the GoI announced its new policy towards the small scale sector. The governmentannounced that a Technology Development Cell would be set up in the Small IndustriesDevelopment Organization (SIDO). This Cell would provide technology inputs ``to improveproductivity and competitiveness of the products of the small scale sector. The TechnologyDevelopment Cell would coordinate with other industrial research and development organizationsto achieve its objectives. Information on whether such a Cell had been set up was not available.Under its scheme of direct assistance, the SIDBI had launched the Technology Development andModernization Fund. The main objective of this fund is ``to encourage existing industrial units inthe small scale sector to modernize their production facilities and adopt improved and updatedtechnology so as to strengthen their export capabilities. Through this fund, its helps the SSIs meetthe costs of purchasing capital equipment, acquisition of land, expenditure incurred in obtainingISO 9000 series certification and also the costs for improvements in packaging. The SSIs have tomeet some criteria before they can apply for financial assistance under this schemee, for e.g. unitsmust be in operation for atleast three years. It is also working towards prospects of marketing theproducts of SSIs in the internal and international markets. 14
  15. 15. One of Development and Support Services extended by the SIDBI is the Enterprise Strengtheningservice. Under this service, there are specific programs including technology transfer, technologyupgradation in indentified industry clusters and management development.In the 1996-97 Union Budget, the government announced the setting up of a TechnologyDevelopment Board and this has been instituted under the Department of Science andTechnology. During the presentation of the budget, the Union Minister for Finance proposed thatthe unutilized corpus of $1.75 billion under the Technology Development and Modernization FundScheme of the SIDBI should be provided to the State Financial Corporations and commercialbanks. These banks will in turn be able to make it available for the SSIs for modernization projects.In addition, the SIDO and SISIs have introduced a program for promoting technologicalmodernization of the SSIs. Under this initiative, the small production units are provided information,advice and training. Reports are distributed among them for spreading modernization information.The SSIs can register for these programs for a fee. As of March 1986, there were 570 enterprisesregistered under the modernization scheme of the SIDO. However only 24 of these have beenprovided with modernization guides.A recent change in the small-scale industrial policy allows the large firms to hold up to 26 percentof equity in small enterprises without the requirement of consolidation of accounts. This isconsidered as a good way to induce the transfer of technology and skills from large industrial unitsto SSIs. Industry experts are however skeptical about this. Most large units use the small-scalesector as sub-contractors. Doubts have been expressed whether these large units would allow fortransfers of technology to SSIs and enable them to grow and become independent units in theirown right.Problems in modernization of SSIsThe existence of a huge number of small industrial units manufacturing a variety of productsmakes technological modernization a difficult task in India. Small industrial units in India are mostlymanaged by entrepreneurs who are caught up in the day-to-day matters of production andmanagement of their units and find it difficult to keep themselves abreast of the varioustechnological developments. In addition, the GoI has provided protection to the SSIs fromcompetition from local large enterprises and imports through many policy measures. Thereforethere is no threat to their markets. The government also gives capital subsidies, exciseconcessions and backward technology subsidies to the SSIs. All of these reduce any incentive forthe small industrial units to constantly upgrade their technology or for technological innovation. 15
  16. 16. In a business outlook survey conducted by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) in 1996, 26percent of those surveryed highlighted the lack of modernization. The same survey found anencouraging feature that there is a increasing awareness of quality control among the SSIs. 49percent of the those respondents in the survey had initiated steps for obtaining ISO 9000certification.ConclusionAs can be inferred from the information in the preceding section, the various Indian governmentshave proclaimed many policies and also implemented several initiatives and programs. Most of thepolicies before the 1990s were aimed at protecting the small sector rather than making itcompetitive. Some of the major issues that these policies did not address are as follows:Problems in obtaining credit One of the serious problems affecting the small scale sector is thehardship of obtaining credits from the banking sector. Although this has been a problem for pastseveral years and though the issue has been mentioned in budget speeches by government, noneof the policies seem to solve it. Many entrepreneurs who had been drawn into industrial activitieshoping to receive financial assistance have subsequently found that working capital is notforthcoming[4]. The internal financial resources of the SSIs are held to be so small that have nosurplus money in times of business strain. This along with the situation of unstable profits preventthe banks from issuing them unsecured loans. As a result, many of these SSIs are still dependentfor funds on money-lenders who