4.8 John Fallons


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  • Stories and testimonials of people changed by supportive housing
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  • ANDY Every year, more than 650,000 people are released from prison, and more 7 million different people are released from jail. According to a Bureau of Justice Statistics report from September, 2006: An estimated 42% of inmates in state prisons and 49% in local jails were found to have both a mental health and substance use issues. According to a recent study completed by the Re-entry Policy Council: More than one in three jail inmates report some physical or mental disability. In 1997, individuals released from prison or jail accounted for nearly one-quarter of all people living with HIV or AIDS, one-third of people with Hepatitis C, and one-third of those diagnosed with tuberculosis. Three out of four have a substance abuse problem More than 10 percent of those coming in and out of jail and prison are homeless in the months prior to incarceration.
  • 4.8 John Fallons

    1. 1. It is time to invest in Permanent Supportive Housing for those Leaving Corrections John Fallon Program Manager- Re-Entry Corporation for Supportive Housing July 13, 2011 [email_address] www.csh.org
    2. 2. CSH Impact: People and Communities
    3. 3. Corporation for Supportive Housing <ul><li>CSH is a national non-profit organization that helps communities create permanent housing with services to prevent and end homelessness. </li></ul><ul><li>CSH advances its mission through advocacy , expertise , innovation , lending, and grantmaking . </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Corporation for Supportive Housing’s Returning Home Initiative An initiative to integrate systems and end the cycle of incarceration and homelessness. Ending Homelessness and Unnecessary Institutionalization
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>People from corrections on the street are often a hidden problem. Housing and homeless providers often underestimate the prevalence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As part of the 100,000 person campaign, Chicago identified the most vulnerable people based on a vulnerability scale to identify who was most at risk of dying on the street. Of the people identified, 70% had a history of jail detention and 36% had a history of prison incarceration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We do not prepare people. Systems do not work together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We need a change </li></ul></ul>Central Premise of Returning Home
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Thousands of people with chronic health conditions cycle in and out of incarceration and homelessness, and they are ill-served by these crisis systems at great public expense and with limited positive human outcomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing these people in supportive housing will improve life outcomes for the tenants, more efficiently utilize public resources, and likely create cost avoidance in crisis systems like corrections and shelter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AND………. </li></ul></ul>Central Premise of Returning Home
    7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Supportive housing plays a critical role in comprehensive re-entry and/or diversion efforts as a proven intervention for people being diverted from jail or exiting incarceration with high needs and histories of homelessness. </li></ul></ul>Central Premise of Returning Home
    8. 8. <ul><li>According to a study of Denver’s Road Home Housing First effort, people placed into supportive housing had a 76% reduction in days spent incarcerated. Significant reductions were also reported in emergency room visits, detox, psychiatric care, and shelter use. </li></ul><ul><li>A study of supportive housing in the State of Maine found a 62% reduction in incarceration for people placed into supportive housing. </li></ul>Supportive Housing Works
    9. 9. <ul><li>In Seattle, studies of supportive housing at 1811 Eastlake demonstrate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>52% reduction in jail bookings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45% reductions in days spent in jail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After six months of New York City’s supportive housing reentry program: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>89% of tenants remained stably housed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% of tenants avoided return to shelter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>89% of tenants avoided return to jail. </li></ul></ul>Supportive Housing Works
    10. 10. <ul><li>Data Matching and Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-agency Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Program Design with Broad Support & Participation </li></ul><ul><li>New Partnerships -Prison “In-reach” & Community Linkages </li></ul>Re-entry Supportive Housing: Key Components
    11. 11. <ul><li>Investments from Array of Agencies (with philanthropic support) </li></ul><ul><li>Securing Supportive Housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Master Leasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set-asides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of Network of Supportive Housing Providers </li></ul>Re-entry Supportive Housing: Key Components
    12. 12. <ul><li>3 Primary Sites </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago / IL, New York, LA / California </li></ul><ul><li>Work also in </li></ul><ul><li>Kansas, Indiana, Ohio, Minnesota, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Colorado, Washington DC, Oregon, Michigan, Texas, and Arizona </li></ul>Returning Home Work is occurring in…
    13. 13. Reducing Recidivism = Reducing Crime <ul><li>“ Re-entry supportive housing is essentially a public safety initiative; serving to stabilize people in the community and reduce recidivism.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Gordon Bass, Director, Jacksonville, </li></ul><ul><li>FL Sheriff’s Office </li></ul>
    14. 14. Community Planning Grants CSH Statewide Re-entry Planning Grant Recipients including one outside the 10 target areas <ul><li>City of Rockford Human Services Dept. </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS Foundation of Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Dupage PADS, Wheaton </li></ul><ul><li>Rita’s Ministry, North Aurora </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Prairie Services, Tinley Park </li></ul><ul><li>City of Peoria, Workforce Dev. Dept. </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions Mental Health, Rock Island </li></ul><ul><li>Dove, Inc., Decatur </li></ul><ul><li>Kankakee County Renewed Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Crosspoint Human Services, Danville </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Health Center of Champaign </li></ul><ul><li>Land of Lincoln Goodwill, Springfield </li></ul><ul><li>Chestnut Health Systems, Granite City </li></ul><ul><li>Prisoner & Family Ministry – LSSI – Marion </li></ul>
    15. 15. Targeted Services- Frequent Users Three Pillars, Nine Steps
    16. 16. Re-entry: Why is CSH Involved? The Intersection Between Homelessness & Incarceration– Lots of People PSH works.
