Growth in the jail and prison population is one of the most significant social policy developments in the U.S. in the late 20th century.We’ve really just substituted one kind of an institution for another.Increase in incarceration rates explains at most 25% of drop in crime.
Prison has become a almost inevitable aspect of growing up for many low-income children of color, in the same way that the expectation of going to college is the norm in many middle class communities.
One in 15 State general fund dollars is spent on correctionsPrisons account for 31% of the total correctional population but 88% of the total costAt $79/day, Prison is 23 times more expensive than probation
Across 34 states, nearly 9 of 10 correctional dollars wentto prisons in FY2008.SOURCES: Spending figures were collected from AR, AL, AK, CO, DE, GA, ID, IA, KY, LA, ME, MD,MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NM, NY, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VT, VA and WY.88%12%AMOUNT TOPRISONS$18.65 billionAMOUNT TOPROBATIONAND PAROLE$2.52 billionTOTAL CORRECTIONSSPENDING$21.17 billion
in 2008prisons cost our 33 surveyed states an averageof about $79 per inmate per day—or almost$29,000 per year. In contrast, the average dailycosts for managing an offender in the communityin these states ranged from $3.42 per day forprobationers to $7.47 per day for parolees orabout $1,250 to $2,750 a year, respectively.
high rates of imprisonment break down the social and family bondsthat guide individuals away from crime, remove adults who would otherwisenurture children, deprive communities of income, reduce future income potential,and engender a deep resentment toward the legal system.
California must reduce size of its prison population by 23,000 inmates by 2013NY is closing 7 Prisons, 3800 beds
Community policing- collaboration with street outreachDiversion and alternatives to incarceration- pre-booking; postbookingProblem solving courts, specialty courtsDischarge planningReentry intiativesCommunity Supersision
4.8 Mark Hurwitz
Preventing recidivism and homelessness:housing strategies forex offenders<br />Mark Hurwitz<br />Project Renewal<br />National Conference on Ending HomelessnessJuly 14, 2011<br />
There are 2.4 million Americans behind bars<br />Incarceration Rate Under State and Federal Jurisdiction 1925-2009<br />Source: U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics, statistical series “Prisoners in State and Federal Institutions.”<br />
Incarceration Rate in OECD Countries2008-2009<br />The US has 5% of the world’s population and 23% of its prisoners<br />Rate per 100,000 population<br />Source: Pew Center on States, International Centre for Prison Studies (ICPS) at King’s College London.<br />
Rates of Institutionalization, including Jails, in the United States 1934-2001<br />Growth in prisons followed the shrinkage of mental hospitals<br />Rate per 100,000 adults<br />Source: An Institutionalization Effect: The Impact of Mental Hospitalization and Imprisonment on Homicide in the United States, 1934 – 2001 by B. E. Harcourt, The Law School The University of Chicago, 2009<br />
Black male high school dropouts have a 68% chance of imprisonment before the age of 35<br />Cumulative risk of imprisonment by age 30-34<br />men born <br />1945-1949<br />men born<br />1975-1979<br />Source: Becky Pettit, Bryan Sykes, and Bruce Western, “Technical Report on Revised Population Estimates and Analysis Tables for the Pew Public Safety and Mobility Project” (Harvard University, 2009).<br />
Spending on corrections outpaces every other category except medicaid<br />General fund expenditures for corrections<br />Source: Pew Center on States<br />
Probation and parole accounts for 69% of correctional population but 12% of state spending<br />Source: Pew Center on States<br />
One day in prison costs more than 10 days on parole or 22 days on probation<br />Source: Pew Center on States<br />
j<br />Prison Expenditures By Block<br />Brooklyn, NY<br />(Eric Cadora, 2004)<br />Million dollar blocks indicate huge potential for justice reinvest-ment<br />
The three year recidivism rate for State Prison inmates released in 2004 was 43.3 percent. <br />If states could reduce their recidivism rates by just 10 percent, <br />they could save more than $635 million combined in one year alone in averted prison costs.<br />Nationally, 35% of prison admissions are a result of parole violations<br />
“A prison that deprives prisoners of basic sustenance, including adequate medical care, is incompatible with the concept of human dignity and has no place in civilized society.” – United States Supreme Court, Brown v. Plata<br />The supreme court says overcrowding is cruel and unusual punishment<br />
A conceptual framework for interventions<br />Sequential Intercept Model: Munetz and Griffen 2006<br />At each stage there are opportunities for<br /><ul><li>Systems level change
Service level change</li></li></ul><li>How do homelessness and incarceration interact?<br /><ul><li>Increased visibility/ target for law enforcement
Reduced access to treatment for mental illness and substance abuse