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Energy Crisis Of Pakistan


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Energy Crisis Of Pakistan

  1. 1. M. Nadeem Jahangir 25 February 2009  Institute of Science & Technology Development, Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, Jamshoro-Pakistan. ENERGY CRISIS OF PAKISTAN: CAUSES & REMEDY
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Resources of Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Ten Years of Energy Consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Energy Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Contents
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Energy has become an important requirement for the economic development of a country. </li></ul><ul><li>It plays a pivotal role in the socio-economic development of any country. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses: </li></ul><ul><li>industrial and agricultural purposes </li></ul><ul><li>domestic use of the citizens </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Why Pakistan is facing such a huge energy crisis of its history? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the reasons behind this crisis? </li></ul><ul><li>Why Pakistan cannot able to utilize its natural resources? </li></ul><ul><li>If Pakistan has abundance of coal then why Pakistan importing coal? </li></ul><ul><li>Why half of the Pakistani population has no access to electricity? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Energy Resources of Pakistan <ul><li>Pakistan’s Conventional Energy Resources </li></ul>Pakistan’s Renewable Energy Resources   <ul><li>Wind Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-mass & Bio-fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Geo-Thermal Energy </li></ul>World Nuclear Association 2008 Nuclear power of capacity 425 MWe Nuclear power Govt. of Pakistan 2005 46,000 MW identified potential Hydro Energy Pak Eco Survey 2007-08 185 billion tones recoverable reserves. Coal Pak Eco Survey 2007-08 31,266 trillion cubic feet recoverable reserves. Natural Gas Pak Eco Survey 2007-08 339 million barrels recoverable reserves. Crude Oil Source Potential Energy Type
  6. 7. Energy Resources of Pakistan
  7. 8. Ten Years of Energy Consumption Source: Pakistan Economic survey 2007-08
  8. 9. Ten Years of Energy Consumption
  9. 10. <ul><li>In 2007 Pakistan consumed up to 60.388 MTOE of energy in which 19.835 MTOE was imported in form of Oil and Coal . </li></ul><ul><li>Relying heavily over imported oil and coal and shortage of natural gas in future will certainly chock the economic growth for many years. </li></ul>Ten Years of Energy Consumption
  10. 11. Causes of Energy Crisis <ul><li>1. Economic and Political instability. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects our GDP & Energy growth… </li></ul><ul><li>2. Fluctuation of oil prices in international market. </li></ul><ul><li>WAPDA & KESC purchase expensive oil and transfer cost to customers… </li></ul><ul><li>3. Faulty Distribution System. </li></ul><ul><li>We waste 15 to 20 percent energy through poor distribution system… </li></ul><ul><li>4. Aging of equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to generate required electricity… </li></ul><ul><li>5. Unproductive efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>Seminars & conferences but no implementation… </li></ul><ul><li>6. Silting Process. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a naturally caused process which reduces the storage capacity of reservoirs... </li></ul><ul><li>7. Mismanagement of energy resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of technical knowledge and equipment to utilize existing resources... </li></ul>
  11. 12. “ It is a slow and continuous process, which has reduced the storage capacity of Tarbela and Mangla dams considerably” Institute for Defense Studies & Analysis “ It is the process, which is naturally caused, and influenced, one which initiates when the river is dammed and ends when the reservoir basin is practically filled with sediments.” “ It is reducing the storage capacity of the world’s reservoirs by more than 1% par year.” Silting and Desilting of Reservoirs Dan G Batuca and Jan M. Jordaan Silting Process
  12. 13. Recommendations To overcome present energy crisis, Pakistan needs to take the following steps in form of: 1. Short Term Plan 2. Medium Term Plan 3. Long Term Plan.
  13. 14. <ul><li>1. Short-term Plan: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the number of IPPs (Independent Power Producers). </li></ul><ul><li>Reactivate the closed power generating units. </li></ul><ul><li>Overhaul the existing poor distribution system. </li></ul><ul><li>Import electricity to fulfill the current need for industries on ad hoc basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Government should have strict check on energy indicators on regular basis to counter such crisis in future. </li></ul>Recommendations
  14. 15. <ul><li>2. Medium-term Plan: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Transformation of existing system to renewable energy resources. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Developing and installing biogas, solar, wind and micro hydro based projects in villages. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Long-term Plan: </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Developing and installing coal based powerhouses. </li></ul><ul><li>2.   Initiate agreements for mega projects with the energy extensive countries for sustainable energy resources. </li></ul><ul><li>3.  Explorations of more oil, gas and coal reserves. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Provide incentives for up-gradation and training to the engineer for new technology </li></ul>Recommendations
  15. 16. <ul><li>This study recommends Government of Pakistan to take strong steps to overhaul its existing infrastructure and transformed it to utilize renewable energy for future needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Government should also take steps to utilize the coal reserves though it will give us energy for next 25 years. </li></ul>Conclusion