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Japanese art & Critical Paper


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Japanese art & Critical Paper

  2. 2. Shogunates • 1185: Appointment of first Shogun (Kamakura) • Shoguns - military governors who maintained order in the country for the emperor • Shogunate - affected politics and economics: • Daimyo – local lords under the Shogun who led Samurai warrior groups • Kamakura Shogunate- lasted for more than a hundred years;
  3. 3. MINAMOTO NO YORITOMO, the first shogun
  4. 4. Muromachi Period 1336-1573
  5. 5. Muromachi Period Context • starts with the Ashikaga Takauji’s shogunate which succeeded the Kamakura shogunate • Muromachi- district in Kyoto which was the center of the Takauji shogunate’s power • Extensive influence of Zen Buddhist tradition especially among Samurai, because it gave high value to self-discipline and responsibility • Zen was also popular among Samurai and other aristocrats because it required an attitude which resonated with their idea of being ‘elite’
  7. 7. ASHIKAGA TAKAUJI with body armor riding a horse
  8. 8. Zen Buddhism • also known as chan in China were it originated • Zen means meditation, and it is the mean for achieving enlightenment • sudden shocks or sudden unforeseen experiences could also lead to enlightenment • training under a master was necessary to reach enlightenment
  10. 10. Kano Style/School • 17th century academic style attributed to Kano Motonobu • paintings rendered with very precise strokes • technique is achieved by holding the brush straight against the paper to form a right angle
  11. 11. Zen Patriarch. . . • one of six sliding door paintings in Daitokuji temple by Motonobu depicting Zen patriarchs • later reproduced as a hanging scroll • a scene depicting a ‘sudden shock’; the sudden crashing sound of the roof tile falling brings the patriarch to enlightenment
  12. 12. Sesshu Toyo HABOKU LANDSCAPE (detail of the lower part of a hanging scroll) 1495
  13. 13. Haboku (splashed-ink) style • technique with Chinese origins • the artist first pauses to meditate and visualize the image before rendering it using quick, wide, drippy brush strokes • the image produced is sometimes hard to identify, approaching abstraction
  14. 14. Sesshu’s Haboku Landscape • image of mountains, trees, and houses • image of two figures in a boat • the banner and pole of a nearby wine shop is represented by two quick strokes
  15. 15. moss garden at SAIHOJI TEMPLE GARDEN, Kyoto. The pond is shaped like the Chinese character for ‘heart’ or ‘mind’.
  16. 16. KOMYOJI Karesansui, Kamakura
  17. 17. Karesansui (dry-landscape gardening) • rock gardens used for meditation • popularized in Zen temples during the Muromachi period • stacked rocks may symbolize mountains or other land masses; raked sand may symbolize bodies of water
  18. 18. Momoyama Period 1573-1615
  19. 19. Momoyama Period Context • characterized by internal conflict due to ambitious daimyos desiring to be shogun • 3 successful warlords: - ODA NOBUNAGA | defeated Ashikaga shogunate; killed by his general, Hideyoshi; - TOYOTOMI HIDEYOSHI | ruled until he died of natural causes; - TOKUGAWA IEYASU | killed all his rivals and ensured the rule of his clan for two-hundred years. • Momoyama or Peach Blossom Hill refers to the scenery in one of Hideyoshi’s palaces
  20. 20. Byobu (folding screens) • popularized especially in the lavish palaces of the warlords • Painted on gold leaf or on paper
  21. 21. Kano Eitoku. CHINES LIONS. Late 16th century. 7’x15’
  22. 22. Chinese Lions • Painted by Kano Eitoku, the most commissioned painter of interiors; Motonobu’s grandson • lions from Chinese mythology • The muscular lions symbolizes the power of the warlord, being brave and powerful creatures
  23. 23. Hasegawa Tohaku. PINE FOREST. late 16th century
  24. 24. Pine Forest • Zen style similar to work by Sesshu Toyo • Painted with black ink using more irregular and expressive brushstrokes • Shows the meditative quality of nature or natural scenes
  25. 25. Edo Period 1615-1868
  26. 26. Edo Period Context • Edo clan brought social and cultural change in Japan • Christianity was banned and all foreigners except the Dutch were banned • Wealthy merchants gained more power than some warrior leaders, so the rulers tried to use their influence • Literacy spread, and lively popular culture
  27. 27. Ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) • Prints done through woodblock made from hardwood such as cherry • Reflected the sensual pleasure and new forms of entertainment, such as brothels popularized during the Tokugawa era; there are also prints about beautiful women, domestic settings and landscapes; • Woodblock allowed mass reproduction of the artwork in quantities that everyone could afford
  28. 28. • Painters usually designed the paintings which were sold to publishers who made the prints • Edo prints usually have figures outlined in black • prints with high grade fiber such as mulberry were the best choice for resisting the rubbing action from the blocks • Earlier prints were mostly dyed using natural dye, until synthetic dyes were acquired from Europe
  29. 29. Suzuki Haranobu EVENING BELL AT THE CLOCK ca.1765
  30. 30. Evening Bell at the Clock • Done by Suzuki Haronobu who was instrumental in developing high quality multi-colored prints called nishiki-e; • Two young Japanese women sitting in a veranda • One dries herself, while the other faces a chiming clock
  31. 31. Katsushika Hokusai. THE GREAT WAVE OF KANAGAWA. ca.1826-1833
  32. 32. The Great Wave of Kanagawa • By Katsushika Hokusai • Incorporates Western perspective • From Thirty Six Views of Mt. Fuji Series • the huge wave towers over Mt. Fuji • Men in boats seem to be in danger
  33. 33. 1st Unit Exam/Critical Paper • Minimum of 1,500 words (excluding References • Typewritten • Size 12, Times New Roman • Double Spaced • With at least 3 references, with proper Citations (Turabian footnote/parenthetical, APA, MLA)
  35. 35. #1 1) Discuss the differences in the aesthetics behind the Classical and Hellenistic art of the Ancient Greeks? Compare and contrast in terms of importance given to rationality vs. human emotion. In your own opinion discuss what you think human beings should give more importance to. Should they give more importance rationality, or to feelings and emotions?
  36. 36. #2 2) Describe the similarities and differences between the Roman Empire and Japanese Shogunate in terms of their assimilation of foreign influence in their culture and structure of governance? Analyze and explain how warfare and militarism affects the culture of a society and is reflected in their art. In your own opinion, which of the two was more influential in molding the culture of its people?
  37. 37. #3 • Discuss the nature and stylistic changes of depiction of the human form in the various topics (from Pre- historic, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Renaissa nce, up to Japanese art) that were discussed in class. Discuss how the socio-historical contexts influenced the different depictions. In your own opinion, explain which of the following styles was most successful in showing the ‘essence’ of being human?
  38. 38. GRADING Background Knowledge 30% Analysis 40% Opinion 30% 100%