    17. 17. <ul><li>Of people exiting incarceration…. </li></ul><ul><li>Three out of four have a substance abuse problem </li></ul><ul><li>More than 10 percent of those coming in and out of jail and prison are homeless in the months prior to incarceration. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 42% of inmates in state prisons and 49% in local jails were found to have both mental health and substance use issues. </li></ul><ul><li>More than one in three jail inmates report some physical or mental disability. </li></ul>The Link Between Homelessness & Incarceration
    18. 18. What are the Barriers at Release? <ul><li>No Identification, SSI, Birth Certificate </li></ul><ul><li>No Medical Funding, Disability Determination </li></ul><ul><li>No Psych Services- Services or Not Where Person Needs it </li></ul><ul><li>No Health Care Services except expensive emergency rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Parole or Probation Rules </li></ul><ul><li>No Housing, No Affordable Housing </li></ul><ul><li>No Income </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice Because of Record, MI, Substance Use, Homeless, Poor, Race </li></ul><ul><li>Family Relationships Damaged </li></ul><ul><li>Hopelessness, Despair </li></ul><ul><li>Release Planning Period, Parole- Technical Violations </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of MISA Programming- Drug Testing </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Link Between Homelessness & Incarceration <ul><li>A study of releasees from New York State Prison and New York City Jails and found that those who went to shelter were 7x more likely to violate parole as those who were discharged to family or housing. </li></ul><ul><li>A study in NYC documented the interrelationships between shelter use and re-incarceration. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11% entered NYC homeless shelters, of this group, 33% returned to prison within 2 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survival analysis showed ‘time since release’ and ‘residential instability’ were the most salient risk factors for shelter use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter use increased the risk of recidivism. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Gladwell (2006) described “Million Dollar Murray” who cost roughly $1 million in public service utilization (jails, detox, emergency rooms) </li></ul>The “Million Dollar Murray” Phenomenon <ul><li>Richard is an actual case study from Chicago, Illinois </li></ul><ul><li>42 years old and we documented 21 years of homelessness, incarceration, and hospitalization </li></ul><ul><li>His entire adult life </li></ul><ul><li>3,758 days in a mental health/hospital setting during that time </li></ul><ul><li>399 days in jail (This includes only 6 years of available data) </li></ul><ul><li>The Cost of Richard Homelessness </li></ul><ul><li>3758 State Hospital Days @ $400 a day $1,503,200 </li></ul><ul><li>399 Jail Days $70 a day $ 27,930 </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL $1,531,130 </li></ul><ul><li>Average Annual Cost for Richard $ 72,910 </li></ul>
    21. 21. What Is Permanent Supportive Housing? It is a part of the solution for corrections.
    22. 22. What Is Supportive Housing? A cost-effective combination of permanent, affordable housing with services that helps people live more stable, productive lives. Key Elements: 1.) Permanent housing 2.) Affordable at 30% - 50% of income 3.) Services are flexible tailored, and ideally voluntary. Often incorporate housing first and “low demand” strategies for placement 4.) Available to single adults as well as families
    23. 23. <ul><li>HOUSING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PERMANENT: Not time limited, not transitional; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AFFORDABLE: For people coming out of homelessness; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT: Tenant holds lease with normal rights and responsibilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SERVICES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FLEXIBLE: Designed to be responsive to tenants’ needs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VOLUNTARY: Participation is not a condition of tenancy; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INDEPENDENT: Focus of services is on maintaining housing stability. </li></ul></ul>Housing + Services
    24. 24. Supportive Housing is NOT: <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Licensed community care </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional – Transition to what? </li></ul><ul><li>It is finding the person the housing and the support they need. </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>People who: </li></ul><ul><li>Are homeless </li></ul><ul><li>Face persistent obstacles to maintaining housing, such as mental health issues, substance use issues, other chronic medical issues, and other challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle through institutional and emergency systems and are at risk of long-term homelessness </li></ul><ul><li>Are being discharged from institutions and systems of care </li></ul><ul><li>Without housing, cannot access and make effective use of treatment and supportive services </li></ul>Who is Supportive Housing For?
