Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development

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  • Dwane Jones Extension Associate [email_address] 919.249.5959 http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/ NC State University Biological & Agricultural Engineering Campus Box 7625, Weaver Lab Raleigh, NC 27695-7625
  • Urban Water Quality Issues - Green Design & Development

    1. 1. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/ Dwane Jones [email_address] 919.249.5959
    2. 2. Introduction: What is “Green Design & Development?” Green Design & Development
    3. 3. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/ Working Definition Green Building and Development is environmental responsiveness. It is integrating water quality, and air quality concepts with building technology. Green Design & Development
    4. 4. Source: USGBC
    5. 5. Source: USGBC
    6. 6. Source: USGBC
    7. 7. Source: USGBC
    8. 8. Source: USGBC Source: USGBC
    9. 9. Source: USGBC Daylighting Solar Panels Green Roof Bike Paths Biodiesel/Other Fuels Bicycles Water Harvesting Multi-Use Recycling Efficient Lighting Natural Air Flow +
    10. 10. Source: USGBC
    11. 11. Source: USGBC
    12. 12. Green Planning Green Design & Development
    13. 13. <ul><li>Conventional land development involves removal of all vegetation, compacting the soil and putting in large areas of hard (impervious) surfaces like roads, parking lots and roofs . The compacted soil and impervious surfaces prevent stormwater from soaking into the ground (called infiltration). This results in a tremendous increase in surface runoff. </li></ul><ul><li>By traveling much faster, stormwater runoff overwhelms streams causing flooding, damaging public and private property and destroying habitat for fish and wildlife. </li></ul>http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/
    14. 14. <ul><li>Further, conventional practices collect and convey stormwater runoff through storm drains and pipes to a centralized, manmade stormwater facility to manage stormwater flow and remove pollutants. </li></ul><ul><li>This typically requires extensive use of pipes and sometimes large, costly, stormwater best management practices . </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Natural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller lawns </li></ul><ul><li>Better pedestrian access </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Open Space </li></ul><ul><li>Wooded Lots </li></ul>Modern Trend: Homebuyers
    16. 16. Forsyth County July 2006- 331,859 April 2000- 306,044 + 25,815 (most recent census) Growth Trends: North Carolina
    17. 17. +
    18. 18. <ul><li>Design, construct, & maintain each development site to protect , or restore , the natural hydrology (the scientific study of the properties, distribution, and effects of water on the earth's surface) of the site so that the overall integrity of the watershed is protected. This is done by creating a “hydrologically” functional landscape. </li></ul>http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/
    19. 20. <ul><li>-Minimize land clearing </li></ul><ul><li>- Amended Soils </li></ul><ul><li>-Minimize use of impervious surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>-Infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>-Natural hydrology </li></ul>-Removal of most or all vegetation -Soil Compaction -Use of large amounts of impervious surfaces -Costly infrastructure -Altered hydrology
    20. 21. LID PRACTICE / DEVICE Peak Flow Control Volume Reduction Water Quality Improvement Water Conservation Bio-retention Cell • • •   Cistern • • ~~> • <~~  • Curbless Parking Lot Islands • • •   Downspout Disconnection • • •   Grassed Swale • • •   Green Roof •   •   Infiltration Trench • • •   Narrow Road Design • • •   Permeable Pavers/Pavement • • •   Rain Barrel • •   • Rain Garden • • •   Sand Filter •   •   Tree Box Filter •   •   Tree Planting • •    
    21. 22. LID Subdivision Low Impact Development
    22. 23. <ul><li>Mix land uses. </li></ul><ul><li>Compact building design. </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse housing opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Walkable neighborhoods. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive, attractive communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas. </li></ul>
    23. 24. 7. Reinvest in and strengthen existing communities and achieve more balanced regional development. 8. Provide a variety of transportation options. 9. Make development fair, predictable, and cost-effective. 10. Encourage stakeholder participation.
