Federalism in Pakistan


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Federalism in Pakistan

  1. 1. Instability of Federalism in Pakistan M. Nadeem Jahangir 24 March 2009  Institute of Science & Technology Development, Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, Jamshoro-Pakistan.
  2. 2. General Definition <ul><li>“ Federalism is a form of government in which powers are divided between the central government for the whole country and governments for parts of the country, better known as federal units (Provinces)” </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Federalism in Pakistan: Issues & Adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>by Mansoor Akber Kundi andArbab Mohammad Jahangir </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>“ Federalism is a system of government in which powers and functions of governments are divided by a constitution between central government and sub units” </li></ul><ul><li>(Roger Hillman) </li></ul>
  3. 3. System of Federalism <ul><li>Federalism is one which is suitable for heterogeneous societies. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used to promote cooperation and coordination in the social, political, economic and administrative fields. </li></ul><ul><li>We see many federal states in the world like US, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Germany, Switzerland, India, Pakistan, Malaysia etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Because it (federalism) represents the sense of federation and unity of any nation. </li></ul><ul><li>In federalism, the units willing to federate, lose their individual sovereignty and create a single sovereign state. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a system for division of powers amongst the territorial or administrative units of the states. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Federalism in Pakistan <ul><li>1947: At the time of establishment, Pakistan was geographically unique. </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan was a heterogeneous society being divided into a number of ethnic, linguistic and socio-cultural complexities. </li></ul><ul><li>Then federalism was considered as an important system to secure political harmony in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>This system was selected, to establish the strong “Federation of Pakistan”. </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, the bitter relationship was started to built between Federal and Provincial governments from the beginning of Pakistan. </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship was always been a hurdle in resolving the national issues like NFC Award, Distribution of powers, Autonomy of provinces, Distribution of water, issue of Dams etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Jinnah about Federalism <ul><li>“ The theory of Pakistan guarantees that federal units of the National Government would have all the autonomy that you will find in the constitution of the United States of America, Canada and Australia. But certain vital powers will remain vested in the Central Government such as monetary system, national defense and federal responsibilities” </li></ul><ul><li>Quaid-e-Azam </li></ul><ul><li>M. A. Jinnah </li></ul><ul><li>November 1945 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Role of Federal Government <ul><li>It is the responsibility of the federal govt. to maintain the supremacy of legislative power over the units. </li></ul><ul><li>The fundamentals of federalism; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supremacy of the constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A formal division of powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent Judiciary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Pakistan the center has maintain the dominant role over provinces right from beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>This creates disparity between federal and provincial governments. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How disparity came? <ul><li>The factors which might be responsible for making the relationship unreliable between federal and provincial governments are as follows. </li></ul><ul><li>Governance without constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven distribution of powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Military Rule in Country. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1.Governance with out constitution. <ul><li>Pakistan established in 1947. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governed under an interim constitution of Govt. of India Act 1953. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1956 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1962 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution of 1973 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspension of constitution means on man rule. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democracy cannot flourish with out continuity. </li></ul>Suspension of Constitution Gen. Zia Z.A Bhutto Yahya Khan Ayub Khan 17 Years Pakistan was governed without constitution 8 Years 6 Months 4 Months 4 Years 4 Years 2 Months Dec 1985 Jun 1977 Apr 1972 Dec 1971 Dec1971 Mar 1969 Jun1962 Oct 1958
  9. 9. 2.Uneven distribution of powers. <ul><li>In our country center always had a dominant role over provinces right from the beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>“ If center in strong then the whole federation is strong ” </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous power gives the right to state to create new nation acceding to any other nation or to be a part of any other nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan had no any constitution </li></ul><ul><li>To make the federation strong leaders make the central govt. strong under the interim constitution. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2.Uneven distribution of powers <ul><li>They used federal powers to dismiss provincial governments. </li></ul><ul><li>They always intervene in the matters of provincial government. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 51(5), section 92-(A) of Govt. of India Act 1935. </li></ul><ul><li>Politicians started to misused the administrative powers for political or personal interest. </li></ul><ul><li>This created a huge disparity. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2.Uneven distribution of powers <ul><li>Dismissal of Dr. Khan Shaib Ministry Govt. of NWFP on 22 August, 1947 under section 51(5) of interim constitution Govt. of India Act 1935. </li></ul><ul><li>Dismissal of M.A. Khuhro Ministry Govt. of Sindh on April 20, 1948 (under section 51(5)) of interim constitution Govt. of India Act 1935. </li></ul><ul><li>Dismissal of Mr. Mamdoth Govt. of Punjab on Jan 25, 1949 (under section 92-A) of interim constitution and Governor rule proclaimed. </li></ul><ul><li>Again dismissal of Mr. Fazal-ul-Haq in 1954 in East Pakistan (under section 92-A). </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3. Military Rule in Country <ul><li>Oct 1955 – Dec 1971 – Approx: 15 Years </li></ul><ul><li>Sep 1978 – Aug 1988 – Approx: 9 Years </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 Years </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Constitution suspended. </li></ul><ul><li>No democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>One man federal government. </li></ul><ul><li>No role of provincial governments. </li></ul><ul><li>No parliament means no people’s representation. </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid decisions by federal governments creates disparity between </li></ul><ul><li>Federal and people. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conclusion <ul><li>To stabilize we need to reduce disparity between central govt. and provincial govts. </li></ul><ul><li>To strengthen the democracy we need to have democracy consistently. </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent democracy would help us not only to filter out the flaws from constitution but also reduces the disparity among the governments. </li></ul>