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Construction QualityThe term ‘Quality’ has many connotations when used by different stakeholders. E.g• It is the fitness for purpose• It is the conformance to specification.• It is about meeting or exceeding the needs of the customer• It is the value for money• It is customer satisfaction/customer delight• It is doing it right the first time and everytime.• It is reduction of variability.
The term ‘Quality’ is often associated with products that are costly; however, it does not mean products of low price cannot be of good quality. If the product meets the stated and unstated (intended) requirement of the customer, it can still be called a quality product
Evolution of quality• Modern quality control techniques were developed in the United States in the 1920s.• In early 1940s, during World War II, the need for strict quality control became a necessity due to increased production of war materials. Quality control techniques and statistical analysis techniques in particular have advanced greatly since that time.
• In 1980s countries were striving to take lead in producing quality products at cheaper price. Quality management got a major thrust and it was now regarded as a key variable in the competitive positioning of firms and in ensuring market share.• In the 21st century, TQM developed in many countries and it has helped organizations in achieving excellent performance, particularly in customer and business results, the quality movement is now gradually moving towards the much wider ‘business excellence’ or ‘Excellence’ model.
Inspection, Quality Control and Quality Assurance In Projects• Quality standards obtained from modern construction projects have not kept pace with developments in technology and management in construction industry. Recurring incidents of faulty design and construction have caused untold damage and loss of life and property. Economic and legal implications of construction failures are nothing compared to the human lives lost and the permanent or temporary physical and psychological suffering.
Inspection, Quality Control and Quality Assurance In ProjectsConstruction quality can be effected by:• Whether a clear set of drawings and design is available – sometimes the confusion in design and drawings may show up in poor quality of construction.• Whether a clear, well-laid-out and unambiguous set of specifications is available.• Whether a clearly defined quality control methodology exists.• Whether there has been usage of proper materials, workers and equipments during the construction processes.
Inspection“Inspection usually entails the physical appearance of the item against what is required”Activities such as measuring, examining, testing and gauging.It could be subjected in nature. In some cases gauges or machines may be required to do some simple measurements and examinations.
Quality ControlOakland (1995) defines ‘Quality Control’ as:“The Activities and techniques employed to achieve and maintain the quality of the product, or service. It involves a monitoring activity, but also concerns finding and eliminating causes of quality problems. So that the requirements of the customer are continuously met”.
Quality ControlAccording to ISO Quality control is defined as:“A set of Activities or techniques whose purpose is to ensure that all requirements are being met. In order to achieve this purpose, processes are monitored and performance problems are solved”.
Quality AssuranceAccording to Oakland (1995):“ Quality Assurance is broadly the invention of quality problems through planned and systematic activities (including documentation). These will include the establishment of a good quality management system, the assessment of its adequacy, the audit of the operation of the system, and the review of the system itself.
Quality AssuranceAccording to ISO quality assurance is defined as:“A set of activities whose purpose is to demonstrate that an entity (such as product, processes, person, department and organization) meets all quality requirements. QA activities are carried out in order to inspire the confidence of both customers and managers, that all quality requirements are being met.
Quality AssuranceQuality Assurance program encompasses the following:• Establishing the procedure for defining, developing and establishing quality standard in design, construction and sometimes the operational stages of the structure or its components
Quality Assurance• Establishing the procedure to be used to monitor, test, inspect, measure and perform current and review activities to assure compliance with established quality standards, with regards to construction materials, methods and personnel.
Quality Assurance• Defining the administrative procedure and requirements organizational relationships and responsibilities, communication and information patterns and other management activities required to execute, document and assure attainment of the established quality standards.
Total Quality ManagementAccording to Oakland (1995),“TQM is a way of planning, organizing and understanding each activity that depends on each individual at each level”.This is a complete management philosophy that permits every aspect of a company and places quality as a strategic issue; total quality management is accomplished through an integrated effort among all levels in a company to increase customer satisfaction by continuously improving current performance.
Total Quality ManagementAccording to Pheng and Teo (2004),“TQM is a way of thinking of goals, organizations, processes and people to ensure that the right things are done right the first time. The essential elements of TQM are:• Management commitment and leadership.• Training.• Team Work.• Statistical Methods.• Cost of Quality.• Supplier involvement.
Quality Gurus and their teachingsDeming:Deming modified the plan “plan, do, check, act” (PDCA) cycle originated by Shewart. He named this as PDSA (plan, do, study, act) cycle. PDSA cycle now also know as deming cycle, is one of the problem solving method.
