Afzal nadia professional_journal_article_review (1)


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Stages of Language acquisition and strategies to teach ELL second language in each stage.

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Afzal nadia professional_journal_article_review (1)

  1. 1. Understanding the Cultural-Linguistic Divide in American Classrooms: Language Learning Strategies for a Diverse Student Population Professional Journal Article Review By Nadia Afzal
  2. 2. Introduction  There are 149 different languages spoken in American Classrooms Students come with different prior knowledge, experiences, level of schooling, and fluency in their native languages Need to employ methods and teaching approaches to teach English Language Learners
  3. 3. Purpose  Create awareness on effects of cultural diversity on vocabulary and prior knowledge required for listening, reading, speaking and writing  Educate teachers about the different stages of language acquisition for ELLs  Equip teacher with different strategies that can be used in each stage to facilitate new language learning experience
  4. 4. How To Educate ELLs  Teachers use Asset Model  Provide scaffolding for reading instructions  Set attainable goals  Incorporate student’s culture into curriculum  Small group work  Explicit instructions  High quality vocabulary instructions
  5. 5. Stages of Language Acquisition  Pre-Production  Early Production  Speech Emergence  Intermediate Fluency  Advanced Fluency
  6. 6. Stage 1: Pre- Production  Students are active listeners  Students rarely use English  Students rely on pictorial and other non- verbal representations
  7. 7. Strategies  Total Physical Response  Word and Concept Sorts Total Physical Response
  8. 8. Early Production Students feel secure  Utter few words or short phrases  Students can use simple memorized words correctly but still make errors that hinder understanding  Open ended questions should help students recall prior experience
  9. 9. Strategy  Interactive word wall  Picture and sentence Match Interactive Word Wall
  10. 10. Stage: 4 Speech Emergence  Students gain confidence and language skills  May still have limited vocabulary and command on language  May still be able to understand stock phrases and academic language highly familiar to them
  11. 11. Strategies  Dual Language Alphabet or Concept Books  Schema Stories Schema Stories
  12. 12. Stage: 4 Intermediate Fluency  Students may be able to read with considerable fluency  student will be able to locate specific facts within texts  Grade-level literacy still pose challenges due to complex nature of sentence structures and different vocabulary meanings  Student’s oral and written work becomes almost like native speakers
  13. 13. Strategies  Student Self- Monitoring  The K-W-L Chart K-W-L Chart
  14. 14. Stage: 5 Advanced Fluency  Students can take several years to reach from intermediate stage to advanced fluency stage  Students have built strong vocabulary  Students have hold on synonyms, inflections, and academic content
  15. 15. Strategies  Closed-Captioning Television  Foreign Films with English Subtitles
  16. 16. Reference Holmes, K. P., Rutledge, S., & Gauthier, L. (2009). Understanding the Cultural-Linguistic Divide in American Classrooms: Language Learning Strategies for a Diverse Student Population. Reading Horizons, 49(4), 285-300.