    24. 25. -Perspectives (Designer, Developer, Governing Authority) -*Local Ordinances & Site Plan Review Process (often antiquated) *The developer may request a variance, but often these can be time-consuming. -Local Opposition from Governing Body
    25. 26. <ul><li>-Minimize risks </li></ul><ul><li>-Satisfy client </li></ul><ul><li>-Utilize accepted practices </li></ul><ul><li>-Gain respect from governing authority </li></ul>-Minimize financial risk -Maximize Profit -Minimize Time (permitting etc.) -Maximize value -Minimize surprises -Satisfy clients/customers Designer Developer
    26. 27. <ul><li>-Minimize risks </li></ul><ul><li>-Minimize short-range and long-range government expenses </li></ul><ul><li>-Enforce environmental regulations </li></ul><ul><li>-Performance of Practices </li></ul>Local Government -Protection of Landowners
    27. 28. Green Construction (Land) Green Design & Development
    28. 29. <ul><li>Using narrower, shorter streets and ROW </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller lots and setbacks, narrow frontages </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the amount of residential lawns </li></ul><ul><li>Spreading stormwater runoff over pervious areas </li></ul><ul><li>Using open channels instead of curbs/gutters </li></ul>Site Design
    29. 30. -Identify Buildable & Non-buildable areas* -Annual Rainfall Data* -Topography* -Soils* -Zoning/Public Input* -Floodplain/Floodway* -Land Uses/Adjacent Land Uses*
    30. 31. -Access/Egress -Easements -Costs -Lot Orientation -Infrastructure Technologies/Techniques* -Aesthetics
    31. 32. -Topography -Potential Hydric Soils -Streams/Water Bodies www.terraserver.com -Help determine placement of streets, lots, buildings etc. -US Army Corps of Engineers & DWQ
    32. 33. - Consider sheetflow -Shallow depressions (during rainy seasons)
    33. 34. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/ -US Army Corps of Engineers & DWQ -Note: Each acre of coastal wetland contributes from $800 to $9,000 to the local economy through flood protection and recreation such as bird watching, fishing, and boating (Kirby, 1993)
    34. 35. <ul><li>Design Practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Minimize construction in wetlands by building compact developments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Plan roads and utilities to cross at the narrowest point in the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use permeable pavement for access roads, trails, and overflow parking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Preserve contiguous riparian buffers along wetlands and wildlife habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Create wetlands that mimic natural hydrological processes Source: Green Growth Guidelines </li></ul></ul>
    35. 37. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Soil Survey -Infiltration
    36. 38. -Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) -National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP)
    37. 39. www.ncfloodmaps.com
    38. 40. -Moderate Temperatures -Wind Buffers -Reduce stormwater volumes -Minimize Erosion Note: Research shows that nearly 60% of suburban residents actively engage in wildlife watching…the majority is willing to pay a premium for homes in these settings (Adams, 1994)
    39. 41. <ul><li>Design Practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Keep the width & length of stream crossings at a minimum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use existing crossings when possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use bottomless culverts beneath road crossings for fish passage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Preserve contiguous buffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use LID integrated management practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use natural streambank stabilization practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Avoid or minimize alteration to natural stream flow Source: Green Growth Guidelines </li></ul></ul>
    40. 42. <ul><li>Design Practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Avoid or minimize the placement of infrastructure in the buffer zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Avoid or minimize multiple crossings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use native vegetated buffers, when possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Green Growth Guidelines </li></ul></ul>
    41. 43. -Wildlife Resources Commission -Non-profits
    42. 44. -National Register of Historic Places
    43. 46. <ul><li>Design Practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Base design on average daily traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Provide safe and efficient access for emergency vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Use minimum design requirements (LID) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-On-street parking lanes should serve as traffic lanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Urban Streets with parking on both sides (rec: 32’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Neighborhood street with parking on one side (rec: 24’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Local street width (rec: 18’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Cost savings, pedestrian safety, and reduction in impervious cover Source: Green Growth Guidelines </li></ul></ul>