charge high interest rates. And those who have tried to obtainloans from the various financial institutions have only faced corruption associated with grant ofloans and long delays in delivery.In a 1996 survey of small entrepreneurs by the Confederation of the Indian Industry (CII), a largeproportion of the respondents attributed their problems to delayed payments, high cost ofborrowing and inadequate credit.Sickness in the SSIs As of September 1992, about 233 thousand small-scale units were sick.Many of the sick units ultimately close down due to finance and marketing problems. Poormanagement has also be identified as a major cause of sickness. Therefore a need exists tocountinously provide help in terms of training for the small enterprises to manage themselves. Therecent policies and programs providing management training by the SIDBI is hopefully a steptowards solving this problem.Negative impacts of reservation policy The previous and current small-scale industries policieshave followed the policy of reserving certain items to be manufactured only by the SSIs. Many of 16
  17. 17. the items that are reserved are in the mechanical engineering, chemical products and auto-ancillary industry groups. Though the policy was mainly aimed at protecting the small firms fromcompetition from the large firms, the lack of any licensing to identify SSIs has resulted in the enteryby large firms into those areas. There is no enforceable penalty for moving into reserved areas. Itis also held by many authors that the policy is actually counterproductive as those producing non-reserved items have performed better than those in reserved areas. Hence the reservation policytends to become large redundant.The Equity policyThe New Small Industry Policy allows the large firms to have equity in SSIs. Thispolicy is contended to be a bad one as it only encourages the small units to continue to act asdependent on the large firm. A fear that the large firms might at a later stage takeover the smallunits is also expressed by some industry experts.Apart from the abovementioned critical issues, there are several other issues such as non-classification of a separate medium enterprise under the Indian industrial sector, regionalimbalances in the concentration of small scale industries and survey data showing thatgovernment institutions were the ``least important sources of technological information. Moreinformation on these issues could not be obtained.Another concern is the lack of coordination between the various support organizations set up bythe government. It would also be interesting to know if any evaluation systems are in place forthese institutes and their programs. Information on this aspect could not be gathered.An article by Ira Gang mentions that policies intended to support the small industry such thereservation, financial incentives, etc. are ``neither promoting employment nor improving thecompetitive base of small firms. Rather, they are working as strong disincentives for growth ofsmall firms.Though all the previous efforts at helping the SSIs to grow and modernize seem to have had verylittle effect, the recent modernization efforts such as the setting up of the Technology DevelopmentBoard, the Technology Development and Modernization Fund, greater emphasis on providingmanagement skills and in obtaining ISO 9000 certification seem more focused and promising.Since these have very new, no specific conclusions as to their success or impact can be drawn atthis time. Hopefully, some systematic methods to ensure that SSIs are actually receiving benefitsand necessary assistance will be put in place.Brand 17
  18. 18. [1][page needed]A brand is the identity of a specific product, service, or business . A brand can take manyforms, including a name, sign, symbol,color combination or slogan. The word brand began simplyas a way to tell one persons cattle from another by means of a hot iron stamp. A legally protectedbrand name is called a trademark. The word brand has continued to evolve to encompass identity -it effect the personality of a product, company or service.Brand AwarenessBrand awareness refers to customers ability to recall and recognize the brand under differentconditions and link to the brand name, logo, jingles and so on to certain associations in memory. Ithelps the customers to understand to which product or service category the particular brandbelongs to and what products and services are sold under the brand name. It also ensures thatcustomers know which of their needs are satisfied by the brand through its products.(Keller) Brandlove, or love of a brand, is an emerging term encompassing the perceived value of the brandimage. Brand love levels are measured through social media posts about a brand, or tweets of abrand on sites such as Twitter. Becoming a Facebook fan of a particular brand is also ameasurement of the level of brand love.Global BrandA global brand is one which is perceived to reflect the same set of values around the world. Globalbrands transcend their origins and creates strong, enduring relationships with consumers acrosscountries and cultures.Global brands are brands sold to international markets. Examples of global brands include Coca-Cola, McDonalds, Marlboro, Levis etc.. These brands are used to sell the same product acrossmultiple markets, and could be considered successful to the extent that the associated productsare easily recognizable by the diverse set of consumers.Benefits of Global BrandingIn addition to taking advantage of the outstanding growth opportunities, the following drives theincreasing interest in taking brands global:Economies of scale (production and distribution)Lower marketing costsLaying the groundwork for future extensions worldwideMaintaining consistent brand imageryQuicker identification and integration of innovations (discovered worldwide)Preempting international competitors from entering domestic markets or locking you out of othergeographic markets 18
