603316 634235055119263750

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603316 634235055119263750

  1. 1.  Culture is a set of beliefs or standards, shared by a group of people, which help the individual decide what is, what can be, how to feel, what to do and how to go about doing it
  2. 2.  Language Nationality Sex Education Profession Ethnic group Religion Social class Corporate culture Family
  3. 3.  Hofstede’s studies of the interactions between national cultures and organizational cultures demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behaviors of societies and organizations, and that are very persistent across time
  4. 4.  Low and High Power Distance Individual and collectivism Masculinity v/s Femininity Uncertainty avoidance Long and short term orientation
  5. 5.  Low vs High Power Distance: The extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations expect and accept that power is distributed unequally Low PD (Austria, Israel, Denmark, New Zealand) expect power relations which are more consultative or democratic. A sense of equality as human beings prevades High PD (Malaysia): autocratic and paternalistic structures. Power is centralized
  6. 6.  Individualism vs. Collectivism: Refers to the extent to which people are expected to stand up for themselves and to chose their own affiliations, or alternatively act predominantly as a member of a life-long group or organization In individual societies: people tend to be motivated by personal preferences, needs and rights; personal goals and rational analysis take precedence In collectivist societies: people tend to be motivated by norms and duties imposed by the group; ingroup goals and relational analysis takes precedence
  7. 7.  Masculinity vs. Femininity Refers to the value placed on traditionally male or female values Masculine cultures: competitiveness, assertiveness, ambition, per sonal achievement accumulation of wealth Feminine cultures: caring for others, nurturing roles, quality of life.
  8. 8.  Uncertainty Avoidance: The extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. High UA societies: avoidance of ambiguous situations, preference of known stable situations, uncertainty-reducing rules and procedures Low UA societies: ambiguity is more accepted.Uncertainty = opportunity. People as individualsare the engine of change
  9. 9.  Long vs. Short Term Orientation: Describes a society’s “time horizon,” or the importance attached to the future versus the past and present LT societies: values include persistence, ordering relationships by status, thrift, having a sense of shame (China, Japan, Asian countries) ST societies: values include personal steadiness and stability, normative statements, protecting one’s face, respect for traditions, and reciprocation of greetings, favors and gifts (Western nations)

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