    44. 48. The amount of impervious surface created by cul-de-sacs can be reduced by creating a pervious island in the center
    45. 50. Source: The News Magazine of the Federated Conservationists of Westchester County, http://www.fcwc.org/WEArchive/010203/roofs.htm
    46. 51. Photos courtesy of Whitney Kurz
    47. 52. Green Building (Home/Structure) Green Design & Development
    48. 53. Integrating Green Design with Low Impact Development & Conservation Design Green Design & Development
    49. 54. <ul><li>Capturing roof runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnecting pavement and roof drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration Practices/Planting trees </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitating soils </li></ul><ul><li>Reconfiguring driveways, parking lots, and streets </li></ul>Comprehensive Design
    50. 55. <ul><li>Use of permeable pavements </li></ul><ul><li>Routing runoff through swales to slow velocity, remove pollutants, & infiltrate </li></ul><ul><li>Restoring “daylighting” historic streams to enhance naturalized open channels </li></ul>Comprehensive Design
    51. 56. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/ <ul><li>Filtering system designed for evapotranspiration & infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for parking lot runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Economical for small sites </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for removing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Suspended solids, hydrocarbons, certain metals, and nutrients </li></ul></ul>
    52. 57. Bioretention Treatment, Retention, Infiltration, Landscaping <ul><li>Excavation filled with engineered soil mix </li></ul><ul><li>Herbaceous perennials, shrubs, trees </li></ul><ul><li>Ponded water infiltrates within 72 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Overflow outlet and optional underdrain </li></ul>Source: CWP Source: Massachusetts LID Toolkit
    53. 58. Bioretention Applications <ul><li>Parking lot islands </li></ul><ul><li>Median strips </li></ul><ul><li>Residential lots </li></ul><ul><li>Office parks </li></ul>Source: Larry Gavin Source: LID Center Source: City of Portland, OR Source: Massachusetts LID Toolkit
    54. 59. Bioretention Area Small parking lots Source: Massachusetts LID Toolkit
    55. 60. Stormwater Planters Runoff Reduction, Treatment, Attenuation <ul><li>“ Bioretention in a Box” </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetative uptake of stormwater pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Pretreatment for suspended solids </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetically pleasing </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of peak discharge rate </li></ul>Source: City of Portland, OR Source: City of Portland, OR Source: Massachusetts LID Toolkit
    56. 62. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/
    57. 64. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater
    58. 65. Retrofit Opportunities
    59. 66. <ul><li>Water quantity benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect water quality benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration </li></ul>
    60. 67. Permeable Paving Applications <ul><li>Parking stalls </li></ul><ul><li>Overflow parking </li></ul><ul><li>Driveways </li></ul><ul><li>Walkways and plazas </li></ul>
    61. 68. Photo Copyright 1999, Center for Watershed Protection Downspouts Connected to Driveway = More Runoff, Less Infiltration Source: CWP Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    62. 71. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater <ul><li>Increased insulation </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased heat island effect </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased stormwater volumes and rates </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased long-term replacement costs </li></ul><ul><li>Increased property value </li></ul><ul><li>Downsizing HVAC </li></ul>
    63. 74. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Conventional Small-scale Controls street width treescape runoff
    64. 75. Vegetated Swales Conveyance, Treatment, Infiltration <ul><li>Roadside swales (country drainage) for lower density and small-scale projects; </li></ul><ul><li>For small parking lots; </li></ul><ul><li>Mild side slopes and flat longitudinal slopes; </li></ul><ul><li>Provides area for snow storage & snowmelt treatment </li></ul>Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    65. 76. Vegetated Filter Strips Pretreatment and Attenuation <ul><li>Mild vegetated slopes </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacent to small parking lots and roadways </li></ul><ul><li>Another opportunity for snow storage </li></ul>Source: City of Portland, OR Source: City of Portland, OR Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    66. 77. Narrow roads; “Country drainage.” <ul><li>Shared driveways; </li></ul><ul><li>Houses sited with natural terrain; </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation retained. </li></ul>
    67. 78. Short driveways and shallow front yard setbacks allow for rear yard retained vegetation. Downspouts discharge to natural terrain for recharge.