  19. 19. Increasing international media reach (especially with the explosion of the Internet) is an enablerIncreases in international business and tourism are also enablersSocial LegislationTable of ContentsPREFACE1. Social Legislation2. History of Social Legislation in India3. Labour Legislation in India4. Growth and Concept of Social Justice5. Child Labour in India6. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation Act, 1986)7. Bonded Child Labour8. Definition and Concept of Civil Rights9. The Protection and Concept of Civil Rights10. Meaning, Forms and Purpose of Dowry11. The Dowry Prohibition Act, 196112. Child Marriage and Restraint Act13. Social Legislation and Crime against Women14. The Immoral Traffic Prevention Act, 195615. Law as an Instrument of Social ChangeSocial LegislationsPost War Environment Restoration: Identifying Stakeholders And Imputing Liabilityby Devyani Tewari on June 21, 2010ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE: ITS NECESSITIES AND KINDby mohi kumari on May 10, 2010The problem of Bonded labour in India: An analysis in the light of Bonded labour(abolition) Act,1976by kartik gupta on April 24, 2010Professional Misconductby swapneshwarg on April 13, 2010Waging a lost battle: combating child labour in Indiaby indranil on March 12, 2010 19
  20. 20. Domestic Violence Act- Sociological Perspectiveby Ritika Banerjee on March 12, 2010Female Education and Development in Indiaby alekhya41 on March 12, 2010National Human Rights Commission – Role in Human Rights Protectionby mridushi on March 12, 2010Consumer Protection And The Banking Services : A Legal PerspectiveThe BCG matrixproduct portfolio methodThe BCG matrix method is based on the product life cycle theory that can be used to determine what prioritiesshould be given in the product portfolio of a business unit. To ensure long-term value creation, a company shouldhave a portfolio of products that contains both high-growth products in need of cash inputs and low-growthproducts that generate a lot of cash. It has 2 dimensions: market share and market growth. The basic idea behindit is that the bigger the market share a product has or the faster the products market grows the better it is for thecompany.Placing products in the BCG matrix results in 4 categories in a portfolio of a company:1. Stars (=high growth, high market share)- use large amounts of cash and are leaders in the business so they should also generate large amounts of cash.- frequently roughly in balance on net cash flow. However if needed any attempt should be made to hold share,because the rewards will be a cash cow if market share is kept.2. Cash Cows (=low growth, high market share)- profits and cash generation should be high , and because of the low growth, investments needed should be low.Keep profits high- Foundation of a company3. Dogs (=low growth, low market share)- avoid and minimize the number of dogs in a company.- beware of expensive ‘turn around plans’.- deliver cash, otherwise liquidate4. Question Marks (= high growth, low market share)- have the worst cash characteristics of all, because high demands and low returns due to low market share 20
  21. 21. - if nothing is done to change the market share, question marks will simply absorb great amounts of cash and later,as the growth stops, a dog.- either invest heavily or sell off or invest nothing and generate whatever cash it can. Increase market share ordeliver cashThe BCG Matrix method can help understand a frequently made strategy mistake: having a one-size-fits-all-approach to strategy, such as a generic growth target (9 percent per year) or a genericreturn on capital of say 9,5% for an entire corporation.In such a scenario:A. Cash Cows Business Units will beat their profit target easily; their management have an easyjob and are often praised anyhow. Even worse, they are often allowed to reinvest substantial cashamounts in their businesses which are mature and not growing anymore.B. Dogs Business Units fight an impossible battle and, even worse, investments are made nowand then in hopeless attempts to turn the business around.C. As a result (all) Question Marks and Stars Business Units get mediocre size investment funds.In this way they are unable to ever become cash cows. These inadequate invested sums of moneyare a waste of money. Either these SBUs should receive enough investment funds to enable themto achieve a real market dominance and become a cash cow (or star), or otherwise companies areadvised to disinvest and try to get whatever possible cash out of the question marks that were notselected.Some limitations of the Boston Consulting Group Matrix include:High market share is not the only success factorMarket growth is not the only indicator for attractiveness of a marketSometimes Dogs can earn even more cash as Cash CowsBOSTON CONSULTING GROUP MATRIXIn the late 1960s the Boston Consulting Group, a leading management consulting company,designed a four-cell matrix known as BCG Growth/Share Matrix. This tool was developed to aidcompanies in the measurement of all their company businesses according to relative market shareand market growth. The BCG Matrix made a significant contribution to strategic management andcontinues to be an important strategic tool used by companies today. The matrix provides acomposite picture of the strategic position of each separate business within a company so that themanagement can determine the strengths and the needs of 21
