SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION By: Nafiah Nur Fitriana (2201410130)
CHAPTER 1Introduction: describing and explaining L2 acquisition
INTRODUCTION: DESCRIBING AND EXPLAINING L2ACQUISITION Many people think that they have to learn a second language, as means of obtaining an education or securing employment. In learning second language some people find some problems in mastering it.
WHAT IS `SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION`? • It is the systematic study of how people acquire a second language (L2) • It is a recent phenomenon • It belongs to the second half of the twentieth century.
Definition: L2 acquisition is the way in which people learn a language subsequent to their mother tongue, for instance, naturally as a result of living in a country where it is spoken or through instructions in a classroom, and Second language acquisition (SLA) as the study of this.
WHAT ARE THE GOALS OF SLA? To understand how learners acquire an L2 an SLA researcher may ask learners who have been successful in learning a L2, with observes how their language change from time to time, and watches how their overall ability to communicate develop or how they become more fluent in their use of an L2.
The language acquisition of learners can be described by looking at their pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar
The question one has to ask is how learners acquire a second language? So one of the goals is the description of L2 acquisition, one collects and analyses samples of learners language (the language learners produce when they have to use an L2 in speech or writing).
Another goals is explanation one figures out internal and external factors which play a role for learners who acquire an L2: a) Internal factors like cognitive mechanisms and knowledge b) External factors like the social milieu and the input
a) Internal factors like cognitive mechanisms and knowledge Internal factors relate to cognitive mechanisms which enable them to extract information about the L2 from the input such as aptitude, attitude, interest, motivation and personality.
b) External factors like the social milieu and the input External factors relate to factors outside of individual which give him/her opportunity to acquire input of language and practice it such as social condition.
TWO CASE STUDIES Definition: A case study is a detailed study of a learner s acquisition of an L2. These studies are longitudinal (samples of the learner s speech or writing are collected over a period of time).
TWO CASE STUDIES The first case study is a study of an adult learner learning English in surroundings of daily communication. The second case study is a study of two children learning English in a classroom.
A CASE STUDIES OF AN ADULT LEARNER AND A CASE STUDY OFTWO CHILD LEARNERS Teachers or instructors of second language (l2) have responsibility to help their students in mastering L2. It is important for teachers and learners to understand how second language acquired and learnt and what factors can determine the successful of learners
METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES The second study is more typical of SLA because researchers have to focus on some specific aspects of Language rather than on the whole complex phenomenon. One has to make a distinction between their knowledge and what learners can do. One possibility to measure whether acquisition has taken place or not is to consider the overuse of linguistic forms.
There are some interesting issues in describing and explain L2 acquisition. It means to say that a learner has acquired a feature of target language, and whether learners have acquired a particular feature.
ISSUES IN THE DESCRIPTION OF LEARNERLANGUAGE Learners make errors of different kinds. L2 learners acquire a large number of formulaic chunks These studies, suggest that learners do acquire aspects of an L2 systematically and they follow particular developmental routes, with some features being acquired before others
ISSUES IN THE EXPLANATION OF L2 ACQUISITION Learners internalize chunks of language structure, but they acquire rules, so, learners must engage in both item learning and system learning. Learners simply needed more time to learn, but also possible that L2 learners , unlike children acquiring their L1, just stop learning.