    68. 79. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Green Design
    69. 80. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Green Design -Biofilter/bioretention -Green Roof -Rainwater Collection -Porous Paving: Gravel Pave -Waterless Urinals -Low-flow fixtures -Superinsulation (R21 walls & R30 roof) -High Performance Glazing on Windows - On Demand Water Heating -Daylighting -Duct System made of fabric -Over 75% of construction/demolition waste was salvaged or recycled - Recycled material used in walls, floors, and windows -Local material use
    70. 81. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Bioretention Permeable Pavement Cistern Greenroof LID (Commercial) Disconnected
    71. 82. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Residential + LID Site Create a Hydrologically Functional Lot
    72. 83. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater + Conservation Open Drainage Rain Gardens Amended Soils Rain Barrel Residential LID Site Permeable Pavement Create a Hydrologically Functional Lot
    73. 84. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater Aerial Photo Courtesy of Y. Lyda LID (Institutional)
    74. 85. www.bae.ncsu.edu/stormwater level spreader rain gardens cistern/rain barrel vegetated buffer permeable pavement bioretention Aerial Photo Courtesy of Y. Lyda LID (Institutional)
    75. 86. Williamston High School
    76. 87. Williamston High School
    77. 88. Williamston High School
    78. 89. Williamston High School
    79. 90. Williamston High School
    80. 91. Williamston High School
    81. 92. Williamston High School
    82. 93. Williamston High School
    83. 94. Williamston High School
    84. 95. Williamston High School
    85. 96. Williamston High School
    86. 97. Green Design Exercise <ul><li>Primary Conservation Areas (1) Wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Waterbodies </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Floodplains </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Steep Slopes </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Conservation Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Mature Woodlands (4) Wildlife Habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Buffers around wetlands & waterbodies </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Farmland (5) Historic/cultural areas </li></ul>
    87. 98. Green Design Case Study Griffin Acres
    88. 99. The process begins with determining how many lots could be developed under conventional zoning; this is the base yield of the property. From that point, the plan development process follows four basic steps: Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    89. 100. Identify Conservation Value Areas on the site such as wetlands, significant trees or tracts of forest, habitat, cultural resources or buffer zones. Remove these from the “developable area”. 1. Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    90. 101. Place houses in the remaining area in a way that would maximize residents enjoyment of these areas by providing access to open space and preserving views. 2. Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    91. 102. Align roads and trails on the site to provide pedestrian and vehicle access. 3. Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    92. 103. 4. Draw lot lines around the homes. Source: Massachusetts Smart Growth Toolkit
    93. 104. +
    94. 105. 1. Meet with local officials to review current development ordinances (often, officials look favorably upon pre-development meetings). 2. Identify ways to work together to minimize development impacts. 3. Focus on LID (developer should have a general knowledge of practices he/she plans to implement).
    95. 106. 4. Plan to make site visits with local officials/staff. 5. Since site design information comes from different sources, data should be synthesized into a single map.
    96. 107. <ul><li>Create a Green Design & Development Committee to review plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape Architects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biologists, Ecologists, and Hydrogeologists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also create incentive-based programs </li></ul></ul>
    97. 109. <ul><li>Puget Sound Water Quality Action Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- http:// www.wa.gov/puget_sound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Low Impact Development Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- http:// www.lowimpactdevelopment.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stormwater Research Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- http:// www.stormwatercenter.net </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Environmental Protection Agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- http:// www.epa.gov/owow/nps/urban.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UW Center for Urban Water Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- http:// depts.washington.edu/cuwrm / </li></ul></ul>http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/
    98. 110. http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/topic/lid/ Dwane Jones [email_address] 919.249.5959

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