  22. 22. Figure 1Market Growth/Share Matrixall sectors of the firm. The development of the matrix requires the assessment of a businessportfolio, which includes an organizations autonomous divisions (activities, or profit centers).The BCG Matrix presents graphically the differences among these business units in terms ofrelative market share and industry growth rate. The vertical axis represents in a linear scale thegrowth rate of the market in which the business exists (see Figure 1). This is generally viewed asthe expected growth rate for the next five years of the market in which a particular businesscompetes. The values of the vertical axis are the relevant market growth rates (i.e., 5 percent, 10percent, 15 percent, 20 percent, etc.). Usually a 10 percent cut-off level is selected in order todistinguish high from low market growth rate (a 10 percent value corresponds to doubling currentexperience in the next five to seven years).The horizontal axis represents in a logarithmic scale the market share of a business within a firmrelative to the market share of the largest competitor in the market. For example, Company A mayhave a 10 percent market share and Company B, the leading competitor, holds 40 percent of themarket. Company As market share relative to Company Bs market share is 25 percent, or .25×. IfCompany A has a 40 percent share and Company B has a 10 percent share, Company As marketshare is 400 percent, or 4.0×.Relative market share is an indicator of organizations competitive position within the industry, andunderlies the concept of experience curve. Thus, business organizations with high relative marketshare tend to have a cost leadership position.Each of a companys products or business units is plotted on the matrix and classified as one offour types: question marks, stars, cash cows, and dogs. Question marks, located in the upper-rightquadrant, have low relative market share in a high-growth market. These businesses areappropriately called question marks because it is often uncertain what will happen to them. Carefulexamination by management can help determine how many resources (if any) should be investedin these businesses. If significant change can increase relative market share for a question mark, it 22
  23. 23. can become a star and eventually gain cash-cow status. If relative market share can not beincreased, the question mark becomes a dog.The upper-left quadrant contains stars, businesses with high relative market share in high-growthmarkets. These businesses are very important to the company because they generate a high levelof sales and are quite profitable. However, because they are in a high growth market that is veryattractive to competitors, they require a lot of resources and investments to maintain a high marketshare. Often the cash generated by stars must be reinvested in the products in order to maintainmarket share.When the market growth slows down, stars can take different paths, depending on their abilities tohold (or gain) market share or to lose market share. If a star holds or gains market share when thegrowth rate slows, stars become more valuable over time, or cash cows. However, if a star losesmarket share, it becomes a dog and has significantly less value (if any) to the company.The lower-left quadrant contains businesses that have high relative market share in low-growthmarkets. These businesses are called cash cows and are highly profitable leaders in theirindustries. The funds received from cash cows are often used to help other businesses within thecompany, to allow the company to purchase other businesses, or to return dividends tostockholders.Dogs generate low relative market share in a low-growth market. They generate little cash andfrequently result in losses. Management should carefully consider their reasons for maintainingdogs. If there is a loyal consumer group to which these businesses appeal, and if the businessesyield relatively consistent cash that can cover their expenses, management may choose tocontinue their existence. However, if a dog consumes more resources than its worth, it will likelybe deleted or divested.Strategic business units, which are often used to describe the products grouping or activities, arerepresented with a circle in the BCG Matrix. The size of the circle indicates the relative significanceof each business unit to the organization in terms of revenue generated (or assets used).Although the BCG Matrix is not used as often as it was in past years, one big advantage of thematrix is its ability to provide a comprehensive snapshot of the positions of a companys variousbusiness concerns. Furthermore, an important benefit of the BCG Matrix is that is draws attentionto the cash flow, investment characteristics, and needs of an organizations business units, helpingorganizations to maintain a balanced portfolio.Unfortunately, the BCG Matrix, like all analytical techniques, also has some important limitations. Ithas been criticized for being too simplistic in its use of growth rate and market share. Market 23
  24. 24. growth rate is only one variable in market attractiveness and market share is only one variable in abusinesss competitive position. Furthermore, viewing every business as a star, cash flow, dog, orquestion mark is not always realistic. A four-cell matrix is too simple because strategic competitivepositions are more complicated than "high" and "low".Another disadvantage of using the BCG Matrix is that it is often difficult for a company tosufficiently divide its business units or product lines. Consequently, it is difficult to determinemarket share for the various units of concern. 24