Cloning in biology
The process of producing similar populations of
genetically identical individuals that occurs in
nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects
or plants reproduce asexually.
The term clone
Derived from the Ancient Greek word κλών
(klōn, “twig”), referring to the process whereby
a new plant can be created from a twig.
In the United States, the human
consumption of meat and other
products from cloned animals was
approved by the FDA on December
28, 2006, with no special labeling
required. Such practice has met
strong resistance in other
regions, such as Europe, particularly
over the labeling issue.
Used of Cloning
To amplify DNA fragments
containing whole genes.
To amplify any DNA sequence
such as promoters, non-coding
sequences and randomly
Cloning of any DNA fragment essentially
involves four steps:
Fragmentation - breaking apart a strand
Ligation - gluing together pieces of DNA
in a desired sequence.
Transfection - inserting the newly formed
pieces of DNA into cells.
Screening/selection - selecting out the cells
that were successfully transfected with the
The first hybrid human clone was
created in November 1998, by
Advanced Cell Technologies.
On January, 2008, Wood and Andrew
French, Stemagen's chief scientific
officer in California, announced that
they successfully created the first 5
mature human embryos using DNA
from adult skin cells, aiming to
provide a source of viable embryonic
Because of recent technological
advancements, the cloning of animals (and
potentially humans) has been an issue. Many
religious organizations oppose all forms of
cloning, on the grounds that life begins at
Judaism does not equate life with conception
and, though some question the wisdom of
cloning, Orthodox Judaism rabbis generally find
no firm reason in Jewish law and ethics to object
to cloning. From the standpoint of classical
liberalism, concerns also exist regarding the
protection of the identity of the individual and
the right to protect one's genetic identity.
Gregory Stock is a scientist and
outspoken critic against restrictions on
Bioethicist Gregory Pence also attacks
the idea of criminalizing attempts to
On December 28, 2006, the U.S. Food
and Drug Administration (FDA)
approved the consumption of meat
and other products from cloned
animals. Cloned-animal products were
said to be virtually indistinguishable
from the non-cloned animals.
Opinions about cloning
Joseph Mendelson, legal
director of the Center for
Foreman, director of food
policy at the Consumer
Federation of America.