    26. 26. <ul><li>People who: </li></ul><ul><li>BUT FOR HOUSING cannot access and make effective use of treatment and supportive services in the community; </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>BUT FOR SUPPORTIVE SERVICES cannot access and maintain stable housing in the community . </li></ul>Who is Supportive Housing For?
    27. 27. Supportive Housing Types <ul><li>Apartment buildings exclusively housing formerly homeless individuals and/or families. </li></ul><ul><li>Rent subsidized apartments leased in open market. </li></ul><ul><li>Apartment buildings with mixed income households, including the formerly homeless. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term set aside of units within privately owned buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Services integrated within existing affordable housing developments. </li></ul><ul><li>Single family homes, including shared housing environments. </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>A realistic approach that can be implemented through a variety of models. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be adapted to the unique needs and characteristics of communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Has proven its effectiveness--for better health and well-being--for individuals, families and the communities in which they live. </li></ul><ul><li>Has demonstrated cost effectiveness. </li></ul>Why Supportive Housing?
    29. 29. <ul><li>Housing + Services Make a Difference </li></ul><ul><li>More than 80% of supportive housing tenants are able to maintain housing for at least 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Most supportive housing tenants engage in services, even when participation is not a condition of tenancy </li></ul><ul><li>Use of the most costly (and restrictive) services in homeless, health care, and criminal justice systems declines </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly any combination of housing + services is more effective than services alone </li></ul><ul><li>“ Housing First” models with adequate support services can be effective for people who don’t meet conventional criteria for “housing readiness” </li></ul>Consistent Findings of Research
    30. 30. Adaptations for CJ Population <ul><li>Low case manager-to-client ratio (1:10 – 1:15) </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to community safety – court and CJ savvy </li></ul><ul><li>Providers trained in Motivational Interviewing, navigating criminal justice system, harm reduction, recognizing “symptoms” of incarceration </li></ul><ul><li>6 months of intensive outreach and persistence and ongoing long term view of services </li></ul><ul><li>Case manager role as “client advocate” and “failure preventer” </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on reduction of “risky behaviors” </li></ul><ul><li>Non-judgmental, client-centered counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Team approach to services delivery </li></ul>
    31. 31. What Does Reentry Supportive Housing Look Like?
    32. 32. St. Andrews Court <ul><li>Located in Chicago, Illinois </li></ul><ul><li>42 units of permanent supportive housing </li></ul><ul><li>New construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves single male offenders who are homeless. </li></ul><ul><li>Partnered with Lakefront Supportive Housing, an experienced supportive housing developer </li></ul><ul><li>Operated by St. Leonard’s Ministries </li></ul><ul><li>Fannie Mae Maxwell Award Winning Project </li></ul><ul><li>Recidivism rates decrease from 50% to 20% for participants in their programs. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Rowan Trees- Chicago, IL 45 units: 6 one-bedroom units that are handicap accessible and 39 efficiency studios Target- SMI Dual Diagnosis Service Provider Thresholds
    34. 34. Sanctuary Place <ul><li>63 SRO Units </li></ul><ul><li>6 3-bedroom townhomes </li></ul><ul><li>For women who are formerly incarcerated and have a history of domestic abuse, substance abuse or mental illness </li></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>Thanks for your Interest and Attention to this subject. </li></ul><ul><li>You can make a difference by making your community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safer in the long run </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saving money over repeated institutionalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing the right thing </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Useful Resources <ul><li>National Institute for Corrections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABT- Transition from Prison to Community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US Department of Justice </li></ul><ul><li>GAINS Center- Technical Institute on Co-Occurring MISA Disorders- Jails- 800-311-4246 www.prainc.com , Hank Steadman </li></ul><ul><li>Corporation for Supportive Housing (www.csh.org) </li></ul><ul><li>SAMHSA- 800-729-6686 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best Approach to Re-Entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuity of Offender Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bazelon Center for MH Law- 202-467-5730 www.bazelon.org </li></ul>
    37. 37. Useful Resources <ul><li>American Jail Association / American Correctional Association </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Institute- Policy and Profile Papers on Prison Re-entry Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights Watch- www.hrw.org </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Mental Health and Criminal Justice Research </li></ul><ul><li>TAPA Center / National Alliance to End Homelessness </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal Justice / Mental Health Consensus Project- www.consensusproject.org </li></ul>
    38. 38. For more information, contact: <ul><li>John Fallon </li></ul><ul><li>Program Manager, Re-Entry </li></ul><ul><li>“ Returning Home Initiative” </li></ul><ul><li>Corporation for Supportive Housing </li></ul><ul><li>203 N. Wabash, Suite 410 </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago, IL  60601 </li></ul><ul><li>T 312.332.6690 x21 </li></ul><ul><li>C 773.719.4601 </li></ul><ul><li>E john.fallon@csh.org </li></ul>