06 macromolecule construction and carbs

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06 macromolecule construction and carbs

  1. 1. Carbon, Macromolecules and Carbohydrates 1
  2. 2. Elements Found in Living Organisms• Living organisms contain many chemical elements, some in large quantities and some in very small amounts• The 3 most common chemical elements of life are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO)• They are part of all the main organic compounds in living organisms• Organic compounds: – contain carbon – found in living organisms • carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids are all organic molecules 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Examples of Chemical Elements and Their RolesElement Role in Plants or AnimalsNitrogen Part of the amine groups of amino acids and therefore proteinsCalcium Needed to make the mineral that strengthens bones and teethPhosphorus Part of the phosphate groups in ATP and DNA moleculesIron Needed to make hemoglobin and thus to carry oxygen in bloodSodium Used in neurons (nerve cells) for the transmission of nerve impulses 4
  5. 5. Organic Chemistry• Study of carbon compounds• Occur in more than just living things• Are typically made by living things – Organic compounds come from organisms – The chemistry that you study in HS is inorganic • Compounds that are found in the non-living world http://www.chemistryland.com/ElementarySchool/BuildingBlocks/BuildingOrganic.htm 5
  6. 6. Organic Compounds• The molecules of many organic compounds are large and may seem complex, but they are built up using small and relatively simple subunits YOU MUST BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THESE STRUCTURES, you do not have to be able to draw them. Fatty Acid 6
  7. 7. Carbon Skeletons• Vary in • Isomers have the same – Length molecular formula – Branching • Isomers varying in their – Double bonds structures – Rings – Have different propertieshttp://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255chem/p2x1.jpg 7
  8. 8. COPY THIS ENTIRE CHART! small organic molecules  larger organic molecules 8
  9. 9. SUBUNITS MACROMOLECULES: MACROMOLECULE ASSEMBLIES: ex: sugars, ex: globularamino acids, proteins and RNA ex: ribosomenucleotides 9
  10. 10. • In a condensation reaction, 2 molecules Condensation Reactions are joined together to form a larger molecule• Water is also formed in the reaction• For example, 2 amino acids can be joined together to form a dipeptide by a condensation reaction• The new bond formed is a peptide linkage• Further condensation reactions can link amino acids to either end of the dipeptide, eventually forming a chain of many amino acids• This is called a polypeptide 10 www.pearsonsuccessnet.com activity 5.1 page 2
  11. 11. Condensation Reactions• In a similar way, condensation reactions can be used to build up carbohydrates and lipids• The basic subunits of carbohydrates are monosaccharides• 2 monosaccharides can be linked to form a disaccharide and more monosaccharides can be linked to a disaccharide to form a large molecule a polysaccharide 11
  12. 12. glycerol + 3H20 three fatty-acid triglyceride tails• Fatty acids can be linked to glycerol by condensation reactions to produce lipids called glycerides• A max of 3 fatty acids can be linked to each glycerol, 12 producing a triglyceride
  13. 13. Hydrolysis Reactions• Large molecules such as polypeptides, polysaccharides and triglycerides can be broken down into smaller molecules by hydrolysis• Polypeptides + water  dipeptides or amino acids• Polysaccharides + water  disaccharides or monosaccharides• Glycerides + water  Fatty acids + glycerol 13
  14. 14. Monosaccharides • glucose • ribose • deoxyribose • fructose • galactose 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. Disaccharides COMPONENT DISACCHARIDE DESCRIPTION MONOSACCHARIDESSUCROSE COMMON TABLE SUGAR GLU + FRULACTOSE MAIN SUGAR IN MILK GALACTOSE + GLUMALTOSE PRODUCT OF STARCH HYDROLYSIS GLU + GLU CAN BE USED IN BEER FERMENTATION 16
  17. 17. Starch • repeating, branching macromolecule • carb storage for plants – For energy – Cellulose 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. Glycogen• storage of glucose in the liver and muscle – For energy• animals only 19
  20. 20. • forms exoskeleton ofChitin arthropods: insects, lobsters, shrimp, spiders 20
  21. 21. POLYSACCHARIDESPolysaccharide Description Monomer Unit• STARCH energy storage in plants α-glucose• CELLULOSE structure of plant cell walls β-glucose• GLYCOGEN energy storage in animals α-glucose• CHITIN structure of fungi cell walls & β-glucose exoskeleton of insects 21

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