Quality Gurus and their teachingsSteps of Deming method:2. Plan of things to be done3. Execution (Doing whatever ha been planned)4. Study of the results of execution. (Issues during execution exactly as per plan and any variations are studied.5. Results are checked by actually identifying what went according to plan and what didn’t. Using this insight, a revised and improved plan is worked out and the entire process is repeated.
Quality Gurus and their teachings PLAN DO (implement the plan (prepare plan) on a small scale) ACT (Take correct Action, STUDY (Verify results Standardize, and of the plan Feed forward to Next plan
Quality Gurus and their teachingsJuran:Joseph Juran developed the idea of Quality triology.He concentrated not only on the end customer, but identified other external and internal customers as well. According to him, Quality is “fitness of use”
Quality Gurus and their teachingsPhilip Crosby:He is known for his concepts of ‘do it right first time’ and ‘Zero defects’. The four absolutes of quality management according to Philip Crosby are:3. Quality is conformance with requirements.4. Prevention of non-conformance is the objective, not appraisal.5. The performance standards is ‘zero defects’, not ‘that’s close enough’.6. Measurement of quality is the cost of non- conformance.
Cost of QualityThe Quality cost breakdown is based on the work of feigenbaum (1983), who first developed the concept in (1956).Quality costs = Quality control cost + Failure costWhere:Quality control cost = prevention cost + Appraisal costAnd:Failure cost = Internal failure costs + External failure cost
Cost of QualityPrevention Quality cost is the Costs cost of efforts Quality undertaken Failures Control to prevent Costs Costs failures. External Prevention Appraisal Internal Failure Costs Costs Failure Costs Costs
Cost of Quality• The relationship between cost and quality level is also shown pictorially and is self explanatory.
ISO STANDARDSThe growing need for common quality standards throughout the world in manufacturing, inspection and test specification, and the need for standardization led to the formation of an international committee with the objective of producing an international quality standard. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is located at Geneva, Switzerland, is the approved body for issue and guidance of International Standards today.
ISO STANDARDSISO 9000:In 1987 ISO released a series of standards these were known as ISO 9000. These are guidelines to effectively manage the important activities in an organization which effect quality. These standard only specify generic guidelines – applicable to any industry/service organization.
Principles of Quality Management SystemsThe quality management systems adopted in ISO 9000is based on following broad principles:2. Customer focus3. Leadership4. Involvement of People5. Process Approach6. Systems approach to management7. Continual Improvement8. Factual approach to Decision Making9. Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationship
ISO STANDARDSISO 9001-2000 family of standards:2. ISO 9000 describes the fundamentals of quality management systems and specifies the terminology for quality management system and that used in other two standards.3. ISO 9001 specifies the requirements of a QMS where in an organization need to demonstrate its ability to provide products that fulfill customer and applicable regulatory requirements, and aim to enhance customer satisfaction.
ISO STANDARDS1. ISO 9004 provides guidelines that consider both the effectiveness and efficiency of the QMS.2. ISO 19011 provides guidance on auditing quality and environmental management system.
CONQUAS – Construction Quality Assessment SystemConstruction Quality Assessment system, also known as CONQUAS is a standard quality assessment system introduced by Building and Construction Authority (BCA) in Singapore. The system objectively measures constructed works against workmanship standards and specifications. In order to measure the project Quality, the system uses a sampling approach to represent the whole project. The samples are distributed uniformly as possible throughout the project, and the number of sample is dependent on the size of the building.
AuditAudit is the systematic and independent examination to determine2. Whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements.3. Whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and suitable to achieve objectives4. Whether quality policy is understood and implemented properly.
AuditAudit types:2. First Party Audit: This is conducted by, or on the behalf of organization itself for internal purposes.• Second Party Audit: This is conducted by the customer of the organization or by other persons on behalf of the customer6. Third Party Audit: This is conducted by external independent organizations, usually accredited, and provides certification or registration of conformity with requirements such as ISO 9001.
Construction ProductivityProductivity is defined as the quantum of production of any work within the estimated cost, with an acceptable standard under the defined duration with respect to nature of work.
With respect to construction industry, the following factors govern productivity:2. Well planned work3. Skilled manpower4. Good and suitable equipment5. Defined methodology6. Right type of hand tools7. Neat and tidy workplace8. Staff Productivity.